EMBEDDED SYSTEMS???? BY. RUCHI SHARMA BVCOE NEW DELHI
• In order to avoid or reduce road accidents this module can be placed in automobile vehicles.• Sensors acts as a Neuron for the detection of an obstacle.• The NN is the multilayer feed-forward network with back propagation training algorithm.• Uses Tangent-sigmoid function.
What is• An Embedded system is an applied computer system.• “Embedded system", it constantly evolves with advances in technology and dramatic decreases in the cost of implementing various hardware and software components.• Embedded systems have become very important today as they control many of the common devices we use.• An embedded system is some combination of computer hardware and software, either fixed in capability or programmable, that is specifically designed for a particular kind of application device.
APPLICATIONS OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM:• We are surrounded with many embedded products and your daily life largely depends on the proper functioning of these gadgets.• Apart from all these, many controllers embedded in a car it take care of car operations between the bumpers and most of the times you tend to ignore all these controllers.• Consumer applications: Office automation:
Industrial automation: Today a lot of industries are using embedded systems for process control. Computer networking: Embedded systems are used as bridges routers etc..
Block diagram IR SENSOR1 IR SENSOR2 LCD IR SENSOR3 MICRO IR SENSOR4 MICRO CONTROLLER CONTROLLER IR SENSOR5 REGULATED REGULATED POWER POWER SUPPLY SUPPLY IR SENSOR6 DRIVER DRIVER IC IC DC DC MOTOR MOTOR
Rps• Here we can use Ac as well as Dc• For Ac we use a circuit in order convert it to DC through We Basically use a SMF (sealed maintenance free) battery, its a type of lead acid battery, which are rechargeable with specifications 12v,1.3AH and 0.58 kgs
Micro controller• The microcontroller used in this project is Atmel AT89S52 AT89S52: •8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory •4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range •256 x 8-bit Internal RAM •32 Programmable I/O Lines •Three 16-bit Timer/Counters •Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes •Fast Programming Time •Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Mode) •Green (Pb/Halide-free) Packaging Option •Auto Erase before writing and Auto Verify after writing
IR sensors• An electronic device that emits and/or detects infrared radiation in order to sense some aspect of its surroundings• Infrared sensors can measure the heat of an object, as well as detect motion. An infrared emitter is an LED made from gallium arsenide, which emits near- infrared energy at about 880nm.
IR transmitter Infra red transmitter emits IR rays in planar wave front manner It propagates along straight line in forward direction. IR rays have the characteristics of producing secondary wavelets when it collides with any obstacles in its path. This property of IR is used here.IR Transmitter Diode
IR receiverInfrared photo receiver is a two terminal PN junction device, which operates in a reverse bias.
Working of Infrared communication• The transmitter section consists of a 555 timer IC functioning in astable mode. The output from astable mode is fed to an IR LED via resistor which limits its operating current.• Infrared LED in the transmitter section emits IR radiation which is focused by a plastic lens (optics) into a narrow beam.• The device works best when well shielded from abient light, and when the distance between the sensor and the reflective surface is small(less than 5mm).
LCD DISPLAY• A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat electronic visual display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals.
• •Display construction……16 Characters * 2 Lines• •Display type………Positive Transflective• •Operating temperature………Indoor• •Driving voltage………………Single power• •Type……………………COB (Chip On Board)• •Number of data line……8-bit parallel• •Connector……………Pin
DRIVER ICL293D Dual H-Bridge Motor Driver Here with one IC we can interface two DC motors which can be controlled in both clock wise and anti clock wise directions L293D has an output current of 600mA and peak output current of 1.2A per channel. The output supply has a wide range from 4.5 V to 36V, which has made L293D as the best choice for DC motor Driver.
Some other Hardware components Used: Wheels: Two Free wheels are used at back side they are High quality Plastic Tracked Wheel for motors with 6 mm diameter. And one free moving wheel is placed in the front of the body ( Mettalic Cache Body) Buzzer A buzzer or beeper is an audio signaling device, which may be mechanical, electromechanical, or Piezoelectric.
AND Gate IC(DM74LS2IN) Preset Here we used an open style preset to set the frequency or the sensitivity of light .
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES• Obstacle can be easily notified with IR sensors so that we can avoid accidents• These are the cheapest sensors when compared to the remaining sensors •Most infrared sensors must be lined up or they will not work. •It needs a direct line of sight between the transmitter and receiver. For example, it doesnt work through walls or doors.
• In future By using Ultrasonic sensors works on a principle similar to radar or sonar, Ultrasonic sensors generate high frequency sound waves and evaluate the echo which is received back by the sensor. So we can overcome the disadvantages seen here .
• By constructing this module inside a car we can have a safe journey under driver guidance, and most of the vehicle accidents can be avoided