Different types of tankers


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Different types of tankers

  1. 1. Different types of Tankers
  2. 2. Specialization of ships  Until the 20th Century, ships generally, were all-purpose cargo vessels, with very little specialization. (With the exception of tank vessels which first appeared in the 1880s).  All cargoes were carried in general purpose holds or on deck.  Modern commercial vessels are designed and built to carry specific cargo types.  The names we give to the various vessel types reflect the type of cargo for which they are designed and built to carry. …. Example : Car Carriers , Bulk Carriers , Tankers etc
  3. 3. What is a ‘Tanker” ? A tanker can be defined as a Ship designed to carry liquid cargo in bulk.
  4. 4. Making of World’s First true Tank vessel In 1886, the GLUCKAUF,a German Oil Tanker became the world's first true tank vessel with separate tanks for the carriage of oil, built into her hull. The vessel was built by Tyneside Yards in Britain. Model of Gluckauf Actual Length 300 ft, Displacement 2307 tons.
  5. 5.  But even within this generic type of a tank vessel, for commerce to be carried out effectively and various liquid commodities be moved across oceans, each tanker is specially designed to carry a particular type of liquid cargo, not just crude oil.  Various liquid cargoes carried today includes:       Petroleum products (Oil), Chemicals Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG), Fruit Juice carriers and yes, even wine!
  6. 6. Oil Tankers Ship carrying crude oil or refined products M.T. Coral Sea One of our modern double hull aframax crude oil tankers
  7. 7. Chemical Tankers also sometimes called a Parcel tanker A tanker vessel designed to carry chemicals, lube oils, vegetable & animal oils and other specialty liquids in smaller quantities on one ship. Most chemical tankers : 1. Can also serve as product tankers. 2. Are equipped to carry several types of cargoes simultaneously. More than 200 individual chemicals are traded on a seaborne basis today.
  8. 8. LNG Tankers Cargo carried: Liquefied Natural Gas (mainly methane) Can be identified with 2 distinct type of tank construction. LNG Tanker with Moss tanks LNG Tanker with Membrane tanks For shipment, gas is cooled and converted to liquid  and is then pumped aboard a tanker for transit in insulated tanks Liquefied Natural Gas, LNG, is transported at approximately –160ºC,
  9. 9. LPG Tankers Cargo carried: Liquefied Petroleum Gas, mainly butane and propane For shipment, gas is cooled and converted to liquid  and is then pumped aboard a tanker for transit in insulated tanks Liquefied Petroleum Gas, LPG, is transported at approximately –40ºC,
  10. 10. Fruit Juice Carriers   Tanks are vertical freestanding cylindrical in shape and located in refrigerated holds.  Carlos Fischer Orange Juice Carrier Cargo of fruit juice is carried in concentrated or natural condition. For natural orange juice which is carried at a nominal 0ºC. The concentrate is loaded and transported at -10ºC
  11. 11. What is an ‘Oil Tanker” ? A Oil tanker can be defined as a Ship designed to carry crude oil or refined petroleum products
  12. 12. Types of Oil tankers Broadly divided into two categories,depending on their trade Crude Carrier  Crude oil  Dirty Petroleum products (DPP) such as Fuel Oil, LSWR, Orimulsion. Clean Product Carrier  Refined products. Clean Petroleum Products (CPP).  Such as Petrol, gasoline, Aviation Fuel, Kerosene Naptha,
  13. 13. A Oil Tanker fleet is divided in 6 main categories, typically depending on their cargo carrying capacity. Class Description Vessel size In Metric tons ULCC Ultra Large Crude Carrier over 300,000 VLCC Very Large Crude Carrier over 200,000 SUEZMAX A ship that can pass through the Suez Canal 125,000 - 200,000 AFRAMAX Formerly known as LR2 or Long Range 2. 80,000 - 125,000 PANAMAX A ship that can pass through the Panama 50,000 - 80,000 Canal formerly known as LR1 or Long Range ( 965 x 106 x 46 ft ) 1. MR Medium Range 38,000 - 50,000 GP General Purpose under 38,000
  14. 14. Other type of tankers……. Combination carrier: Also called as OBO (OIL BULK AND ORE CARRIER) • An OBO has gas-tight holds which can load either bulk cargoes such as ore and coal or crude oil. • These ships can be recognised because of the construction on deck. They carry a row of hatches to load and discharge the bulk cargo and also have smaller hatches and the associated pipe work to load oil. A Shuttle Tanker is a tanker carrying oil from offshore fields to terminals. Floating Production, Storage and Offloading unit (FPSO), It is usually a large tanker often a converted old VLCC, (but now brand new specialized FPSOs are being built) specifically designed for the oil industry, working offshore where an onshore facility to process and store offshore oil is deemed impractical.
  15. 15. Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC) DWT-247,471MT
  16. 16. Suez Max DWT-147,748 MT
  17. 17. AFRAMAX DWT-105,665MT
  18. 18. PANAMAX DWT-69,999MT
  19. 19. Medium range tankers (MR) DWT-41,476 MT
  20. 20. Floating , Storage and Offloading unit (FSO). Ex-Ross Sea Location: Bungo Raya Oil Field, In Gulf of Thailand
  21. 21. The largest ship ever constructed - supertanker Jahre Viking DWT-564,763 MT At present she is performing as FSO at Al-Saheen Terminal, Qatar in Arabian Gulf
  22. 22. Oil tankers are also described depending the type of their construction Cargo Oil Tanks Cargo Oil / Water ballast Tanks Water Ballast tanks (J-Shaped) protecting the cargo oil tanks Single Hull Tankers Double Hull Tankers Safety concerns and international regulation have encouraged a trend to build double-hulled tankers, in the belief that the hull having two skins will minimize pollution in the event of an accident.
  23. 23. Thank You