Human rights

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Human rights

  1. 1. HUMAN RIGHTSHUMAN RIGHTS
  2. 2. HUMAN RIGHTSHUMAN RIGHTS EMBRACES THIS FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMEMBRACES THIS FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOM THE RIGHT TO LIFE, LIBERTY, SECURITY OFTHE RIGHT TO LIFE, LIBERTY, SECURITY OFPERSON’S PROPERTY & EQUAL PROTECTIONPERSON’S PROPERTY & EQUAL PROTECTIONOF THE LAWOF THE LAW EXAMPLE:EXAMPLE: CHOOSE HIS OWN OCCUPATION/ RELIGIONCHOOSE HIS OWN OCCUPATION/ RELIGION RUN FOR POLITICAL POSITIONRUN FOR POLITICAL POSITION TO VOTETO VOTE ASSOCIATE WITH OTHER PEOPLEASSOCIATE WITH OTHER PEOPLE RIGHT TO THE PRODUCT OF HIS OWN LABOR GUARANTEED BYRIGHT TO THE PRODUCT OF HIS OWN LABOR GUARANTEED BYTHE “BILL OF RIGHTS” & THOSE EMBODIED IN THE UNIVERSALTHE “BILL OF RIGHTS” & THOSE EMBODIED IN THE UNIVERSALDECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTSDECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
  3. 3. HUMAN RIGHTSIS THERE A TRADITION OF HUMAN RIGHTS INTHE PHILIPPINES?YES, EVEN BEFORE THE ADVENT OF WESTERNINFLUENCES, WE HAVE A TRADITION OF HUMAN RIGHTS ASTYPIFIED IN THE CODE OF KALANTIAO WHERE RIGHT &OBLIGATION DUTIES & PRIVILEGES OF SOCIAL GROUPS AREDEFINED.EXAMPLES:1. TILLERS OF THE LAND HAD CERTAIN RIGHT TO THEPRODUCT OF HIS LABOR.2. THE INDIVIDUAL HAD THE RECOGNIZED RIGHTS ONFOREST PRODUCT IN ACCORDANCE WITH ABILITY & STRENGHT.3. CHIEF HAD THE RIGHT TO PROTECT THE LIVES OFHIS FOLLOWERS.4. THE RIGHT TO PROPERTY.5. THE CUSTOM & TRADITION OF THE LOCALITY.
  4. 4. HUMAN RIGHTSWHAT IS THE AFP’s POSITION ONHUMAN RIGHTS?THE AFP SUBSCRIBES WITH ABIDING CONCERN FOR &ADVANCEMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS BY OBSERVING THE FFBASIC RULES:A. NORMAL BEHAVIOR OF A DISCIPLINED SOLDIER.B. OBSERVE HUMAN RIGHTS REGULATIONS & ARTICLES.C. UNNECESSARY SEQUESTRATION OF PROPERTYINVOLVEMENT.D. INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE DURING MILITARYOPERATIONS.
  5. 5.  ““It is believed that many of ourIt is believed that many of ourdisgruntled countrymen generally engagedisgruntled countrymen generally engagein lawless activities and eventually joinin lawless activities and eventually joindissident groups when their rights asdissident groups when their rights ashuman beings are violated”.human beings are violated”. The cycle of rebellion and violentThe cycle of rebellion and violentexpression of descent will never end ifexpression of descent will never end ifin the conflict environment, thein the conflict environment, thegovernment troops and law enforcersgovernment troops and law enforcersdo not respect the rights of the peopledo not respect the rights of the people..
  6. 6. A. ACHIEVING HUMAN RIGHTSA. ACHIEVING HUMAN RIGHTSGOALSGOALS Following are the means that countries inFollowing are the means that countries inthe international community commonlythe international community commonlyadopt to promote the observance ofadopt to promote the observance ofhuman rights in their countries:human rights in their countries:
  7. 7.  1. Setting the examples.1. Setting the examples. A country that advocates the observance ofA country that advocates the observance ofhuman rights believes that its own humanhuman rights believes that its own humanrights record will serve as an example forrights record will serve as an example forother countries to follow.other countries to follow. 2. Diplomatic Initiatives2. Diplomatic Initiatives.. Diplomatic representatives from differentDiplomatic representatives from differentcountries wherever they meet often addresscountries wherever they meet often addressand discuss important human rights concernsand discuss important human rights concernsduring private meetings.during private meetings.
  8. 8.  3. Providing Asylum to Political Refugees3. Providing Asylum to Political Refugees.. Most countries have immigration laws that allowMost countries have immigration laws that allowperson who are fleeing their homelands due toperson who are fleeing their homelands due topersecution in the account of their cultural,persecution in the account of their cultural,religious and political beliefs. As a general rule,religious and political beliefs. As a general rule,any foreign national who flees his country, will notany foreign national who flees his country, will notbe granted asylum. He may however be grantedbe granted asylum. He may however be granteda temporary refuge if his life or safety is ina temporary refuge if his life or safety is inimmediate danger. Those, however who requestimmediate danger. Those, however who requestfor political asylum on a base in a foreign territoryfor political asylum on a base in a foreign territoryor on a ship on the high seas (internationalor on a ship on the high seas (internationalwaters) will not be turned over said refugees towaters) will not be turned over said refugees toanother country without the approval of theanother country without the approval of thegovernment exercising sovereignty over suchgovernment exercising sovereignty over suchterritory or vessel.territory or vessel.
  9. 9.  4. Pressure of World Opinion4. Pressure of World Opinion.. When the means of diplomacy and example failWhen the means of diplomacy and example failto work, the government officials of concernedto work, the government officials of concernedcountries may issue public statements against acountries may issue public statements against aparticular country that refuses to observe andparticular country that refuses to observe andimplement Human Rights and the provisions ofimplement Human Rights and the provisions ofthe International Law.the International Law. 5. Suspension of Foreign Assistance5. Suspension of Foreign Assistance.. Countries that provide humanitarian assistanceCountries that provide humanitarian assistancefor development and economic relief for lessfor development and economic relief for lessdeveloped countries, may withhold aid when thedeveloped countries, may withhold aid when therecipient country continuously violate Humanrecipient country continuously violate HumanRights and International Humanitarian Law.Rights and International Humanitarian Law.
  10. 10.  6. Implementation of Economic Sanctions.6. Implementation of Economic Sanctions. Countries that are unsatisfied with the consistentlyCountries that are unsatisfied with the consistentlyappalling record human right violations of a particularappalling record human right violations of a particularcountry may reduce or terminate economic relations withcountry may reduce or terminate economic relations withthat country.that country. 7. Actions of United Nations and Regional7. Actions of United Nations and RegionalOrganizationOrganization.. The United Nations and other regional organizations allThe United Nations and other regional organizations allover the world may resort to concerted actions to putover the world may resort to concerted actions to putpolitical and economic pressure on countries that commitpolitical and economic pressure on countries that commithuman rights abuses. The United Nations follow a formalhuman rights abuses. The United Nations follow a formalprocess of acting on and investigating reported humanprocess of acting on and investigating reported humanright violations in its member countries. Although theright violations in its member countries. Although theadoption of persuasive measures is the primary tool, theadoption of persuasive measures is the primary tool, theU.N. can vote to impose severe economic sanctionsU.N. can vote to impose severe economic sanctionsagainst human rights violator country.against human rights violator country.
