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TELEMEDICINE AND HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
TELEMEDICINE AND HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
TELEMEDICINE AND HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
TELEMEDICINE AND HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
TELEMEDICINE AND HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
TELEMEDICINE AND HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
TELEMEDICINE AND HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
TELEMEDICINE AND HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
TELEMEDICINE AND HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
TELEMEDICINE AND HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
TELEMEDICINE AND HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
TELEMEDICINE AND HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
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TELEMEDICINE AND HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

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The world now driving by the ICT(information and communication technologies) based services, which include innovation, several applications in industries, such as financial services, telecom and IT, …

The world now driving by the ICT(information and communication technologies) based services, which include innovation, several applications in industries, such as financial services, telecom and IT, media and in health care industry. The most important critical questions concerns the organizing of service innovations processes is high-tech research, service innovation and the project management research, thus there is a need for more empirical research to understand and manage ICT based service innovations. Telemedicine uses ICTs to defeat environmental barriers, and increase access to health care services. This is particularly beneficial for rural and underserved communities in developing countries, the traditionally groups suffer from lack of access to health care[1].
Telemedicine is a service in this whole process it will providing medical expertise and health services to remote, rural, and transport less area communities in primary care, and in emergency conditions with the help of telecommunications. In telemedicine are will give continuous medical monitoring for many purposes like physicians needing to early diagnosis of depression or sports persons need to monitor their condition and performance. [Baker et al. 2007; Boric-Lubecke and Lubecke 2002;Varshney 2007].

