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Functional Composition of Sensor Web APIs

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  • 1. Functional CompositionRuben Verborgh et al. of Sensor Web APIs
  • 2. ?What makes people SMART
  • 3. Collaboration.
  • 4. ?What makes sensors SMART
  • 5. Collaboration.
  • 6. Smart collaborationsrun themselves. manual sensor composition intelligence comes from humans automatic sensor composition intelligence comes from the system
  • 7. My research is aboutintelligent Web APIs. Ruben Verborgh, PhD Student Ghent University / iMinds My dream: intelligent agents browsing the Web for us Bridging between people and things bringing things to the Web
  • 8. Functional composition of sensor Web APIs { Capturing functionality Creating compositions Evaluating feasibility
  • 9. Functional composition of sensor Web APIs { Capturing functionality Creating compositions Evaluating feasibility
  • 10. Why describe functionality?
  • 11. Only functionalitytells the whole story.
  • 12. How to capture the functionalityof these sensors? GPS device determines current location temperature sensor reads current temperature pressure sensor reads current air pressure
  • 13. We model sensorsas Web APIs. Web APIs = HTTP APIs = REST APIs as opposed to “Big” Web services resource-oriented Sensor measurements are resources location temperature air pressure
  • 14. We capture the functionalityof Web APIs with RESTdesc. RESTdesc describes the functionality of hypermedia-driven APIs with Notation3 (an RDF superset).
  • 15. RESTdesc can describea temperature sensor. ! ""#$%&$(")"%*+,%-.%()/0(%1%&$(2 """"""""""%*+34)/5&"#34)/5&6 7 89 ! "":+(%;0%$/"<//.+-%/<=>)-%"?@A,?2 """"""""""""<//.+(%;0%$/BCD"#$%&$(2 """"""""""""<//.+(%$."E"<//.+F=G"#/%-.%()/0(%"H6 "" ""#34)/5&"%*+<)$,%-.%()/0(%"#/%-.%()/0(%6 76
  • 16. RESTdesc can describea temperature sensor. ! ""#$%&$(")"%*+,%-.%()/0(%1%&$(2 """"""""""%*+34)/5&"#34)/5&6 7 89 ! "":+(%;0%$/"<//.+-%/<=>)-%"?@A,?2 """"""""""""<//.+(%;0%$/BCD"#$%&$(2 """"""""""""<//.+(%$."E"<//.+F=G"#/%-.%()/0(%"H6 "" ""#34)/5&"%*+<)$,%-.%()/0(%"#/%-.%()/0(%6 76
  • 17. RESTdesc can describea temperature sensor. ! ""#$%&$(")"%*+,%-.%()/0(%1%&$(2 """"""""""%*+34)/5&"#34)/5&6 7 89 ! ""8+(%90%$/"://.+-%/:;<)-%"=>?,=2 """"""""""""://.+(%90%$/@AB"#$%&$(2 """"""""""""://.+(%$."C"://.+D;E"#/%-.%()/0(%"F6 "" ""#34)/5&"%*+<)$,%-.%()/0(%"#/%-.%()/0(%6 76
  • 18. RESTdesc can describea temperature sensor. ! ""#$%&$(")"%*+,%-.%()/0(%1%&$(2 """"""""""%*+34)/5&"#34)/5&6 7 89 ! "":+(%;0%$/"<//.+-%/<=>)-%"?@A,?2 """"""""""""<//.+(%;0%$/BCD"#$%&$(2 """"""""""""<//.+(%$."E"<//.+F=G"#/%-.%()/0(%"H6 "" ""#34)/5&"%*+:)$,%-.%()/0(%"#/%-.%()/0(%6 76
  • 19. RESTdesc provides simplefunctional descriptions. Hypermedia-driven no inputs or outputs, just links Capture functionality relationship between resources Rule-based logic implication
  • 20. Functional composition of sensor Web APIs { Capturing functionality Creating compositions Evaluating feasibility
  • 21. Why compose Web APIs? To answer a query by combining multiple APIs. Queries can be complex, APIs not necessarily known in advance.
  • 22. “Reserve a table in a nearby restaurant. If weather allows, I want to sit outside.”
  • 23. What APIs do we haveat our disposition? Suppose we have many APIs, including: Location API Temperature API Pressure API Restaurant API
  • 24. What would a candidate solution lookoflike? Web a Functional Composition Sensor T I L R G P “Reserve a table in Location APIbining the Location, Temperature, Pressure, and Restauran a nearby restaurant. Temperature API dependencies, we can reach the Goal from the Initial state If weather allows, Pressure API I want to sit outside.” Restaurant API
  • 25. RESTdesc descriptions enableautomated composition. RESTdesc descriptions are rules Rules support inference Rules can be chained
  • 26. Does this compositionsatisfy the goal?{ } Since descriptions are rules, =>{ } success is defined as entailment.
  • 27. If success is entailment,the proof is the composition.{ } => The proof of the entailment{ }{ } contains the used rules, =>{ } thus the needed API requests.
  • 28. A semantic Web reasoner can create the composition. Functional Composition of Sensor Web a { } => { } { } { } => => { } T { } I L R G P “Reserve a table in { => } Location APIbiningnearby restaurant. { } Temperature API a the Location, Temperature, Pressure, and Restauran Pressure API dependencies, we can reach the Goal from the Initial state If weather allows, I want to sit outside.” Restaurant API
  • 29. RESTdesc composing behavesas a good Semantic Web citizen. works with generic semantic reasoners RESTdesc descriptions are rules no specific knowledge needed ontologies fill gaps domain-independent
  • 30. Functional composition of sensor Web APIs { Capturing functionality Creating compositions Evaluating feasibility
  • 31. Does it scale?
  • 32. Reasoner-based methodsare often thought of as slow. partly perception limit reasoner experience partly the method translation into reasoner domain
  • 33. We tested composition chainsfor performance. n APIs with 1/2/3 dependencies to test chaining speed 32 APIs in presence of n dummies to test discrimination speed
  • 34. RESTdesc composition is so fastthat it works on Web scale. chain of 512 APIs with 1 dependency in 0.4 seconds chain of 512 APIs with 3 dependencies in 1.6 seconds chain of 32 APIs with 512 dummies in 0,01 seconds
  • 35. Efficient implementationson Arduino boards. simple sensors as Web APIs described with RESTdesc central composer
  • 36. RESTdesc is an automated solutionfor sensor Web API composition. Describe REST Web APIs Use Semantic Web logic Compose with generic reasoners
  • 37. RESTdesc automatically composes sensor Web APIs. Curious? Let’s get in touch! Visit restdesc.org and connect to @RubenVerborgh on Twitter.