  11. 11. B. HUMAN RIGHTS OF THE ACCUSED.B. HUMAN RIGHTS OF THE ACCUSED.Following are the basic human rights of aFollowing are the basic human rights of asuspect or the accused, which should besuspect or the accused, which should berecognized during custodial investigationrecognized during custodial investigationand conduct of tactical interrogation:and conduct of tactical interrogation:
  12. 12.  1. Rights of Person Prior to Investigation.1. Rights of Person Prior to Investigation. Known as theKnown as the “Miranda Doctrine”“Miranda Doctrine” as laidas laiddown by the U.S Supreme Court, the accuseddown by the U.S Supreme Court, the accusedhas the right to be warned prior to anyhas the right to be warned prior to anyquestioning that:questioning that: a. He has the right to remaina. He has the right to remainsilent and make self-incriminatingsilent and make self-incriminatingstatements.statements. b. Anything that he says can beb. Anything that he says can beused against him in a court of law.used against him in a court of law. c. He has the right to presence ofc. He has the right to presence ofany attorney, and that if he cannot affordany attorney, and that if he cannot affordan attorney, one will be appointed for himan attorney, one will be appointed for himprior to any questioning if he so desires.prior to any questioning if he so desires.
  13. 13. 2. Rights of Person Under Investigation2. Rights of Person Under Investigation.. The following are the rights of the accused while undergoingThe following are the rights of the accused while undergoinginvestigation as embodied in Article III-Bill of Rights and otherinvestigation as embodied in Article III-Bill of Rights and othersections of the 1987 Philippine Constitution:sections of the 1987 Philippine Constitution: a. Under Article III-Bill of Rightsa. Under Article III-Bill of Rights 1) Right to remain silent and not to answer any1) Right to remain silent and not to answer anyquestions that may incriminate him.questions that may incriminate him. 2) Right to counsel or a lawyer of his choice to2) Right to counsel or a lawyer of his choice topresent and whom he can consult during investigation.present and whom he can consult during investigation. 3) Right against torture or any form of mental or3) Right against torture or any form of mental orphysical punishment.physical punishment. 4) Right against secret detention.4) Right against secret detention. b. Under Section 11b. Under Section 11 1) Free access to the courts and quasi-judicial1) Free access to the courts and quasi-judicialbodies.bodies. 2) Adequate legal assistance shall not be2) Adequate legal assistance shall not bedenied to the accused by reason of poverty.denied to the accused by reason of poverty.
  14. 14.  c. Under Section 12c. Under Section 12 1) The right to be informed of his rights to remain1) The right to be informed of his rights to remainsilent and to have a competent and independent counselsilent and to have a competent and independent counselpreferably of his choice. If he cannot afford, he must be providedpreferably of his choice. If he cannot afford, he must be providedone. This right cannot be waived except in writing and in theone. This right cannot be waived except in writing and in thepresence of a counsel.presence of a counsel. 2) No torture, force, threat or any other means of2) No torture, force, threat or any other means ofintimidation may be used against the accused. The use of secretintimidation may be used against the accused. The use of secretplace of detention, solitary confinement or declaring the accusedplace of detention, solitary confinement or declaring the accused“incommunicado” and other similar forms of detention are“incommunicado” and other similar forms of detention areprohibited.prohibited. 3) Any confession or admission of guilt obtained in3) Any confession or admission of guilt obtained inviolation of the above-mentioned rights of the accused shall beviolation of the above-mentioned rights of the accused shall beinadmissible evidence against him.inadmissible evidence against him.4) The Law provides penal and legal sanctions for4) The Law provides penal and legal sanctions forviolations of these rights as guaranteed by the Constitution, asviolations of these rights as guaranteed by the Constitution, aswell as compensation for the rehabilitation of victims of torture andwell as compensation for the rehabilitation of victims of torture andsimilar practices. Also excessive bail shall not be imposed.similar practices. Also excessive bail shall not be imposed.
  15. 15.  d. Under Section 18d. Under Section 18 1) No person shall be detained solely be reason of his political beliefs1) No person shall be detained solely be reason of his political beliefsand aspirations.and aspirations. 2) No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist except as a2) No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist except as apunishment for a crime wherein the accused has been convicted in a dulypunishment for a crime wherein the accused has been convicted in a dulyconstituted court.constituted court. e. Under Section 19e. Under Section 19 1) Excessive fines shall not be imposed, nor cruel,1) Excessive fines shall not be imposed, nor cruel,degrading or inhuman punishment inflicted. Neither shall death penalty bedegrading or inhuman punishment inflicted. Neither shall death penalty beimposed, unless for compelling reasons involving heinous crimes.imposed, unless for compelling reasons involving heinous crimes. 2) The employment of a physical, psychological, or2) The employment of a physical, psychological, ordegrading punishment against any prisoner or the use of substandard ordegrading punishment against any prisoner or the use of substandard orinadequate penal facilities under subhuman conditions shall be dealt with byinadequate penal facilities under subhuman conditions shall be dealt with bylaw.law. f. Under Section 22f. Under Section 22 1) No person shall be put twice in jeopardy of punishment1) No person shall be put twice in jeopardy of punishment(to be accused more than once) for the same offense.(to be accused more than once) for the same offense. 2) If a person is convicted or acquitted under either of the2) If a person is convicted or acquitted under either of thelaw or ordinance he was accused of violating, he may not be prosecutedlaw or ordinance he was accused of violating, he may not be prosecutedagain for the same act.again for the same act.
  16. 16. Rights of the Accused During TrialRights of the Accused During Trial . Following are the rights that an accused person is entitled to. Following are the rights that an accused person is entitled toduring the course of trial listed in the Rules of Court and asduring the course of trial listed in the Rules of Court and asguaranteed by the Philippine Constitution:guaranteed by the Philippine Constitution: a. To be presumed innocent until the contrary (his guilt) isa. To be presumed innocent until the contrary (his guilt) isproved beyond doubt during the trial.proved beyond doubt during the trial. b. To be informed of the nature and cause of theb. To be informed of the nature and cause of theaccusations against him.accusations against him. c. To be present and defend in person and by a counsel atc. To be present and defend in person and by a counsel atevery stage of the proceedings, from the arraignment to theevery stage of the proceedings, from the arraignment to thepromulgation of the judgment. The accused may however waive hispromulgation of the judgment. The accused may however waive hispresence if specifically ordered by the court for purposes ofpresence if specifically ordered by the court for purposes ofidentification. The absence of the accused without justifiable causeidentification. The absence of the accused without justifiable causewherein he had been duly notified, shall be considered a waiver ofwherein he had been duly notified, shall be considered a waiver ofhis rights to be present. Also when he escaped from custody, hehis rights to be present. Also when he escaped from custody, heshall also be deemed to have waived his rights to be present in allshall also be deemed to have waived his rights to be present in allthe subsequent trial dates until custody is regained.the subsequent trial dates until custody is regained.
  17. 17.  d. Upon motion, the accused may bed. Upon motion, the accused may befollowed to defend himself in person when itfollowed to defend himself in person when itsufficiently appears to the court that he cansufficiently appears to the court that he canproperly protect his rights without theproperly protect his rights without theassistance of counsel.assistance of counsel. e. To confront and cross-examine thee. To confront and cross-examine thewitness against him during the trial.witness against him during the trial. f. To have appropriate court orders bef. To have appropriate court orders beissued to compel the attendance ofissued to compel the attendance ofwitnesses and ensure the production ofwitnesses and ensure the production ofimportant evidences in his behalf.important evidences in his behalf. g. To have a speedy, impartial andg. To have a speedy, impartial andpublic trial.public trial.
  18. 18. C. COMMISSION ON HUMANC. COMMISSION ON HUMANRIGHTSRIGHTS . The Presidential Commission on Human. The Presidential Commission on HumanRights was established during theRights was established during theadministration of President Corazonadministration of President CorazonAquino and it was after the approval of theAquino and it was after the approval of the1987 Constitution that the body was1987 Constitution that the body wasrenamed the Commission on Humanrenamed the Commission on HumanRights.Rights.
