6. different kinds of swine diseases


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6. different kinds of swine diseases

  2. 2. ENTERIC PROBLEMSWINE DYSENTERY:Caused by Serpulina (Treponema) hyodysenterie whichis sometimes referred to as Vibrionic dysentery, bloodyscours, bloody diarrhea or black scours.
  3. 3. CLINICAL SIGNS fever (40oC) watery feces with blood/mucus in the feces loss of appetite back is arched and due to the pain in the abdomen thepig may be seen trying to kick it in chronic cases there is dehydration, thirst, weakness,in coordination and emaciation. Death may resultfrom dehydration and/or acidosis.
  4. 4.  Brownish diarrhea Diarrhea progresses to brownish red with a muchmore liquid consistency Lesions are found in the large intestine. Typical shape of SwineDysentery-infected pigs
  5. 5. PREVENTION Prevention is by lessening stress through good housingand management, maintenance of good hygiene andcleanliness to limit the multiplication of the bacteria.Prevent overcrowding.
  6. 6. Treatment : When treated with antibiotics, may show signs ofimprovement (Tylosin, lincomycin, bacitracin, etc.)
  8. 8. SALMONELLOSIS: Various strain of Salmonella bacteria can causediarrhea. This type of diarrhea is rare in young pigletsand is usually seen from weaning up to 6 months.Acute deaths can occur.
  9. 9. CLINICAL SIGNS heavy bacteremia high fever cyanosis of the skin (bluish skin) specially in the bellyand eartips and skin hemorrhages little or no diarrhea before death
  10. 10. TREATMENT Treatment should start first with isolation of infectedanimals to prevent the spread of the disease to thegroup or herd. Remove the feed and provide cleandrinking water with electrolytes. Three (3) daystreatment with antibiotics like Ampicillin orChloramphenicol (Please note that chloramphenicol ispresently banned for use in food animals in thePhilippines). These should be followed with feed orwater antibiotics for 7 days.
  11. 11. PREVENTION The disease can be prevented by implementing an all-in-all-out system in fattening pigs. Maintain goodhygiene and other general preventive measures. Also take note that Salmonellosis is a zoonotic disease.
  12. 12. Salmonellosis
  13. 13. PORCINE PROLIFERATIVEENTEROPATHY (Ileitis, PIA, Porcine Intestinal Adenomatosis, RedGut) The causative agent of PPE is Lawsonia intracellularisan intracellular curved bacteria. The acute form of thisdisease occurs in young breeding stock or finishingpigs while the chronic forms occur in young growingpigs. Also, the disease, albeit not apparent can affectfrom 15 to 50% of the growing herd.
  14. 14.  CLINICAL SIGNS Acute forms death, often the first signs seen pale and anemic animals depression and reluctance to move reduced appetite retarded growth watery, dark or bright red diarrhea abortion may occur in recovering animals often within 6days of the onset of clinical signs
  15. 15. Chronic forms very slight with irregular periods of diarrhea andanorexia severe loss of condition and persistent scouring terminal peritonitis
  16. 16. PREVENTION The disease can be prevented by implementing an all-in-all-out system in fattening pigs. Maintain goodhygiene and other general preventive measures. Also take note that Salmonellosis is a zoonotic disease.
  17. 17. PORCINE PARVOVIRAL INFECTIONStillbirth, Mummification, Embryonic Death, Infertility(SMEDI) Both these diseases cause the same disease symptoms,and they can only be differentiated from each other bylaboratory tests. When these diseases are present inthe herd, they cause no other symptoms exceptreproductive failure.
  18. 18. Clinical signs: too many repeat breeders in the herd intervals are often more than 21 days early embryonic deaths small litter sizes mummies, stillbirths, weak piglets
  19. 19. Treatment There is no treatment for reproductive failure.
  20. 20. Prevention in a herd free from parvovirus/SMEDI occurrences is verydifficult since these viruses are known to be very stable andcan be infective for long periods. Even with good hygienicmeasures and strict quarantine, it can still find its way intothe farm. The most common ways are from new stock,persons, rodents and other unwanted animals. Ensure that gilts and new breeding stock entering thebreeding herd are properly at least one (1) month beforebreeding, should be implemented. This establishes acommon micro flora providing a fairly uniform immunity.
