1.What is Cloud Computing..?2.A brief history of Cloud Computing.3.Basic Terminologies Of the Cloud4.Structure and Functioning of theCloud.5.Present Scope Of the Cloud.6.Its future potentials and uses7.Companies investing heavily on thecloud.
What is Cloud Computing…? The CloudThe Cloud is an archaic The simplest A similar These services areterm used to describe example of cloud parallelism can be provided to thethe internet in its early computing services drawn with thephases of development user on a is your G-mail electricity grid.Today the internet is subscription account,where you where the user onlyall pervasive and all basis,just like theencompassing just like don’t have worry receives the end mobile servicethe geographical about how your product of the providers whocloud.Here the end mails are stored or transmission line heuser gets access to the provide talktime to accessed by the is not concernedsoftware,hardware the user on the servers hence you with how the powerand all other such basis and type oftypes of services and only use data is generated or how your subscription.apps. abstraction it is transmitted.
A brief history of the cloud……….The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s, when JohnMcCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organised as a publicutility." Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elasticprovision, provided as a utility, online, illusion of infinite supply), the comparisonto the electricity industry and the use of public, private, government, andcommunity forms, were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhills 1966 book,The Challenge of the Computer Utility. Other scholars have shown that cloudcomputings roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Groschpostulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powered byabout 15 large data centers.The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunicationscompanies, who until the 1990s offered primarily dedicated point-to-point datacircuits, began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services with comparablequality of service but at a much lower cost. By switching traffic to balanceutilisation as they saw fit, they were able to utilise their overall networkbandwidth more effectively. The cloud symbol was used to denote thedemarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the providerand that which was the responsibility of the user. Cloud computing extends thisboundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure.
Basic Terminologies……….. Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet, eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customers own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. Cloud platform services, also known as platform as a service (PaaS), deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service, often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications.It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers Cloud infrastructure services, also known as "infrastructure as a service" (IaaS), deliver computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualisation environment – as a service, along with raw (block) storage and networking. Rather than purchasing servers, software, data-center space or network equipment, clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services, including multi-core processors, cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings
PaaSPlatform as a service (PaaS) is a category of cloud computing services that provide acomputing platform and a solution stack as a service. In the classic layered model of cloudcomputing, the PaaS layer lies between the SaaS and the IaaS layers.PaaS offerings facilitate the deployment of applications without the cost and complexityof buying and managing the underlying hardware and software and provisioning hostingcapabilities,providing all of the facilities required to support the complete life cycle ofbuilding and delivering web applications and services entirely available from the Internet.PaaS offerings may include facilities for application design, application development,testing, deployment and hosting as well as application services such as teamcollaboration, web service integration and marshalling, database integration, security,scalability, storage, persistence, state management, application versioning, applicationinstrumentation and developer community facilitation. These services may be provisionedas an integrated solution over the web.
Basic terminologies Contd……Software as a service sometimes referred toas "on-demand software," is a softwaredelivery model in which software and itsassociated data are hosted centrally(typically in the (Internet) cloud) and aretypically accessed by users using a thin client,normally using a web browser over theInternet.SaaS has become a common delivery modelfor most business applications, includingaccounting, collaboration, customerrelationship management (CRM), enterpriseresource planning (ERP), invoicing, humanresource management (HRM), contentmanagement (CM) and service deskmanagement. SaaS has been incorporatedinto the strategy of all leading enterprisesoftware companies.
IaaSInfrastructure as a service the term forms the outerlayer of the cloud services here the hardware isprovided to the clients through the internet,thehardware like any cloud software is also a sharedresource with multiple tenancy, and the suppliercharges the user according to the scale and period oftime for which the service has been used.Forexample the google cloud print is such a Iaas wherethe user can print from any of the company’s printerusing the cloud.Thus its like leasing the infrastructureon a supply and demand basis.
Cloud Architecture…….Cloud architecture,the systems architecture of thesoftware systems involved in the delivery of cloudcomputing, typically involves multiple cloud componentscommunicating with each other over a loose couplingmechanism such as a messaging queue.The variouslayers like the PaaS,IaaS,SaaS communicate with eachother and the client primarily using the internet as thecommunication medium.The general model of the cloudcan be changed to suit the needs of the clients dependingupon this we have several types of cloud models
Public cloudPublic cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream sense, whereby resourcesare dynamically provisioned to the general public on a fine-grained, self-service basis over theInternet, via web applications/web services, from an off-site third-party provider who bills on afine-grained utility computing basis.[Community cloudCommunity cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific communitywith common concerns (security, compliance, jurisdiction, etc.), whether managed internally or ba third-party and hosted internally or externally. The costs are spread over fewer users than apublic cloud (but more than a private cloud), so only some of the benefits of cloud computing arerealized.Hybrid cloudHybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community, or public) that remainunique entities but are bound together, offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. Itcan also be defined as a multiple cloud systems that are connected in a way that allows programsand data to be moved easily from one deployment system to another. Private cloudPrivate cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organization, whether managedinternally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally.They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy, build, and manage them" and thusdo not benefit from lower up-front capital costs and less hands-on management, essentially"lacking the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept".