  19. 19. 1. Functions1. Functions The following are the functions of theThe following are the functions of theCommission on Human Rights:Commission on Human Rights: a. Contrary to some misconceptions that thea. Contrary to some misconceptions that theCommission on Human Rights is an anti-military and a pro-Commission on Human Rights is an anti-military and a pro-insurgents organization, the Commission in truth is aninsurgents organization, the Commission in truth is anindependent, disinterested body, which is mandated toindependent, disinterested body, which is mandated toinvestigate on its own or upon complaint all forms of humaninvestigate on its own or upon complaint all forms of humanrights violations and monitor the Philippine Government’srights violations and monitor the Philippine Government’scompliance with the country’s obligation under thecompliance with the country’s obligation under theinternational treaty on human rights.international treaty on human rights. b. The Commission of Human Rights functionsb. The Commission of Human Rights functionsas a homogenous organization composed of civic-orientedas a homogenous organization composed of civic-orientedgroups who advocates and monitors the protection of humangroups who advocates and monitors the protection of humanrights I the country.rights I the country.
  20. 20. 1. Functions1. Functions c. The CHR basically serves as anc. The CHR basically serves as anindependent fact-finding body and doesindependent fact-finding body and doesnot have the power to prosecute. After annot have the power to prosecute. After aninvestigation, the CHR may onlyinvestigation, the CHR may onlyrecommend to courts or to the concernedrecommend to courts or to the concernedagencies the filing of appropriate chargesagencies the filing of appropriate chargesagainst the suspected respondents. Thus,against the suspected respondents. Thus,the CHR has no power to prosecute andthe CHR has no power to prosecute andsend the accused to prison.send the accused to prison.
  21. 21. 2. Jurisdiction2. Jurisdiction . The following are the nature of human rights. The following are the nature of human rightsviolations that are within the jurisdiction of theviolations that are within the jurisdiction of theCommission on Human Rights to investigate forCommission on Human Rights to investigate forpurpose of prosecution:purpose of prosecution: a. Rights of detainees or prisonersa. Rights of detainees or prisonersagainst physical, psychological and degradingagainst physical, psychological and degradingpunishment resulting to the commission of crimespunishment resulting to the commission of crimesagainst persons.against persons. b. Right to a fair and public trial asb. Right to a fair and public trial asrecognized under the Philippine Constitution,recognized under the Philippine Constitution,applicable laws and other statutes.applicable laws and other statutes.
  22. 22. 2. Jurisdiction2. Jurisdiction c. Constitutional guaranteesc. Constitutional guaranteesprovided against the use of torture, force,provided against the use of torture, force,violence, threat, intimidation or other meansviolence, threat, intimidation or other meansthat vitiate the free will of any person andthat vitiate the free will of any person andforce him to do anything or sign anyforce him to do anything or sign anydocument against his will.document against his will. d. Right to life without dued. Right to life without dueprocess of law, where its commission isprocess of law, where its commission istantamount to summary execution ortantamount to summary execution orextrajudicial execution.extrajudicial execution.
  23. 23. 2. Jurisdiction2. Jurisdiction e. Right to select one’s place of abode and ofe. Right to select one’s place of abode and ofchanging one’s residence within the limits provided by law,changing one’s residence within the limits provided by law,except upon lawful order of the court.except upon lawful order of the court. These violations may include the acts of population controlThese violations may include the acts of population controlsuch as “such as “hamletinghamleting”, forced eviction and illegal demolition.”, forced eviction and illegal demolition. f. Rights of persons to secure their houses,f. Rights of persons to secure their houses,papers and belongings against unreasonable and arbitrarypapers and belongings against unreasonable and arbitrarysearches and seizures.searches and seizures. g. Rights of person arrested, detained or underg. Rights of person arrested, detained or undercustodial investigation as well as the duties of arresting,custodial investigation as well as the duties of arresting,detaining and investigating officers.detaining and investigating officers.
  24. 24. 2. Jurisdiction2. Jurisdiction h. Right of the people toh. Right of the people topeaceably assemble and petition thepeaceably assemble and petition thegovernment for redress of grievances.government for redress of grievances. i. Right of the people to freelyi. Right of the people to freelyexercise and enjoy their religious professionexercise and enjoy their religious professionand worship, without discrimination. Thisand worship, without discrimination. Thisincludes such offenses as desecration ofincludes such offenses as desecration ofplaces of worship and other acts that areplaces of worship and other acts that arenotoriously offensive to the feelings of thenotoriously offensive to the feelings of thefaithful.faithful.
  25. 25. HUMAN RIGHTSHUMAN RIGHTSSAFEGUARDSSAFEGUARDS The following are practical suggestionsThe following are practical suggestionsthat will promote the observance of humanthat will promote the observance of humanrights by AFP personnel during militaryrights by AFP personnel during militaryoperations.operations. 1. While in Combat. Here are1. While in Combat. Here aresome guides that you may follow as asome guides that you may follow as acommander of a unit in the operationalcommander of a unit in the operationalareas but not directly engaged in combat.areas but not directly engaged in combat.
  26. 26. HUMAN RIGHTSHUMAN RIGHTSSAFEGUARDSSAFEGUARDS a. Internalizing the Values of Humana. Internalizing the Values of HumanRights.Rights.Develop a strong and effective military values’Develop a strong and effective military values’education among your men. Discuss with themeducation among your men. Discuss with themyour own beliefs, attitudes and valuesyour own beliefs, attitudes and valuesregarding observance of human rights in orderregarding observance of human rights in orderthat they will know exactly were you stand.that they will know exactly were you stand.Make them internalize the value of observingMake them internalize the value of observinghuman rights by including instructions onhuman rights by including instructions onHuman Rights in your Troop Information andHuman Rights in your Troop Information andEducation (TI&E) Program. Most human rightsEducation (TI&E) Program. Most human rightsviolations are results of ignorance of the law.violations are results of ignorance of the law.
  27. 27. HUMAN RIGHTSHUMAN RIGHTSSAFEGUARDSSAFEGUARDS b. Conduct of Legal Arrests andb. Conduct of Legal Arrests andSearches.Searches.As a general rule, law enforcers many onlyAs a general rule, law enforcers many onlyconduct arrests and searches only after theyconduct arrests and searches only after theyhave legally secured arrest and searchhave legally secured arrest and searchwarrants from a judge. However, arrest andwarrants from a judge. However, arrest andsearches may also be performed withoutsearches may also be performed withoutwarrants if the following conditions exist:warrants if the following conditions exist:
  28. 28.  1) When in the presence of arresting1) When in the presence of arrestingofficer, the When in the presence of the officer, theofficer, the When in the presence of the officer, theson to be arrested has committed, is actuallyson to be arrested has committed, is actuallycommitting, or is attempting to commit an offense.committing, or is attempting to commit an offense. 2) When an offense has in fact been2) When an offense has in fact beencommitted and the arresting person has a reasonablecommitted and the arresting person has a reasonableground to believe that the person to be arrested has inground to believe that the person to be arrested has infact committed it.fact committed it. 3) When the person to be arrested is3) When the person to be arrested isa prisoner who has escaped from a penala prisoner who has escaped from a penalestablishment or place where he is serving finalestablishment or place where he is serving finaljudgment or temporarily confined while his case isjudgment or temporarily confined while his case ispending, or when he escaped while being transferredpending, or when he escaped while being transferredfrom one place of confinement to another.from one place of confinement to another.