  21. 21. Still birth, Mummification, Embryonic Death, Infertility (SMEDI)
  22. 22. REPRODUCTIVE PROBLEMBRUCELLOSISThis disease is caused by a bacterial organism, Brucella suis.Importance of brucellosis: Brucella suis is not a highly infectious organism. It spreads slowlybetween and within herds, and you should be able to keep it out of yourherd if you take sensible precautions. But it is a serious disease, andyou must always think of it as such. The disease is zoonotic. If brucellosis is suspected in your herd, takegreat care that you and the farm caretakers do not get infected. Call inyour veterinarian immediately. If it gets into your herd, it is difficult to eliminate. It causes long termreproductive losses, and some types also cause a very nasty disease(known as undulant fever) in people.
  23. 23. Clinical signs: in male breeders orchitis (inflammation of the testicles) which maylead to temporary or permanent sterility The organism multiplies in the testicles and/or themale accessory reproductive glands and is then shed inthe semen for prolonged periods. The infection in theboar’s reproductive tract is usually permanent. Thedamage that it does is irreversible.
  24. 24.  in female breeders abortion at any time of the gestation period high return to service and vaginal dischargesThe infection in the sow’s reproductive tract is notpermanent and eventually clears up spontaneously.
  25. 25. in newborn piglets stillbirths and weak pigletsin adult pigs lameness and posterior paralysis abscess formation in the extremities or other parts of thebodyA few growing pigs and adults, and a slightly greaternumber of suckling piglets and weaners start to developpartial or total paralysis in their hind quarters. This is theresult of infection and damage to the spine. Some pigs maybecome lame with swollen joints.
  26. 26. Treatment There is no practical treatment for this disease. Allinfected animals should be slaughtered and disposedproperly, either by burning or burying.
  27. 27. Prevention Healthy animals - buy stocks from Brucella-free pigs. Proper quarantine procedures - This includes, inparticular, the prevention of exposure of the herd toinfected pigs and the introduction of Brucella-freereplacement pigs. Testing animals for brucellosis (blood testing) -Repeated herd blood tests with removal of positivereactors is a good preventive measure. However, thismay be effective if only a few pigs are infected but islikely to be unsuccessful if many pigs are positive. Proper disposal of manure and dead animals
  28. 28. Brucella - orchitis
  29. 29. Mastitis-Metritis-Agalactia (MMA)SyndromeMastitis is the inflammation of the mammary glandwhich is responsible for milk production. Mastitisinvolving individual udder section is diagnosed by keen,visual observation and manual examination.metretis or inflammation and infection of the uterus oftenoccurs after farrowing, dystocia or abortion. Metritis is partof the agalactia syndrome so frequently encountered as aclinical entity in swine practice.The following organisms are frequently isolated fromanimals suffering from metritis: Streptococcus, Escherichiacoli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella aerogenes,Klebsiella pneumoniae.
  30. 30. Prevention and Treatment There are several factors that can lead to MMA in aherd, including infection, stress, lack of good nutritionand toxicity from constipation and uterus infection.Toxicity can result from constipation brought about bya lack of exercise and poor diet. Here, we can alwaysmention the very important contribution of improperfeeding shortly before and after farrowing
  31. 31. Retained uterine contents after farrowing mayalso result to toxicity. Injections of hormone oxytocinwill help the sow in expelling retained placenta, bloodor any fetal membrane. Moreover, flushing or lavageusing a mild antiseptic (0.1% - 0.2% potassiumpermanganate) or herbal decoction (guava leaves) is acheaper way of expelling retained uterine contents. Asow needs plenty of clean, fresh water. Flow rateshould be at least 1.5 liter/minute for proper milkproduction.
  32. 32. Mastitis
  33. 33. Flushing or lavage with the use of a syringe and a catheter facilitates evacuationof retained uterine contents
  34. 34. PORCINE PARVOVIRAL INFECTIONStillbirth, Mummification, Embryonic Death, Infertility (SMEDI)Both these diseases cause the same diseasesymptoms, and they can only be differentiated fromeach other by laboratory tests. When these diseasesare present in the herd, they cause no other symptomsexcept reproductive failure.
  35. 35. Clinical signs: too many repeat breeders in the herd intervals are often more than 21 days early embryonic deaths small litter sizes mummies, stillbirths, weak piglets
  36. 36. Treatment There is no treatment for reproductive failure.
