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Funduscopy
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Funduscopy

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  • 1. FUNDUSCOPY <ul><li>NURAIN8118 </li></ul>
  • 2. NORMAL <ul><li>Examine the:- </li></ul><ul><li>Optic disc </li></ul><ul><li>- colour </li></ul><ul><li>- margin </li></ul><ul><li>- cup to disc ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Vessels </li></ul><ul><li>- colour </li></ul><ul><li>- caliber </li></ul><ul><li>- content </li></ul><ul><li>Macula & fovea </li></ul><ul><li>Background retina </li></ul>
  • 3. SENILE MACULAR DEGENERATION <ul><li>Senile macula degeneration. The disc appears normal but there is unusual pigmentation at the macula. This patient also has drusen which are asymptomatic nodules occurring in the choroids. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>
  • 4. CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION <ul><li>Central retinal vein occlusion. Typical 'stormy sunset' appearance with engorged veins with haemorrhages alongside them. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>
  • 5. HYPERTENSIVE RETINOPATHY <ul><li>Hypertensive retinopathy. The retinal arteries have become narrow and tortuous. In more advanced cases haemorrhages and 'star burst' exudates occur together with papilloedema. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>
  • 6. PAPILLOEDEMA <ul><li>Papilloedema. The disc is swollen and the disc margin has disappeared. The veins are congested. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>
  • 7. DISC CUPPING <ul><li>Disc cupping. Here the degree of cupping is mild but suggestive of glaucoma. As the condition progresses the optic disc becomes pale and the cup wider and deeper. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>
  • 8. OPTIC ATROPHY <ul><li>Optic atrophy. The optic disc is pale and the condition is associated with gradual loss of vision. It may be secondary to a number of conditions including glaucoma, retinal damage, ischaemia and poisoning. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>
  • 9. MILD BACKGROUND DIABETIC RETINOPATHY <ul><li>Mild background diabetic retinopathy. Haemorrhages and microaneurysms can be seen. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>
  • 10. BACKGROUND DIABETIC RETINOPATHY <ul><li>Background diabetic retinopathy. There are areas of hard exudates and some evidence of macula involvement. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>
  • 11. PREPROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY <ul><li>Preproliferative diabetic retinopathy with haemorrhages, microaneurysms, and hard and soft exudates. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>
  • 12. PREPROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY <ul><li>Preproliferative diabetic retinopathy with extensive haemorrhages and exudate formation and a preretinal (subhyaloid) haemorrhage. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>
  • 13. PROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY <ul><li>Proliferative diabetic retinopathy with new vessel formation. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>
  • 14. LASER PHOTOCOAGULATION <ul><li>Diabetic retinopathy recently treated with laser photocoagulation. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP: NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM: FINDING </li></ul>

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