  29. 29.  c. Non-Employment of Children as Combatants.c. Non-Employment of Children as Combatants.Never allow any person below 18 years old take part in anyNever allow any person below 18 years old take part in anyarmed conflict. Children should never be recruited orarmed conflict. Children should never be recruited oremployed by government forces to perform or engage in anyemployed by government forces to perform or engage in anyactivity that has direct connection with armed conflict, eitheractivity that has direct connection with armed conflict, eitheras combatants, guides, couriers, or in any similar capacityas combatants, guides, couriers, or in any similar capacitywhere they may be identified as active members of anwhere they may be identified as active members of anorganized group.organized group. d. Good Relationship with Media and Humand. Good Relationship with Media and HumanRights Groups. Communicate and establish goodRights Groups. Communicate and establish goodrelationship with the media, human rights groups andrelationship with the media, human rights groups andmembers of non government organizations (NGO’s)members of non government organizations (NGO’s)advocating the protection of human rights. Unwholesomeadvocating the protection of human rights. Unwholesomerelations with these groups and improper handling ofrelations with these groups and improper handling ofsituations involving them may spawn more serious problemssituations involving them may spawn more serious problemsfor your unit in the future.for your unit in the future.
  30. 30.  e. Non-Identification with Dubiouse. Non-Identification with DubiousPersonalities. Avoid being identified with influentialPersonalities. Avoid being identified with influentialand controversial personalities in your area ofand controversial personalities in your area ofoperation. While it is always advisable foroperation. While it is always advisable forcommanders to try to establish good relations with allcommanders to try to establish good relations with allthe members of the community for this may causethe members of the community for this may causecriticisms that you are protecting certain interestcriticisms that you are protecting certain interestgroups in favor of the masses.groups in favor of the masses. f. Absolutely no Drinking. Never allowf. Absolutely no Drinking. Never allowyour men to drink any alcoholic beverages while inyour men to drink any alcoholic beverages while inthe operational areas. The discipline of soldiers whothe operational areas. The discipline of soldiers whodo not know how to handle stress tend to deterioratedo not know how to handle stress tend to deteriorateand may cause behavioral problems. To avoid this,and may cause behavioral problems. To avoid this,never tolerate drinking within your camp. Enforce thisnever tolerate drinking within your camp. Enforce thisprohibition through your NCOs.prohibition through your NCOs.
  31. 31. During Combat OperationsDuring Combat Operations . Here are some recommended pointers that one. Here are some recommended pointers that onemay follow when engaged in actual combat for themay follow when engaged in actual combat for theprotection of human rights:protection of human rights: a. Always established the proper authority ina. Always established the proper authority ininitiating combat operationsinitiating combat operations.. Ensure that all combat operations are covered byEnsure that all combat operations are covered byappropriate Operation Order that set the responsibilityappropriate Operation Order that set the responsibilityto commander of all participating units at all levels ofto commander of all participating units at all levels ofcommand. Even in the conduct of minor combatcommand. Even in the conduct of minor combatoperations as when sending out patrols, a radiooperations as when sending out patrols, a radiomessage or a simple written directive from highermessage or a simple written directive from higherheadquarters may be necessary.headquarters may be necessary.
  32. 32. During Combat OperationsDuring Combat Operations b. As Commander, find time to speak to your men beforeb. As Commander, find time to speak to your men beforesending them outsending them out.. Re-iterate to them your unequivocal stand that they shouldRe-iterate to them your unequivocal stand that they shouldobserve human rights and that you will never tolerate anyobserve human rights and that you will never tolerate anyviolations. Impress on their minds that although their commanderviolations. Impress on their minds that although their commanderis responsible for the accomplishment of the mission, all of themis responsible for the accomplishment of the mission, all of themwill be held responsible for their individual behavior during thewill be held responsible for their individual behavior during theoperation.operation. c. As Commander, do not treat civilians in thec. As Commander, do not treat civilians in theoperational populace as insurgents or suspects.operational populace as insurgents or suspects. Demand that your men will do the same. When you conveneDemand that your men will do the same. When you convenewith civilians, try to be casual, polite and cheerful, otherwise youwith civilians, try to be casual, polite and cheerful, otherwise youwould be misinterpreted to be harassing or interrogating them.would be misinterpreted to be harassing or interrogating them.The civilian would normally volunteer information if they starThe civilian would normally volunteer information if they starfeeling comfortable with the soldiers.feeling comfortable with the soldiers.
  33. 33. During Combat OperationsDuring Combat Operations e. Do no use civilians from villages ase. Do no use civilians from villages asguides.guides. If you have problems in finding directions, avoid usingIf you have problems in finding directions, avoid usingcivilians, particularly children, women or the elderly ascivilians, particularly children, women or the elderly asguides. Use Baranggay Officials or “tanods” instead,guides. Use Baranggay Officials or “tanods” instead,if they are available.if they are available. f. Do not prohibit, interrupt or disbandf. Do not prohibit, interrupt or disbandpeaceful meeting in the community.peaceful meeting in the community. It is the people’s exercise of peaceful assembly andIt is the people’s exercise of peaceful assembly andno one should be hindered to attend such lawfulno one should be hindered to attend such lawfulmeetings.meetings.
  34. 34. During Combat OperationsDuring Combat Operations g. Do not block the entry of food, healthg. Do not block the entry of food, healthand other support services to civilianand other support services to civiliancommunities as a way of defeating thecommunities as a way of defeating theinsurgentsinsurgents.. The civilian populace will protest any form ofThe civilian populace will protest any form ofcontrol over the resources that are intended forcontrol over the resources that are intended fortheir community. However, government forcestheir community. However, government forcesmay prevent or limit the entry of service workersmay prevent or limit the entry of service workersand the delivery of goods into an area affected byand the delivery of goods into an area affected bythe armed conflict if this ill interfere directly withthe armed conflict if this ill interfere directly withthe ongoing combat operations, or will endangerthe ongoing combat operations, or will endangerthe lives and safety of the service workers orthe lives and safety of the service workers orthose delivering the goods.those delivering the goods.
  35. 35. During Combat OperationsDuring Combat Operations h. Do not disrupt or dislocate the sourceh. Do not disrupt or dislocate the sourceof livelihood of the members of theof livelihood of the members of thecommunity.community. The areas involved in an armed conflict should beThe areas involved in an armed conflict should becarefully identified and residents of those areascarefully identified and residents of those areasthat are not directly affected should be allowed tothat are not directly affected should be allowed togo on with their normal lives in order that theirgo on with their normal lives in order that theirsource of livelihood will not be affected.source of livelihood will not be affected.Operating units should avoid damaging crops andOperating units should avoid damaging crops andproperties of civilians along the way. When theproperties of civilians along the way. When theoperation is over and peace has been restored,operation is over and peace has been restored,recommend to your higher headquarters for therecommend to your higher headquarters for therestitution of the damaged properties and crops.restitution of the damaged properties and crops.
  36. 36. During Combat EngagementsDuring Combat Engagements Following are important measures, which you could take as aFollowing are important measures, which you could take as aleader of a unit engaged in combat operations:leader of a unit engaged in combat operations: a. Know exactly what your military objectives are anda. Know exactly what your military objectives are andknow how to distinguish them from purely civilian objects andknow how to distinguish them from purely civilian objects andresidential areas.residential areas. The best way to distinguish civilian communities from militaryThe best way to distinguish civilian communities from militaryobjectives is by using good judgment, common sense and yourobjectives is by using good judgment, common sense and yourconscience.conscience. b. Whenever possible, double-check and re-verify theb. Whenever possible, double-check and re-verify thetarget you are about to attack.target you are about to attack. Sometimes due to confusion of combat and the nervousness ofSometimes due to confusion of combat and the nervousness ofthe men, some civilians may be mistaken as insurgents. You canthe men, some civilians may be mistaken as insurgents. You canprevent this to happen by being very deliberate in your planningprevent this to happen by being very deliberate in your planningand by directing your men to be very discriminating on theand by directing your men to be very discriminating on thetargets they will fire upon.targets they will fire upon.