  37. 37. Prevention Prevention in a herd free from parvovirus/SMEDI occurrences is very difficultsince these viruses are known to be very stable and can be infective for longperiods. Even with good hygienic measures and strict quarantine, it can stillfind its way into the farm. The most common ways are from new stock,persons, rodents and other unwanted animals. Ensure that gilts and new breeding stock entering the breeding herd areproperly at least one (1) month before breeding, should be implemented. Thisestablishes a common micro flora providing a fairly uniform immunity. Additionally, prevention in an infected herd is based on immunizing the giltsproviding contact with older sows before they are bred, or even mixing fecalmatter from sows and piglets with their feed. It is also a practice to feed after-births and fetuses of affected sows (these are either chopped fresh or dried andmixed with the feed). A vaccine is available for parvovirus and is usually given to gilts, boars and sows(up to second parity only). However, this also depends on the discretion of theveterinarian whether to continue vaccination until the third or fourth parities.
  38. 38. LEPTOSPIROSIS: This disease is caused by a bacterial organism,Leptospira spp. Take note that leptospirosis isinfectious to human beings (zoonotic). The signs arefever, headache, pain and stiffness of the muscles.
  39. 39. Clinical signs: animals may show various levels of inappetence, feverand diarrhea which may last for about 3 days andwhich can easily be overlooked abortion (more common in the late stage of pregnancy(D90-D110) in cases of abortion, it is common to have piglets dyingat different stages of gestation infertility does not occur in leptospirosis cases
  40. 40.  . The signs of the disease appear in 1-3 days post-farrowing. They will be found lying in their beds,shivering or trembling. The temperature ranges from 40oC-41oC. The udder is hot and milk flow is inhibited. A thick,whitish to yellowish discharge from vulva is seen bythe end of the first or second day.
  41. 41. Transmission: The disease is spread by way of urine. Animals canremain infectious and continue shedding Leptospiraspp. for years, since the infection persists in thekidneys where these pathogens cannot be effectivelyreached by the immune system.
  42. 42. Treatment: Treatment is possible using antibiotics. Streptomycinis most effective in these cases.
  43. 43. Prevention: isolation of sick animals and new additions to theherd cleaning and disinfection of pens and equipment extermination of rats administration of leptospirosis vaccines keeping different classes of livestock separated buying healthy stocks
  44. 44. STREPTOCOCCAL ARTHRITIS:CLINICAL SIGNS Mycoplasma hyorhinis is found commonly in the nasalcavity (nose or snout) of swine and is frequently asecondary invader following pneumonia. Some of the signsto look for early in the disease are rough haircoat anddepression. As the disease progresses, the animal suffersabdominal and chest pains. The pigs show stretchingmovements with the front and hind limbs extendedparticularly when first aroused. Other signs are laboredbreathing, poor appetites and slight temperatureelevations. Pigs may lie on their chest rather than theirsides. Lameness and enlarged joints follow.
  45. 45. Prevention involves good sanitation in the farrowing house. Clipping navel cords and treating them with adisinfecting solution is helpful. A dry, warm, ventilated farrowing house isrecommended for controlling this disease. Injections of a combination of penicillin andstreptomycin will work well in the early stages of thedisease. When infection becomes well-established,complete recovery maybe impossible.
  46. 46. Porcine Reproductive andRespiratory Syndrome (PRRS) The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome(PRRS) is a relatively new disease that is caused by anarterivirus.
  47. 47. Clinical Signs: When the virus first enters the breeding herd, diseaseis seen in dry and lactating sows and suckling piglets.It has primarily reproductive and respiratorymanifestations. However, one of the early clinical signsinclude a blue discoloration of the ears, hence its earlyname "blue ear pig disease.“ ‘red eye symptom’
  48. 48. Supportive) Treatment vitamins high energy diet
  49. 49. Weak born piglets, stillbirthsand mummies due to PRRS
  50. 50. Diarrhea of Piglets While the consistency of manure may vary accordingto the diet fed, diarrhea maybe considered to occurwhen through small or large intestinal disease there isa change to a more fluid consistency than normal.Clinical signs associated with small intestinal diseasemay include vomiting, melena, poorly digested feedsand bulky voluminous feces. Vomiting seldomly occursin cases of large intestinal diseases, however, theremaybe bloody stools, gross mucus on the feces, smalland frequent defections and tenesmus.
  51. 51. Clinical signDiarrhea as the main clinical sign.Minimal other signs of gastrointestinaltract disease such as vomiting,anorexia, or colic.
