Prostate cancer for public awareness by DR RUBZ


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A presentation prepared for Charity Dinner with Fun Charity. All the profits of the event will go to FReHA (a NGO which supports women's and reproductive health.)

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Prostate cancer for public awareness by DR RUBZ

  1. 1. By DR RABIA BAZEER Presented on Charity Dinner Date: 29th March 2014 Venue: Paradox Art Cafe PROSTATE CANCER Supported by
  2. 2. WHAT IS PROSTATE? WHERE IS THE PROSTATE? WHO HAS PROSTATE? FEMALE? NO! IT IS A MALE ORGAN!!!  It is a male sex gland  A size of walnut / langsat  Located in front of rectum, behind the base of the penis, below the bladder.  Surrounds the urethra  Main function is seminal fluid production. Seminal fluid aids in transportation, protection and nutrition of sperm
  3. 3.  In Malaysia it is the sixth most frequent cancer and it accounts for 5.7 per cent of cancer cases in males. The most common type of cancer in men after lung cancer  Very few prostate cancers occur in men under 50 years of age. The rate increases sharply with age and is highest in the oldest age group.  Chinese record the highest incidence of prostate cancer compared to Malays and Indians.  Can grow slowly and not be detected for years  Most men with advanced stages respond to treatment well  Studies have shown that men who masturbate have a lower risk of getting prostate cancer
  4. 4. RISK FACTOR  Age: (If you live long enough, you will be get prostate cancer) Prostate cancer is rarely found in men younger than 45. The chance of getting it gets higher as a man gets older. Most men diagnosed with prostate cancer are older than 65.  Race: African American> Asian but in Malaysia Chinese >Indian > Malay  Family history: A man's risk is 2 to 3 times higher if his father or brother had prostate cancer. 2 relatives has prostate cancer – 5 times the risk, more than 3 relatives has prostate cancer – guaranteed to have prostate cancer!!!  Diet and obesity: Studies suggest that men who eat a diet high in red meat and fat have a higher risk for prostate cancer. Men who are overweight may be more likely to die of it. Men who eat a diet rich in fruits and vegetables may have a lower risk.
  5. 5. Early Stage  Pain at genital, lower abdomen and lower back  trouble having an erection, or pain when semen comes out of the penis (ejaculation)  Painful, frequent and urgent urination especially at night.  trouble starting or stopping the flow of urine  weak flow of urine  blood in the urine or semen  pain or burning when you urinate Late stage  frequent pain in the lower back, hips, or upper thighs (usually because of a spread of the cancer beyond the prostate gland)  Loss in energy  Persistent swelling in legs  Hard growth on prostate  Enlarged lymph nodes SIGN AND SYMPTOMS PROSTATE CANCER OFTEN HAS NO SYMPTOMS, ESPECIALLY IN THE EARLY STAGES. These symptoms can be caused by other problems, such as infection or an enlarged prostate, also called benign prostatic hypertrophy or BPH. BPH is a growth of the prostate that is not caused by cancer. It’s normal for men to have BPH as they get older. If you have any of the signs or symptoms listed above, you should see your healthcare provider so that problems can be diagnosed and treated as early as possible.
  6. 6.  But I’m healthy and in a good shape. Do I really need my prostate examined?  If you are over 50, YES you do! But even if you are over 40, precaution is always better.
  7. 7. INVESTIGATION AND EXAMINATION Stage 1: ANNUAL Digital rectal examination  Your doctor will a lubricated glove ,a finger into your rectum.  He will try to feel for enlargement, lumps and tenderness of prostate. Prostate cancers feel very hard compared to normal prostate tissue  Remember : An early detection is VITAL for survival!
  8. 8. Second stage: Prostate specific antigen (PSA,a product of the prostate inner lining in the blood) testing ELEVATION in PSA level could be a SIGN of abnormal cell multification in the prostate .
  9. 9. Stage 3: Prostatic biopsy.  If you have a sign, symptom, or test that suggests prostate cancer, your provider will likely recommend a test called a transrectal biopsy.  For this test your healthcare provider inserts a needle through the rectum into the prostate. A piece of prostate tissue is removed to look for cancer cells. It is the only sure way to diagnose prostate cancer. If a biopsy shows cancer cells, you will have other tests, such as a bone scan, CT scan, or MRI, to see if the cancer has spread and help decide how to treat it.
  10. 10. STAGES
  11. 11. TREATMENT  Depends on stage,on how aggressive the tumor is, whether it has spread to other parts of the body, your symptoms, your overall health, and your age.  More than one method can be used simultaneously  Median survival in excess of five years can be expected  If the cancer has spread to the other organs, current therapy will not cure it. Median survival is usually one to three years.
  12. 12. METHODS OF TREATMENT  Surgery – removal of cancer cells and surrounding lymph nodes (to avoid metastasis, may cause urinary incontinence and sexual side effects; )  Radiation therapy – use of high energy x-ray’s to destroy cancer cells. Can be done by ether – external beam (outside the body), IMRT (intensity modulated radiation therapy – small beams aimed at the cancer from different angles) or Brachytherapy (insertion or radioactive pellets into the prostate)  Hormone therapy - reduction of testosterone to reduce cancer growth  Chemotherapy – last resort and non specific. Use of Paclitaxek, Estracyte and Cyclophosphamide
  13. 13. SIDE EFFECTS OF TREATMENT  Fatigue  Redness, dryness of prostate  Rash around prostrate  Sexual side effects (inability to “perform”)  Pain  Urination problems
  14. 14. How can I help prevent prostate cancer? Because the cause of prostate cancer is not known, doctors don’t know how to prevent it. However, researchers are actively studying possible methods of prevention, such as diet, supplements, and drugs. Remember: Prostate cancer is a treatable disease. However, its management can be complex. It is important that patients are offered various treatment options and play a role in the decision-making process. This can only be done by consulting both the urologist and the oncologist.
  15. 15. Get your self tested!