  37. 37.  c. Take control of your emotions and maintain yourc. Take control of your emotions and maintain yoursense of reason even in the heat of battle.sense of reason even in the heat of battle. As a Combat Leader, you can save many innocent lives if youAs a Combat Leader, you can save many innocent lives if youmaintain your stability under pressure and keep your goodmaintain your stability under pressure and keep your goodjudgment, If you have reasons to believe that the orders of yourjudgment, If you have reasons to believe that the orders of yoursenior commander have already crossed beyond the limits legalsenior commander have already crossed beyond the limits legaland moral orders, be courageous enough to express you’re yourand moral orders, be courageous enough to express you’re yourdissenting opinion.dissenting opinion. d. When you believe that your senior commander hasd. When you believe that your senior commander hasgiven you a vague order, such as “You already know what togiven you a vague order, such as “You already know what todo” directly confront him in the presence of some witnessesdo” directly confront him in the presence of some witnessesand ask exactly what he meantand ask exactly what he meant.. You may ask, “Do you mean Sir, that we must now attack thisYou may ask, “Do you mean Sir, that we must now attack thisvillage regardless whether the enemy is here or not and burn it?”village regardless whether the enemy is here or not and burn it?”Normally a commander who attempts to hide behindNormally a commander who attempts to hide behindirresponsible commands will recover his senses and your havingirresponsible commands will recover his senses and your havingreturned the responsibility to him will make him reconsider hisreturned the responsibility to him will make him reconsider hisvague order.vague order.
  38. 38.  e. Do not use excessive force much more thane. Do not use excessive force much more thannecessary to achieve your military objectivenecessary to achieve your military objective.. Avoid doing an “Avoid doing an “overkilloverkill” of the enemy. This will not only” of the enemy. This will not onlyresult to big wastage of ammunition but will alsoresult to big wastage of ammunition but will alsounnecessary imperil innocent civilians that may be caughtunnecessary imperil innocent civilians that may be caughtin the crossfire.in the crossfire. f. Ensure that your men do not kill enemyf. Ensure that your men do not kill enemycombatants who have surrendered, those who arecombatants who have surrendered, those who arewounded and who could no longer fight.wounded and who could no longer fight. An enemy still weilding his firearms and who refuses toAn enemy still weilding his firearms and who refuses tosurrender is considered legitimate target for neutralization.surrender is considered legitimate target for neutralization.However, an enemy combatant who drops their weapon,However, an enemy combatant who drops their weapon,raise his hand or a white cloth in gesture of surrender, canraise his hand or a white cloth in gesture of surrender, canno longer be shot. Killing such defenseless enemy isno longer be shot. Killing such defenseless enemy istantamount to “tantamount to “ murdermurder”.”.
  39. 39. After Combat EngagementAfter Combat Engagement Consider following these pointers immediatelyConsider following these pointers immediatelyafter the combat engagement in order that you andafter the combat engagement in order that you andyour men will not be vulnerable to complaints thatyour men will not be vulnerable to complaints thatmy be filed against you by insurgent sympathizers:my be filed against you by insurgent sympathizers: a. Immediately render an initial after encountera. Immediately render an initial after encounterreport to your higher headquarters.report to your higher headquarters. At least try to give your senior commander a partialAt least try to give your senior commander a partialreport in a continuing operation or when completereport in a continuing operation or when completeresults are not yet available. Provide them withresults are not yet available. Provide them withoperational updates whenever necessary. Earlyoperational updates whenever necessary. Earlyreporting of operational accomplishment may laterreporting of operational accomplishment may laterserve as proof that an operation is legally beingserve as proof that an operation is legally beingconducted and that a legitimate encounter did happen.conducted and that a legitimate encounter did happen.
  40. 40. After Combat EngagementAfter Combat Engagement b. Whenever possible try to document theb. Whenever possible try to document theaftermath of the operation in pictures andaftermath of the operation in pictures andvideo footages.video footages. Try to get in video or tapes the testimonies ofTry to get in video or tapes the testimonies oflocal officials and other civilians who personallylocal officials and other civilians who personallywitnesses the operation. Such messages fromwitnesses the operation. Such messages fromcooperative civilians maybe used as evidencecooperative civilians maybe used as evidenceagainst human rights violation cases that may beagainst human rights violation cases that may befiled against you unit in the future. They may alsofiled against you unit in the future. They may alsobe used as valuable materials for media releasesbe used as valuable materials for media releasesto show good rapport with the civilian populace.to show good rapport with the civilian populace.
  41. 41. After Combat EngagementAfter Combat Engagement c. Immediately bring the result of thec. Immediately bring the result of theoperation to the attention of the Barangayoperation to the attention of the BarangayOfficials and the other civilian leaders inOfficials and the other civilian leaders inthe where the encounter happened.the where the encounter happened.They are considered as the authorities in theThey are considered as the authorities in thevillage, and by involving them in reporting thevillage, and by involving them in reporting theencounter, they become neutral source ofencounter, they become neutral source ofinformation that would strengthen yourinformation that would strengthen yourdefense in case there will be problems later.defense in case there will be problems later.
  42. 42. After Combat EngagementAfter Combat Engagement d. Try to get some formal statements ind. Try to get some formal statements inprint or video of Barangay Officials andprint or video of Barangay Officials andother disintegrated persons regarding theother disintegrated persons regarding thelegitimacy of the encounter.legitimacy of the encounter.If possible, encourage the local officials toIf possible, encourage the local officials tomake a formal resolution concerning themake a formal resolution concerning theincident.incident.
  43. 43. After Combat EngagementAfter Combat Engagement e. Secure all the available pieces ofe. Secure all the available pieces ofevidence that you may have gatheredevidence that you may have gatheredafter the encounter.after the encounter.This may include the firearms captured fromThis may include the firearms captured fromthe enemy, spent ammunition, subversivethe enemy, spent ammunition, subversivedocuments, photographs, letters, diaries anddocuments, photographs, letters, diaries andpacks of personal belongings. You may needpacks of personal belongings. You may needthem to conclusively establish that indeed thethem to conclusively establish that indeed theencounter was legitimately and actuallyencounter was legitimately and actuallyhappened.happened.
  44. 44. After Combat EngagementAfter Combat Engagement f. Report to the local officials and thef. Report to the local officials and thepolice authorities the circumstances of thepolice authorities the circumstances of thedeath or wounding of the enemies.death or wounding of the enemies.In coordination with the law enforcers in theIn coordination with the law enforcers in thearea of encounter, pursue the identification ofarea of encounter, pursue the identification ofthe dead enemy or civilians that may havethe dead enemy or civilians that may havebeen caught in the crossfire. Civilian crossfirebeen caught in the crossfire. Civilian crossfirevictims are entitled burial assistance from thevictims are entitled burial assistance from thegovernment.government.
  45. 45. After Combat EngagementAfter Combat Engagement g. Bring the bodies of the dead enemiesg. Bring the bodies of the dead enemiesto the police or the nearest local officials.to the police or the nearest local officials. Demand a receipt pr an acknowledgment inDemand a receipt pr an acknowledgment inwriting that your unit has turned overt to them thewriting that your unit has turned overt to them thesaid remains. Coordinate with them for thesaid remains. Coordinate with them for theidentification of the dead enemies. Uponidentification of the dead enemies. Uponidentification, inform the nearest of kin throughidentification, inform the nearest of kin throughthe local police forces. Respect the desire of thethe local police forces. Respect the desire of thefamily of the deceased on what they intend to dofamily of the deceased on what they intend to dowith the remains.with the remains.