Present Cloud market…………..Forrester, an analyst firm predicts that the cloud willgenerate greater revenue potential which can clearly be seenfrom Amazon Web Services, the undisputed commodity IaaSrevenue leader. Investment bank, UBS reported that AWSearning statement could jump from $550 million in 2010 to$750 million in 2011. This year, AWS reveals that its S3 storageservice hosts doubled as it now hosts more than 262 billionobjects.Microsoft’s Windows Azure platform is at thecenter of its cloud efforts that has attracted anumber of customers. Among them are Toyota,the Associated Press and Intuit.On the first half of 2011, PaaS providers addressthe concern about lack of control and lack ofchoice. Based from the survey, “Complexity” isthe major issue that PaaS seeks to eliminate;followed by Interoperability” and “Lock-in.”Some reported that SaaS has inspiredEverything as a Service, where any IT processor application or business function is availableas a service. Gartner estimated SaaS to reach$10.7 billion in 2011. Another analyst firm, IDC,predicts a $72.9 billion cloud services marketby 2015.
Cloud storage is defined as the independent storage services in the cloud and is the mostwidely deployed cloud services. It is currently being used to backup data, although it alsoserves as primary file- or content-storage options for web applications, like for Amazon’sSimple Storage Service (S3).Cloud storage is risk-free as data is already stored elsewhere without the need to be accessedby production applications. However, it is not really good at primary storage as it needs highlevels of features, network performance and availabilityNasuni is a company that is making a name in primary cloud storage. It uses a virtual gatewayto route files securely and reliably to cloud storage infrastructure from a number of providers.The innovation on cloud storage will focus on primary storage for enterprise applications in thecloud. As vendors such as HP and Dell have storage businesses and public clouds, they couldbenefit from leveraging their storage expertise to make primary cloud storage a reality.However, companies deciding for primary cloud storage must innovate on data-transport front.It won’t be attractive for customers if they rely only on the public Internet for uploading anddownloading primary data.Cloud storage providers will also push for new privacy regulations.Recently Michael Dell the founder of DELL computers has said that DELL will venture into thecloud computing market with cloud storage.
Some noteworthy names:Apple has recently launched icloud,which provides all three forms of cloud computingIaaS,PaaS,SaaS.icloud is a free platform for apple users only.Then we have Google which has recently ventured in this space with Google App Engine and GoogleMusic which is a direct rival to the iTunes. Google is developing these tools for its web space and alsoits android market.The discussion will be incomplete if we don’t take into account the open source softwares,RedHat themost famous vendor of Linux has decided to develop a cloud system.Recently a group of students from UC Berkeley,California have tapped into the vast resources of thecloud to develop a search engine called “KLOUDLESS”IBM has also revived some of its former glory by entering the cloud computing arena and success fullydeveloping better technology compared to its peers
Key Features: Multiple-Empowerment Scalability Tenancy Reliability and Maintenance Security
India is virtually an untapped market in the field of Cloud computing although it has one of thelargest IT industry in the world.In a developing nation like India cloud computing will come as aboon,since most people can’t afford the hardware required to set up a network or even a computthey need to be dependent on the cloud to provide them with the resources necessary.Most ruralcolleges ,schools,will be able to experience the best of the World Wide Web through the Cloud.It iestimated that about 41% of Indian will live in the cities by 2025,compared to the present 30%.Wecan see that this technology will penetrate every aspect of our daily lives just as the mobile phonehave done in the past.India has the largest number of mobile phone users and soon can dream tobe the largest provider and user of the Cloud computing services.According to the recent Cloud Expo ,the engineers have expressed great confidence in India asbeing one of its strongest and largest emerging markets.They have also discussed that albeit thetechnology is the future of IT and presently its new Buzzword,we must be cautious that it becomean open sesame to furthering technological advancement and not End up becoming a perfectrecipe for another “DOT-COM” bubble.