  52. 52. Control and Treatment In commercial farms, routine vaccination of sows against E. coli is practicedcoupled with improved husbandry practices. On the other hand, it should bementioned that the immunity of piglets due to pre-farrowing vaccination isalso dependent on adequate colostrum and milk production. It is therefore very important to ensure adequate colostrum intake. As havebeen explained in the preceding discussions, colostrum contains antibodieswhich helps protects young piglets during their first few weeks of life. Naturalimmunization of gilts during the quarantine period will boost immunityagainst common farm pathogens. Further, corrections of environmental defects: improve ventilation (to avoiddraughty conditions); daily and routine cleaning; keep bedding dry and clean;keeping the creep area warm would greatly improve the resistance of youngpiglets. Postponement of scheduled piglet activities on weak piglets is alsoadvisable as these will give additional stress, further reducing their resistance.
  53. 53.  The administration of iron is also withheld if diarrhea is due to E. coli.The explanation is that this bacterium needs iron as a source ofnutrient for multiplication. Iron administered will then serve as anadditional food for them. On the other hand, consult your veterinarianfor proper diagnosis and recommendations. Electrolyte solution will help rehydrate the body fluids lost due toexcessive diarrhea. There are many commercially prepared electrolytesolution available in the market. In some cases, creep feed may causediarrhea, withheld creep feed if diarrhea occurs 1-3 days after theintroduction of feed. Lastly, evaluate the integrity of the sow. Sometimes the diarrhea ofpiglets is due to an infected milk of the sow, or inadequate milk flow(MMA syndrome, old sow). In such cases, have a closer look at the sowand check if it causes the problem, and if fostering is possible.
  54. 54. E. coli - "yellowish diarrhea"E.
  55. 55. Skin diseasesGreasy Pig Disease (Exudative Epidermitis)CausedThis is caused by infection of the skin withStaphylococcus.
  56. 56. Clinical sign: The disease starts with reddening of the skin thenbecomes wet and covered with crusts. It usually startsaround the head then spread over the body. It maysometimes resemble mange but the crust are easy toremove and the skin below is wet, rough and reddish.Pruritus is not common.
  57. 57. Prevention: Routine disinfection of nursery pens and farrowing cratesis recommended. Provide warm, dry, draft-freeenvironment. If lice or mange are evident, a controlprogram should be instituted. Early detection is necessaryfor successful eradication of exudative epidermitis.Therapeutic doses of penicillin or tetracycline injected 3-4days in the early stages of the disease may help. Once thelesion becomes extensive, it may help to bathe the animalwith mild soap and water or disinfectant solutions (iodineor chlorine).
  58. 58. Greasy Pig Disease
  59. 59. Internal Parasites Parasites are very small animals (insects, worms) that livepartly or completely in the bodies of other "host", animalsor plants. Sometimes, they can be seen by the naked eye,sometimes a microscope is needed, especially for theyounger life stages of the parasites. Internal and external parasites are of economic importanceto the swine industry. Actual death losses from parasitismare extremely low. However, the economic loss issignificant, if proper diagnosis, treatment and preventionare not carried out. By incorporating standard healthpractices for controlling internal and external parasites,you can help maximize your economic gain with healthyhogs.
  60. 60. ControlEggs of worms are very resistant. They sometimes remaininfectious for up to five years! Most disinfectants are not effectiveagainst worm eggs. What is important is to keep worm infestation atthe lowest possible level. As such, it is necessary to disrupt the life cycleof the parasites. This can be achieved in various ways: General hygiene, including regular cleaning and disinfection of thepens will minimize intake of infectious larvae of intestinal and kidneyworms. A good deworming program will kill adult intestinal worms. A proper disposal of human wastes to prevent infection with bladderworms. Rat and mice eradication programs and cooking of kitchen wastesprevent swine form infection with muscular worms. Confinement of animals prevents infection with lungworm. Thefrequency with which you need to deworm will depend upon housingconditions, types of floor and sanitation.
  61. 61. Ascaris suumIngested eggs go into the wall of the small intestine,where they hatch and release larva (immature adults). This larvaemigrate to the liver (where they cause "milk spots"), staying therefor approximately one week before traveling through the bloodstream onto the lungs. In the lungs they will be cough-up and thenswallowed. They go back again to the small intestine where theyfinally mature into adults. These adults then produce eggs that arepassed in the feces. Migration predisposes the animal to respiratoryinfections and a variety of enteric diseasesFemale worms hatched 200,000 eggs/day, which are passed throughthe feces. Under warm and moist conditions, these eggs areinfective within eight (8) weeks. Hosts ingest infective eggs and thecycle continues.