  46. 46. After Combat engagementAfter Combat engagement h. Give immediate medical attention toh. Give immediate medical attention tothe wounded.the wounded. As the commander of the government forcesAs the commander of the government forcesin the are, it is your responsibility to ensurein the are, it is your responsibility to ensurethe immediate treatment of the woundedthe immediate treatment of the woundedenemy and the civilian crossfire victims. Makeenemy and the civilian crossfire victims. Makesure that the local Barangay Officials assistsure that the local Barangay Officials assistyou in caring for the wounded and in bringingyou in caring for the wounded and in bringingthem to the nearest hospital or medical clinic.them to the nearest hospital or medical clinic.
  47. 47. After Combat engagementAfter Combat engagement i. Whenever possible, conduct massivei. Whenever possible, conduct massivecivil-military and psychological operations atcivil-military and psychological operations atthe area where the encounter happened tothe area where the encounter happened toneutralize whatever influences the enemyneutralize whatever influences the enemyhave over the populace.have over the populace. The conduct of CMO and PSYOPS in this areaThe conduct of CMO and PSYOPS in this areamay be in the form of civic and humanitarianmay be in the form of civic and humanitarianactivities and the performance of communityactivities and the performance of communityassistance projects that would enhance the goodassistance projects that would enhance the goodworking relationship between civilians and theworking relationship between civilians and themilitary forces in the area.military forces in the area.
  48. 48. UNIVERSAL DECLARATIONUNIVERSAL DECLARATIONOF HUMAN RIGHTSOF HUMAN RIGHTS
  49. 49. ARTICLE 1ARTICLE 1 ALL HUMAN BEINGS ARE BORN FREEALL HUMAN BEINGS ARE BORN FREE& EQUAL IN DIGNITY & RIGHTS. THEY& EQUAL IN DIGNITY & RIGHTS. THEYARE ENDOWED W/ REASON &ARE ENDOWED W/ REASON &CONSCIENCE AND SHOULD BE GOODCONSCIENCE AND SHOULD BE GOODTOWARDS ONE ANOTHER IN THETOWARDS ONE ANOTHER IN THESPIRIT OF BROTHERHOODSPIRIT OF BROTHERHOOD..
  50. 50. ARTICLE 2ARTICLE 2 EVERYONE IS ENTITLED TO ALLEVERYONE IS ENTITLED TO ALLRIGHTS & FREEDOM SETFORTH INRIGHTS & FREEDOM SETFORTH INTHIS DECLARATION, WITHOUTTHIS DECLARATION, WITHOUTDISTINCTION OF ANY KIND, SUCH ASDISTINCTION OF ANY KIND, SUCH ASRACE, COLOR, SEX, LANGUAGE,RACE, COLOR, SEX, LANGUAGE,RELIGION, POLITICAL OR OTHERRELIGION, POLITICAL OR OTHERSTATUS.STATUS.
  51. 51. ARTICLE 3ARTICLE 3 EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO LIFE,EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO LIFE,LIBERTY AND SECURITY OF PERSONLIBERTY AND SECURITY OF PERSON
  52. 52. ARTICLE 4ARTICLE 4 NO ONE SHALL BE HELD IN SLAVERYNO ONE SHALL BE HELD IN SLAVERYOR SERVITUDE. SLAVERY AND SLAVEOR SERVITUDE. SLAVERY AND SLAVETRADE SHALL BE PROHIBITED IN ALLTRADE SHALL BE PROHIBITED IN ALLTHEIR FORMSTHEIR FORMS
  53. 53. ARTICLE 5ARTICLE 5 NO ONE SHALL BE SUBJECTED TONO ONE SHALL BE SUBJECTED TOTORTURE OR CRUELTY, ONE WORDTORTURE OR CRUELTY, ONE WORDAND DEGRADING TREATMENT ORAND DEGRADING TREATMENT ORPUNISHMENTPUNISHMENT
  54. 54. ARTICLE 6ARTICLE 6 EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TOEVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TORECOGNIZE EVERYWHERE AS ARECOGNIZE EVERYWHERE AS APERSON BEFORE THE LAWPERSON BEFORE THE LAW
  55. 55. ARTICLE 7ARTICLE 7 ALL ARE EQUAL BEFORE THE LAW &ALL ARE EQUAL BEFORE THE LAW &ARE ENTITLED WITHOUT ANYARE ENTITLED WITHOUT ANYDISCRIMINATION TO EQUALDISCRIMINATION TO EQUALPROTECTION OF THE LAW. ALL AREPROTECTION OF THE LAW. ALL AREENTITLED TO EQUAL PROTECTIONENTITLED TO EQUAL PROTECTIONAGAINST ANY DISCRIMINATION ANDAGAINST ANY DISCRIMINATION ANDVIOLATION OF THIS DECLARATIONVIOLATION OF THIS DECLARATIONAND AGAINST ANY INCITEMENT TOAND AGAINST ANY INCITEMENT TOSUCH DISCRIMINATION.SUCH DISCRIMINATION.
  56. 56. ARTICLE 8ARTICLE 8 EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO ANEVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO ANEFFECTIVE REMEDY BY THEEFFECTIVE REMEDY BY THECOMPETENT NATIONAL TRIBUNALSCOMPETENT NATIONAL TRIBUNALSFOR ACTS VIOLATING THEFOR ACTS VIOLATING THEFUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS GRANTED TOFUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS GRANTED TOHIM BY THE CONSTITUTION OR BYHIM BY THE CONSTITUTION OR BYTHE LAWTHE LAW
  57. 57. ARTICLE 9ARTICLE 9 NO ONE SHAL BE SUBJECTED TONO ONE SHAL BE SUBJECTED TOARBITRARY ARREST, DETENTION ORARBITRARY ARREST, DETENTION OREXILEEXILE
  58. 58. ARTICLE 10ARTICLE 10 EVERYONE IS ENTITLED TO FULLEVERYONE IS ENTITLED TO FULLEQUALITY TO AFFAIR IN PUBLICEQUALITY TO AFFAIR IN PUBLICHEARING BY AN INDEPENDENT &HEARING BY AN INDEPENDENT &IMPARTIAL TRIBUNAL, IN THEIMPARTIAL TRIBUNAL, IN THEDETERMINATION OF THE RIGHTS ANDDETERMINATION OF THE RIGHTS ANDOBLIGATIONS AND OF ANY CRIMINALOBLIGATIONS AND OF ANY CRIMINALCHARGE AGAINST HIMCHARGE AGAINST HIM
  59. 59. ARTICLE 11ARTICLE 11 EVERYONE WHO IS CHARGE WITH AEVERYONE WHO IS CHARGE WITH APENAL OFFENSE HAS THE RIGHT TOPENAL OFFENSE HAS THE RIGHT TOPRESUMED INNOCENT UNTIL PROVENPRESUMED INNOCENT UNTIL PROVENGUILTY ACCORDING TO LAW IN AGUILTY ACCORDING TO LAW IN APUBLIC TRIAL AT WHICH HE HAD ALLPUBLIC TRIAL AT WHICH HE HAD ALLGUARANTEES NECESSARY FOR HISGUARANTEES NECESSARY FOR HISDEFENSEDEFENSE
  60. 60. ARTICLE 11 CONT..ARTICLE 11 CONT.. NO ONE SHALL BE HELD GUILTY OFNO ONE SHALL BE HELD GUILTY OFANY OFFENSE ON AN ACCOUNT OFANY OFFENSE ON AN ACCOUNT OFANY ACT OR OMISSION WHICH DIDANY ACT OR OMISSION WHICH DIDNOT CONSTITUTE A PENAL OFFENSENOT CONSTITUTE A PENAL OFFENSEUNDER NATIONAL ORUNDER NATIONAL ORINTERNATIONAL LAW AT THE TIMEINTERNATIONAL LAW AT THE TIMEWHEN IT WAS COMMITTEDWHEN IT WAS COMMITTED