  62. 62. Matured ascaris
  63. 63. Whipworm
  64. 64. Respiratory problemSWINE INFLUENZA(Swine flu, flu, influenza)Swine influenza virus belongs to Influenza virus type A.The incubation period is from 1-3 days or can be asshort as 4 hours.
  65. 65. Clinical Signs all ages are susceptible but more common among growers andfatteners rapid onset of disease, 1-3 days after the introduction of the virus(or infected animal) fattening animals develop sneezing, nasal and eye discharge andcoughing often associated with arched back animals tend to huddle together and show rapid and laboredbreathing especially when they are forced to move fever may reach 42oC so there is inactivity, depression and loss ofappetite resulting to weight loss recovery is rapid, about 7 days after the onset and mortality isvery low (1%) unless there is another infection
  66. 66. Stress factors moving pigs mixing pigs poor isolation facilities marked diurnal temperature – p.m. overstocking
  67. 67. Treatment Antibiotics are used to suppress secondary bacterialcomplications (e.g. Pasteurella). Antibiotics areadministered either via water or injectable, in-feedmedication is not recommended because affected pigsare recumbent and have very poor appetite.
  68. 68. Swine Influenza
  69. 69. MYCOPLASMA HYOPNEUMONIA(Mycoplasmal Pneumonia of Swine MPS; Enzootic Pneumonia of Swine, EPS) Transmission is primarily from pig-to-pig althoughlong range aerosol transmission is possible. Clinicalsigns within the herd are dependent on the degree ofinfection, contributing pathogens and environmentalstress. Many producers are utilizing all-in-all-outsystem for the farrowing and nursery units.
  70. 70. Clinical Signs few pigs show specific symptoms, but Mycoplasmapaves the way for other disease condition such asActinobacillosis or Pasteurellosis which would make itmore fatal typical is a short, dry cough low mortality, but effect is more on the growth of theanimal with very high feed conversion ratio
  71. 71. Infection in Piglets the newborn piglets become infected from their motherduring birth or first days of life, but due to colostralimmunity, signs appear 2-3 weeks after weaning only if a newborn does not get enough colostrum (e.g. due toMMA), or does not get it in time, signs develop at the age of2-4 weeks morbidity reaches highest level (40%-60%) at the age of 4-6 months, and thereafter the diseased animals decline, ifthere are no complications
  72. 72. Treatment Since Mycoplasma is often complicated by Pasteurella,Actinobacillus and Bordetella, application ofcombined drugs with a wide spectrum isrecommended. Use of vaccines reduce lungs lesions withimprovement of weight gain, however no reduction inthe number of Mycoplasma was observed. use of drugs or vaccine should always be combinedwith an improvement in hygienic conditions.
  73. 73. Mycoplasma hyopneumonia
  74. 74. ACTINOBACILLUS (HEMOPHILUS)PLEUROPNEUMONIA Subclinical carriers of App are the primary cause ofoutbreaks. Serology (30 samples) from pigs at 7-8weeks of age is important to determine if App carriersare present. Positive results from these animalsindicate: a recent infection, presence of carriers and ininactive infection in the herd.
  75. 75. Clinical Signs low feed intake coupled with high fever serious breathing difficulties resulting to suddendeath, or sometimes death within hours bloody froth from the mouth/nose immediatelybefore/after death severe damage on growing-finishing farms: marketpigs show inflamed pleura (pleuritis)
  76. 76. Predisposing Factors draught mixing/regrouping of pigs origin of fatteners - different farms bad micro-climate coupled with high air velocity over-stocking
  77. 77. Control Antibiotics Vaccination Depopulation/Eradication.
  78. 78. Site of lesions (Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia)
  79. 79. ATROPHIC RHINITIS Caused by toxins produced by Pasteurella multocida,these bacteria adhere to the cells of the nose causingdegeneration of the turbinate bones resulting totwisted snouts. Other viruses and bacteria, inparticular Bordetella bronchiseptica. together withammonia, dust and cold air all damage the lining ofthe nose allowing Pasteurella to colonize the nose. Ascoring system in the slaughterhouse is used in foreigncountries to determine extent of damage.
  80. 80. Control strategies Antibiotics. First and foremost, proper testing is requiredto determine drug sensitivity of the bacteria. Antibioticssuch as oxytetracycline and sulfonamides can be used infeed medication in the last month of pregnancy to controlthe shedding of bacteria from the sow to her subsequentlitter. Injectables are sometimes used on piglet programconsisting of three to four injections in the first 21-28 daysof life. Vaccination. The vaccination program is targeted to protectpiglets before infection. Vaccinate sows before farrowingwith a vaccine containing the appropriate toxin. It must begiven 2 weeks prior to natural exposure to bacteria.
  81. 81. Note the twisted snout (Atrophicrhinitis)
  82. 82. MISCELLANEOUS CONDITIONSPARAKERATOSIS.The major portion of this pigsskin is wrinkled especially on the abdomenand legs. It does not appear to be irritating tothe pig, although if there is secondary mangeinfection, irritation will occur. Most considerthis as zinc deficiency, but mineral imbalancesinvolving calcium play an important role.
  84. 84. STAPHYLOCOCCAL INFECTIONON LACTATING SOWSCan easily lead to mastitis and irritationof the sow causing its refusalto let her piglets suckle.
  86. 86. STAPHYLOCOCCAL INFECTION.This can easily be mistaken for mangeproblem. The characteristiclesion is one of pus-filled insect bite-likewounds.
  88. 88. ACUTE PERITONITIS.On opening the abdominal cavity, a greenish wateryfluid with strands and sheets of fibrin escaped. Theviscera, especially the intestine, has bunched up fromthe irritating peritoneal fluid which is usually gastricfluid and bile. Maybe due to a chronic illness orascarid infection which punctured or damaged thebiliary system (gall bladder).
  90. 90. FIBRINOUS PERITONITISMany strands and clumps of fibrin are scattered inthe abdominal cavity. A castration wound is justvisible between the legs. This might be the source ofinfection and the most probable point of entry is theinguinal canal. Without an accountable wound, oneshould suspect Hemophilus spp. (Glassers disease) in apoly serositis case.
  92. 92. AURAL HEMATOMA. Before (left) and after (right) the hematomadisappears. Such conditions maybe due to fightinginjuries or circulatory failure. The conditiondisappears by itself and it would help if the affectedanimal will be isolated.
  94. 94. VULVAR FISTULAE.Usually caused by injuries. On pregnant animal,there will be difficulty in farrowing, while on dry sows,this could lead to an internal infection.
  96. 96. IMPERFORATE ANUS. The piglet has been partially necropsied to explainthe cut tissue in the lower part. The area just abovethe tail should be open. In this anomaly, theproctodeum (anus) did not open. On female animal,megacolon may develop and may survive. Thiscondition is to be differentiated from atresia recti inwhich the rectal lumen is constricted more cranially inthe GI tract allowing insertion of a finger or bluntinstrument into the anus, at least as far up as theconstriction.
  98. 98. LEG WOUNDS/ABRASIONS.Due to rough floors, weak piglets or perhapsinsufficient milk. Later on, it could lead to arthritis,pneumonia or meningitis, or simply unthrifty animal.
  100. 100.  Facial wounds caused by faulty toothclippingtechnique. This can leadto greasy pig disease, if not, death of piglet can happendue to massive infection.
  101. 101. EPISTAXIS (Nosebleed).
  102. 102. EPISTAXIS (Nosebleed).In living or recently dead animals, one should suspectthings such as trauma, foreign bodies, atrophicrhinitis, pneumonia or even bleeding gastric ulcerswith vomiting when one sees relatively fresh blood orblood mixed with mucus or froth from the nose ormouth. It can also be seen with extreme exertion anddyspnea.
  103. 103. EPISTAXIS (Nosebleed).
  104. 104. GASTRIC TORSION.The abdomen was well distended and tense prior toopening in a recently dead animal. The spleen is seenhere on the right side which is abnormal and theintestine and stomach are gas-filled. This conditionregularly occurs on pregnant sow.
  105. 105. GASTRIC TORSION.
  106. 106. RECTAL PROLAPSE.Rectal prolapse in a farrowing sow. The animalrecovered after replacement of the prolapse.
  107. 107. RECTAL PROLAPSE.
  108. 108. RECTAL PROLAPSERectal prolapse in a 16-kg. weaner, two days after onset.
  110. 110. CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, HOG CHOLERAHog cholera is one of the most commonlyoccurring viral disease in South East Asia and thePacific Region affecting all ages of pigs. The disease iscaused by a virus under the Family Togaviridae.