  61. 61. ARTICLE 12ARTICLE 12 NO ONE SHALL BE SUBJECTEDNO ONE SHALL BE SUBJECTEDINTERFERENCE WITH HIS PRIVACY,INTERFERENCE WITH HIS PRIVACY,HOME OR CORRESPONDENCE, NORHOME OR CORRESPONDENCE, NORTO ATTACK UPON/HIS HONOR.TO ATTACK UPON/HIS HONOR.EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO THEEVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO THEPROTECTION OF THE LAW AGAINSTPROTECTION OF THE LAW AGAINSTSUCH INTERFERENCE OR ATTACKSSUCH INTERFERENCE OR ATTACKS
  62. 62. ARTICLE 13ARTICLE 13 EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TOEVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TOFREEDOM OF MOVEMENT ANDFREEDOM OF MOVEMENT ANDINDEPENDENCE WITHIN THEINDEPENDENCE WITHIN THEHOLDERS OF EACH STATE.HOLDERS OF EACH STATE.EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO LEAVEEVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO LEAVETHE COUNTRY, INCLUDING HIS OWN,THE COUNTRY, INCLUDING HIS OWN,AND RETURN TO HIS COUNTRYAND RETURN TO HIS COUNTRY
  63. 63. ARTICLE 14ARTICLE 14 EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO SEEKEVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO SEEKENJOYMENT IN OTHER COUNTRIESENJOYMENT IN OTHER COUNTRIESASYLUM FOR PERSECUTIONASYLUM FOR PERSECUTION
  64. 64. ARTICLE 15ARTICLE 15 EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO AEVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO ANATIONALITYNATIONALITY NO ONE SHALL BE ARBITRARYNO ONE SHALL BE ARBITRARYDEPRIVED HIS NATIONALITY NORDEPRIVED HIS NATIONALITY NORDENIED THE RIGHT TO CHANGEDENIED THE RIGHT TO CHANGENATIONALITYNATIONALITY
  65. 65. ARTICLE 16ARTICLE 16 MEN AND WOMEN OF FULL AGE;MEN AND WOMEN OF FULL AGE;WITHOUT ANY LIMITATION DUE TOWITHOUT ANY LIMITATION DUE TORACE, NATIONALITY, OR RELIGIONRACE, NATIONALITY, OR RELIGIONHAVE THE RIGHT TO MARRY ANDHAVE THE RIGHT TO MARRY ANDHAVE FAMILY. THEY ARE ENTITLEDHAVE FAMILY. THEY ARE ENTITLEDTO EQUAL RIGHTS AS TO MARRIAGETO EQUAL RIGHTS AS TO MARRIAGEAND ITS DISSOLUTIONAND ITS DISSOLUTION
  66. 66. ARTICLE 17ARTICLE 17 EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO OWNEVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO OWNPROPERTY ALONE AS WELL AS INPROPERTY ALONE AS WELL AS INASSOCIATION WITH OTHERSASSOCIATION WITH OTHERS NO ONE SHALL ARBITRARYNO ONE SHALL ARBITRARYDEPRIVED OF HIS PROPERTYDEPRIVED OF HIS PROPERTY
  67. 67. ARTICLE 18ARTICLE 18 EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO FREEDOMEVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO FREEDOMOF THOUGHT, CONSCIENCE AND RELIGION;OF THOUGHT, CONSCIENCE AND RELIGION;THIS RIGHT INCLUDES FREEDOM TOTHIS RIGHT INCLUDES FREEDOM TOCHANGE HIS RELIGION OR BELIEF ANDCHANGE HIS RELIGION OR BELIEF ANDFREEDOM, EITHER ALONE OR INFREEDOM, EITHER ALONE OR INCOMMUNITY WITH OTHERS IN PUBLIC ORCOMMUNITY WITH OTHERS IN PUBLIC ORPRIVATE, TO MANIFEST HIS RELIGION ORPRIVATE, TO MANIFEST HIS RELIGION ORBELIEF IN TEACHING, PRACTICE, WORSHIPBELIEF IN TEACHING, PRACTICE, WORSHIPAND OBSERVANCEAND OBSERVANCE
  68. 68. ARTICLE 19ARTICLE 19 EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT OFEVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT OFOPINION. EXPOSING THIS RIGHTOPINION. EXPOSING THIS RIGHTINCLUDES FREEDOM TO HOLDINCLUDES FREEDOM TO HOLDOPINIONS WITHOUT INTERFERENCEOPINIONS WITHOUT INTERFERENCEAND TO SEEK. RECEIVE AND IMPARTAND TO SEEK. RECEIVE AND IMPARTINFORMATION AND IDEAS THROUGHINFORMATION AND IDEAS THROUGHANY MEDIA AND REGARDLESS OFANY MEDIA AND REGARDLESS OFFRONTIERSFRONTIERS
  69. 69. ARTICLE 20ARTICLE 20 EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TOEVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TOFREEDOM OF PEACEFULLYFREEDOM OF PEACEFULLYASSEMBLY AND ASSOCIATEASSEMBLY AND ASSOCIATE
  70. 70. ARTICLE 21ARTICLE 21 EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO TAKE PART IN THEEVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO TAKE PART IN THEGOVERNMENT OF HIS OWN COUNTRY, DIRECTLYGOVERNMENT OF HIS OWN COUNTRY, DIRECTLYOR THROUGH FREELY REPRESENTATIVEOR THROUGH FREELY REPRESENTATIVE EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO EQUAL PROCESSEVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO EQUAL PROCESSTO PUBLIC SERVICE IN HIS COUNTRYTO PUBLIC SERVICE IN HIS COUNTRY THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE SHALL BE THE BASISTHE WILL OF THE PEOPLE SHALL BE THE BASISOF THE AUTHORITY OF THE GOVERNMENT, THISOF THE AUTHORITY OF THE GOVERNMENT, THISWILL BE EXPRESSED IN PERIOD AND GENUINEWILL BE EXPRESSED IN PERIOD AND GENUINESELECTIONS WHICH SHALL BE HELD BY SECRETSELECTIONS WHICH SHALL BE HELD BY SECRETVOTE OR BY EQUIVALENT FREE VOTINGVOTE OR BY EQUIVALENT FREE VOTINGPROCEDURESPROCEDURES
  71. 71. ARTICLE 22ARTICLE 22 EVERYONE AS THE MEMBER OF SOCIETYEVERYONE AS THE MEMBER OF SOCIETYAND IS ENTITLED TO REALIZATIONS,AND IS ENTITLED TO REALIZATIONS,THROUGH NATIONAL EFFORT ANDTHROUGH NATIONAL EFFORT ANDINTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AND ININTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AND INACCORDANCE WITH THE ORGANIZATIONSACCORDANCE WITH THE ORGANIZATIONSAND RESOURCES OF EACH STATE, OF THEAND RESOURCES OF EACH STATE, OF THEECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURALECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURALRIGHTS INDISPENSABLE FOR HIS DIGNITYRIGHTS INDISPENSABLE FOR HIS DIGNITYAND IN THE FREE DEVELOPMENT OF HISAND IN THE FREE DEVELOPMENT OF HISPERSONALITYPERSONALITY