  111. 111. Importance of Hog Cholera Hog cholera is one of the most economically-damaging pandemic viral diseases of pigs in the world. In a susceptible or unvaccinated herd almost all thepigs are affected. Mortality is high. There is only one serotype of the virus, and attenuatedvaccines are highly effective. Also, it does not spreadon the wind or on insects or birds, so standardprecautions of farm biosecurity should keep it out.However, it persists in uncooked and cured meat.
  112. 112. Mode of Infection Infection usually occurs via the oro-nasal route andoccasionally through the conjunctiva, genital mucosaor skin lesions. The infection is classified into three (3)categories. They are acute, chronic or persistent andcongenital infection. Usually, clinical signs appearafter 2-6 days of incubation. Chronic or persistentinfection is usually caused by low to moderatevirulence viruses. Pigs my survive the infectionshowing prolonged and intermittent disease periods.There can be clinical improvement, relapse or death.
  113. 113. Clinical Signs Clinical signs and symptoms in suckling piglets and growing pigs willbe discussed in Module 6 (Fattener Operation - Health) of this course.The chronic and persistent type of infection will be discussed in somedetail in this section since it affects breeder animals. The virus can cross the placenta and infect the piglets in the sow’suterus. If the virus crosses the placenta before the piglets’ immunesystems have developed, the following may happen: They may be born apparently healthy although possibly weak. They may grow on to be persistent carriers without at first showingclinical signs. They shed virus, so they are dangerous to other pigs. At several weeks or months of age, they may develop typical clinicalsigns. These are likely to be milder, last longer and without thecharacteristic high temperatures.
  114. 114. Prevention and Control Importation of breeders, pork or pork products fromcountries positive with hog cholera should beprohibited. Kitchen left-overs from aircrafts and shipsshould not be used as pig feeds and has to bedestroyed. Vaccination is widely practiced in all countries withhog cholera using the modified live virus vaccine.Thorough cleaning and disinfection should be done.NO PRACTICAL TREATMENT AGAINST HOGCHOLERA VIRUS.
  115. 115. Hog CholeraPigs affected with hog cholera appear weak, staggering and tend to sit like a dog.
  116. 116. PSEUDORABIES/AUJESKY’SDISEASE Pseudorabies or Aujesky’s Disease is a herpes virusinfection characterized by nervous and respiratorysigns associated with a rise in temperature and oftenleading to death in young pigs. Infection in adultsmaybe inapparent or associated with stillbirth orabortion.
  117. 117. Clinical signs: Piglets - Clinical signs begin 3-7 days after infection. Pigletsmay vomit and may show diarrhea and then becomedepressed with trembling and nervous symptoms (circling,dog-sitting position, spasms, opisthotonos, head pressing)and death within 24 hours. Adults - Up to 50% of affected pregnant animals abort orgive birth to mummified or macerated fetuses.Reproductive failure may follow these abortions or earlyweaning consequent upon death of a litter. Boars may beaffected. Semen quality declines from 10-14 days post-infection for 1-2 weeks. Sperm abnormalities may occur
  118. 118. Treatment and Control No treatment is possible at present. Antibiotics will prevent secondaryinfections particularly of the respiratory system and also reducebacterial damage. Routine vaccination is recommended in enzootic and high risk areas.There is only one main serotype of the pseudorabies virus whichproduces a strong long-lasting immunity. Vaccinated pigs can becomeinfected, but multiplication of the virus in the pigs tissues is limited,and so less is shed into the environment. Vaccination also prevents thevirus from crossing the placenta of pregnant sows to infect the unbornpiglets. Piglets, which are suckling from vaccinated sows, receive colostralprotection which lasts about 6-8 weeks. This is the age when thevirulent pseudorabies virus would do most damage. During this timethe pigs cannot be vaccinated successfully because the maternalantibodies neutralize the vaccine virus before it has had time tostimulate an immunity (see p. 43 for vaccination schedule).
  119. 119. Measures to aid in diseaseeradication proper disposal of dead pigs (burning or burying) buying of tested breeding stocks and isolation for at least30 days avoid buying feeder pigs if breeder stocks are being raised getting of feeder pigs from a farm that did not have thedisease keeping visitors away from swine premises keeping stray dogs, cats and wildlife off the premises5 keeping swine and cattle separate isolation of show stock for 30 days after the fair is over
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