  72. 72. ARTICLE 23ARTICLE 23 EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO WORK, TO FREEEVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO WORK, TO FREECHOICE OF EMPLOYMENT, TO JUST PAY FAVORABLECHOICE OF EMPLOYMENT, TO JUST PAY FAVORABLECONDITIONS OF WORK AND PROTECTION AGAINSTCONDITIONS OF WORK AND PROTECTION AGAINSTUNEMPLOYMENTUNEMPLOYMENT EVERYONE WITHOUT ANY DISCRIMINATION HAS THEEVERYONE WITHOUT ANY DISCRIMINATION HAS THERIGHT TO EQUAL PAY OR EQUAL WORKRIGHT TO EQUAL PAY OR EQUAL WORK EVERYONE WHO HAS THE RIGHT TO JUSTEVERYONE WHO HAS THE RIGHT TO JUSTFAVORABLE RENUMERATION ENSURING HIMSELFFAVORABLE RENUMERATION ENSURING HIMSELFAND HIS FAMILY AN EXISTENCE WORTHY OF HUMANAND HIS FAMILY AN EXISTENCE WORTHY OF HUMANDIGNITY, AND SUPPLEMENTED, IF NECESSARY, BYDIGNITY, AND SUPPLEMENTED, IF NECESSARY, BYOTHER MEANS OF SOCIAL PROTECTIONOTHER MEANS OF SOCIAL PROTECTION EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO FORM TRADE AND TOEVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO FORM TRADE AND TOJOIN TRADE UNIONS FOR PROTECTION OF HISJOIN TRADE UNIONS FOR PROTECTION OF HISINTERESTINTEREST
  73. 73. ARTICLE 24ARTICLE 24 EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO RESTEVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO RESTAND LEISURE, INCLUDINGAND LEISURE, INCLUDINGREASONABLE LIMITATION OFREASONABLE LIMITATION OFWORKING HOURS AND PERIODICWORKING HOURS AND PERIODICHOLIDAYS WITH PAYHOLIDAYS WITH PAY
  74. 74. ARTICLE 25ARTICLE 25 EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO A STANDARD OFEVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO A STANDARD OFLIVING ADEQUATE FOR THE HEALTH AND WELLLIVING ADEQUATE FOR THE HEALTH AND WELLBEING OF HIMSELF AND OF HIS FAMILY,BEING OF HIMSELF AND OF HIS FAMILY,INCLUDING FOODS, CLOTHING, HOUSING ANDINCLUDING FOODS, CLOTHING, HOUSING ANDMEDICAL CARE AND NECESSARY SOCIALMEDICAL CARE AND NECESSARY SOCIALSERVICE, AND THE RIGHT TO SECURITY IN THESERVICE, AND THE RIGHT TO SECURITY IN THEEVENT OF UNEMPLOYMENT, SICKNESS,EVENT OF UNEMPLOYMENT, SICKNESS,DISABILITY, WODIWED, OLD AGE, OR OTHER LACKDISABILITY, WODIWED, OLD AGE, OR OTHER LACKOF LIVELIHOOD IN CIRCUMSTANCES BEYOND HISOF LIVELIHOOD IN CIRCUMSTANCES BEYOND HISCONTROLCONTROL MOTHERHOOD AND CHILDHOOD ARE INTITLED TOMOTHERHOOD AND CHILDHOOD ARE INTITLED TOSPECIAL CARE ASSISTANCE. ALL CHILDRENSPECIAL CARE ASSISTANCE. ALL CHILDRENWHETHER BORN IN OR OUT OF WEDLOCK SHALLWHETHER BORN IN OR OUT OF WEDLOCK SHALLENJOY SAME PROTECTIONENJOY SAME PROTECTION
  75. 75. ARTICLE 26ARTICLE 26 EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO EDUCATIONEVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO EDUCATION EDUCATION SHALL BE DIRECTED TO THEEDUCATION SHALL BE DIRECTED TO THEFULL DEVELOPMENT OF THE HUMANFULL DEVELOPMENT OF THE HUMANPERSONALITY AND TO STRENGTHENINGPERSONALITY AND TO STRENGTHENINGTHE RESPECT TO HUMAN RIGHTS ANDTHE RESPECT TO HUMAN RIGHTS ANDFUNDAMENTAL FREEDOM.FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOM. PARENTS HAS THE RIGHT TO CHOOSE THEPARENTS HAS THE RIGHT TO CHOOSE THEKIND OF EDUCATION THAT SHALL BEKIND OF EDUCATION THAT SHALL BEGIVEN TO THEIR CHILDRENGIVEN TO THEIR CHILDREN
  76. 76. ARTICLE 27ARTICLE 27 EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TOEVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TOPARTICIPATE IN THE CULTURAL LIFE OFPARTICIPATE IN THE CULTURAL LIFE OFTHE COMMUNITY, TO ENJOY THE ACTS, TOTHE COMMUNITY, TO ENJOY THE ACTS, TOSHARE SCIENTIFIC ADVANCEMENT AND ITSSHARE SCIENTIFIC ADVANCEMENT AND ITSBENEFITSBENEFITS EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO THEEVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO THEPROTECTION OMITTED OF MORAL ANDPROTECTION OMITTED OF MORAL ANDMATERIAL INTEREST RESULTING FROMMATERIAL INTEREST RESULTING FROMANY SCIENTIFIC, LITERARY OR ARTISTICANY SCIENTIFIC, LITERARY OR ARTISTICPRODUCTION OF WHICH HE IS THEPRODUCTION OF WHICH HE IS THEAUTHORAUTHOR
  77. 77. ARTICLE 28ARTICLE 28 EVERYONE IS ENTITLED TO SOCIALEVERYONE IS ENTITLED TO SOCIALAND INTERNATIONAL ORDER INAND INTERNATIONAL ORDER INWHICH THE RIGHTS, FREEDOMWHICH THE RIGHTS, FREEDOMSETFORTH IN THIS DECLARATIONSETFORTH IN THIS DECLARATIONCAN BE FULLY REALIZEDCAN BE FULLY REALIZED
  78. 78. ARTICLE 29ARTICLE 29 EVERYONE HAS A DUTY TO THE COMMUNITY INEVERYONE HAS A DUTY TO THE COMMUNITY INWHICH ALONE THE FREE AND FULLWHICH ALONE THE FREE AND FULLDEVELOPMENT OF HIS PERSONALITY ISDEVELOPMENT OF HIS PERSONALITY ISPOSSIBLE.POSSIBLE. IN THE EXERCISE OF HIS RIGHTS AND FREEDOM,IN THE EXERCISE OF HIS RIGHTS AND FREEDOM,EVERYONE SHALL BE SUBJECTED TO SUCHEVERYONE SHALL BE SUBJECTED TO SUCHLIMITATIONS AS ARE DETERMINED BY LAW,LIMITATIONS AS ARE DETERMINED BY LAW,SOLELY FOR THE PURPOSE OF SECURING DUESOLELY FOR THE PURPOSE OF SECURING DUERECOGNITION AND RESPECT FOR THE RIGHTSRECOGNITION AND RESPECT FOR THE RIGHTSAND FREEDOM OF OTHERS AND OMIT MEETINGAND FREEDOM OF OTHERS AND OMIT MEETINGTHE JUST REQUIREMENTS OF MORALITY, PUBLICTHE JUST REQUIREMENTS OF MORALITY, PUBLICORDER AND GENERAL WELFARE.ORDER AND GENERAL WELFARE.
  79. 79. ARTICLE 30ARTICLE 30 NOTHING IN THIS DECLARATIONNOTHING IN THIS DECLARATIONMAYBE INTERRUPTED ASMAYBE INTERRUPTED ASEMPLOYING FOR ANY STATE, GROUPEMPLOYING FOR ANY STATE, GROUPOR PERSONS ANY RIGHT TO ENGAGEOR PERSONS ANY RIGHT TO ENGAGEIN ANY OF THE RIGHTS ANDIN ANY OF THE RIGHTS ANDFREEDOM SETFORTH HEREINFREEDOM SETFORTH HEREIN
  80. 80. MARAMING SALAMAT POMARAMING SALAMAT PO ENJOY YOUR RIGHTS BUT RESPECTENJOY YOUR RIGHTS BUT RESPECTTHE RIGHTS OF OTHERSTHE RIGHTS OF OTHERS EMBRACE YOUR FREEDOMEMBRACE YOUR FREEDOM

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