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  • plz write your contact and communicactionaddress emailid contact number.plz.
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  • kim dear, i bless you, you though a not fair in complex very fair in life be enthusiast to carry on the spirit and dignify your life with service to mankind.
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  • thanks to kim dear p-lz contact me on 91 8594956443,or 9861157599,hinasamal5059@gmail.com for forum discussion.we want telemedicine be a global revolution
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  • Rubashkyn on 14.1.2013 lunched this site very praiseworthy work. plz make it in ppp mode with a resolution to open bank account to be approved and audited
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  • 1. TELEMEDICINE AND HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES Final Report -Assignment submitted to Prof: Hsin-Tsai Wen Department of health care Administration Taipei Medical University By Alexander B. Rubashkyn & Vanitha Paramasivam Health Care Administration Taipei Medical University Date:14/Jan/2013
  • 2. Introduction The world now driving by the ICT(information and communicationtechnologies) based services, which include innovation, several applications inindustries, such as financial services, telecom and IT, media and in health careindustry. The most important critical questions concerns the organizing ofservice innovations processes is high-tech research, service innovation and theproject management research, thus there is a need for more empirical research tounderstand and manage ICT based service innovations. Telemedicine uses ICTsto defeat environmental barriers, and increase access to health care services.This is particularly beneficial for rural and underserved communities indeveloping countries, the traditionally groups suffer from lack of access tohealth care[1]. Telemedicine is a service in this whole process it will providing medicalexpertise and health services to remote, rural, and transport less areacommunities in primary care, and in emergency conditions with the help oftelecommunications. In telemedicine are will give continuous medicalmonitoring for many purposes like physicians needing to early diagnosis ofdepression or sports persons need to monitor their condition and performance.[Baker et al. 2007; Boric-Lubecke and Lubecke 2002;Varshney 2007]. Telemedicine is the use of electronic communications and informationtechnologies to provide clinical services when participants are at differentlocations. They closely associated with telemedicine is the term Telehealth. It isfacilitated by access to an interoperable EHR that can allow the consultant to
  • 3. review and evaluate all of the necessary information about the patient prior toand while the patient is being seen.[2]Definition: Telemedicine can be defined as providing proper medication and healthtips through the physicians by using the latest technology such astelecommunication or wireless, and it could be explained as the delivery ofhealth care services, where distance is a critical factor, by all health careprofessionals using information and communication technologies for theexchange of valid information for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseaseand injuries, research and evaluation, and for the continuing education of healthcare providers, all in the interests of advancing the health of individuals andtheir communities [3].And it can be divide in to three types Direct patient care,Tele-consultation and Distant learning[4]Characterization of telemedicine: (a) Geographic separation between client and provider) The use oftelecommunication technologies to establish communication and interactionbetween client and provider to enhance clinical functions) An underlying systemfor the delivery of care to be developed, including a division of labor andspecialization among the providers and staff; and) Clinical maintenance andoperational functions within the system which are specifically designed for thismode of operation. Image acquisition, storage, display, processing and transport form oneparticular, common aspect of telemedicine and are becoming an integral part ofhealth care services in several countries including the USA, UK, Canada, Italy,Germany, Japan, Greece and Norway. Thus one of the simplest applications oftelemedicine is teleradiology where images are transmitted to remotedestinations . At present, there are around 8,000 such units worldwide.
  • 4. Telemedicine does not represent a separate medical specialty; rather it is a tool that can be used by health providers to extend the traditional practice of medicine outside the walls of the typical medical practice. In addition, telemedicine offers a means to help transform healthcare itself by encouraging greater consumer involvement in decision making and providing new approaches to maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Origins and History: In 1920s, radio to link physicians and stations situated in shores to givemedical care in ships by 1930s AT&T experiments linking television andtelephone, in 1960s National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)telemedicine introduces when Human monitory like blood pressures and pulsesrates. In 1970s Developments of Satellite technology. In Alaskan and Canadianremotes areas linked with hospitals to different town and cities. In 1988 USAphysician providing consultations remotely in the Armenian earthquake (USSR),to transcended political, cultural, economic and social barriers to give medicalconsultation. In 1990s interest have increased with the development of medicaldevices and the Internet network like hospitals, clinics and schools, after 1990advance in Telemedicine by leaps and bounds. In 1994, the medical centreconducted video, and the telemedicine stated in advanced like capturing imagesdata in digital electronic type with high bandwidth, and high speed[5-6]. In thelast two or three years telemedicine has leaps and bounds.Telemedicine Purpose Specialist referral services typically involve a specialist assisting a general practitioner in rendering a diagnosis. This may involve a patient “seeing” a specialist over a live, remote consult or the transmission of diagnostic images and/or video along with patient data to a specialist for viewing later.
  • 5. Direct patient care such as sharing audio, video and medical databetween a patient and a health professional for use in rendering a diagnosis,treatment plan, prescription or advice. This might involve patients located at aremote clinic, a physician’s office or home. Remote patient monitoring uses devices to remotely collect and send datato a monitoring station for interpretation. Such “home telehealth” applicationsmight include using telemetry devices to capture a specific vital sign, such asblood pressure, glucose, ECG or weight. Such services can be used tosupplement the use of visiting nurses. Medical education and mentoring, which range from the provision ofcontinuing medical education credits for health professionals and specialmedical education seminars for targeted groups to interactive expert adviceprovided to another professional performing medical procedure. Consumer medical and health information includes the use of theInternet for consumers to obtain specialized health information and on-linediscussion groups to provide peer-to-peer support.Telemedicine categories and Scopes: Store-and-forward, Remote monitoring and (real-time) Interactiveservices.Store-and-forward telemedicine involves acquiring medical data (likemedical images, bio signals etc.) and then transmitting this data to a doctor ormedical specialist at a convenient time for assessment offline. It does not requirethe presence of both parties at the same time. Dermatology (teledermatology),radiology, and pathology are common specialties that are conducive toasynchronous telemedicine. A properly structured medical record preferably inelectronic form should be a component of this transfer. A key differencebetween traditional in-person patient meetings and telemedicine encounters isthe omission of an actual physical examination and history. The store-and-
  • 6. forward process requires the clinician to rely on a history report andaudio/video information in lieu of a physical examination. Remote monitoring, also known as self-monitoring or testing, enablesmedical professionals to monitor a patient remotely using various technologicaldevices. This method is primarily used for managing chronic diseases orspecific conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes mellitus, or asthma. Theseservices can provide comparable health outcomes to traditional in-person patientencounters, supply greater satisfaction to patients, and may be cost-effective. Interactive telemedicine services provide real-time interactions betweenpatient and provider, to include phone conversations, online communication andhome visits. Many activities such as history review, physical examination,psychiatric evaluations and ophthalmology assessments can be conductedcomparably to those done in traditional face-to-face visits. In addition,"clinician-interactive”. interaction can go beyond than just exchange ideas. tele-physical interaction with the patient is one example in a surgery addressed witha robot commanded remotely.[7]Scope of Telemedicine Telenursing: Provide nursing services in care. Where patients have notaccess to delivery, its applications cover the health care monitoring as well,telenursing can solve the increasing shortages of nurses, keep patients out ofhospital, Telepharmacy,Provide pharmacist services, providing pharmaceuticalcare to patients, it encompasses drug therapy monitoring. Telerehabilitation,Giving clinical assessment (the patient’s functional abilities in his or herenvironment), and giving clinical therapy. Its areas cover the neuropsychology,speech-language pathology, audiology, occupational therapy, physical therapyamong others. One important part of telerehabilitation is the continuousmonitoring and the continuous follow up that we can develop with the patient
  • 7. Teletrauma: Improve efficiency and effectiveness of delivery in traumaenvironment. Trauma specialist can interact. Telemedicine is also being used insome trauma ICUs to reduce the spread of infections. providers can see the vitalsigns on the monitor, the respiratory ventilator, and the patient’s wounds.Telecardiology: ECGs, or electrocardiographs, can be transmitted usingtelephone and wireless, actually did tests with transmission of ECG viatelephone lines. This system enabled wireless transmission of ECG from themoving ICU van or the patients home to the central station in ICU of thedepartment of Medicine. Telepsychiatry: Utilizes videoconferencing for patients residing inunderserved areas to access psychiatric services. Such as educational clinicalprograms, diagnosis and assessment, medication therapy management, androutine follow up meetings. Teleradiology: Radiographic images (x-rays, CT,MR, PET/CT, SPECT/CT, MG, US...) can be interchanged from one location toanother, it can be in real time or non-real time. Telepathology: Analyzingpathology at a distance using telecommunications technology to facilitate thetransfer of image-rich pathology data giving support of diagnosis, education,and research. Teledermatology: Probably one of the most common applicationsof telemedicine it is oriented in this area, this scope allows to interact with thegeneral skin conditions, and giving information for consultation andinterpretation it can be on real time using health technologies of visual checking.Teleophtalmology: Allow the transference of information of patient usingbiomedical eye devices which allow the ophthalmologist take decision in longdistances. Tele-audiology Providing audiological services it may include thefull scope of audiological practice, Tele surgery Remote surgery (also known astelesurgery) allows to the doctor to perform surgery on a patient even thoughthey are not physically in the same location. Remote surgery combines elementsof robotics, cutting edge communication technology such as high-speed data
  • 8. connections and elements of management information systems. While the fieldof robotic surgery is fairly well established, most of these robots are controlledby surgeons at the location of the surgery.Uses and advantages of telemedicine There are various applications are used by the telemedicine technologysuch as in surgery fields like telesurgery, telerobotics, telemonitoring, prereferral screening, web scanning[8] Telemedicine allows rapid deployment ofhealthcare to a developing population though relatively low cost clinics. Ratherthan build and staff large numbers of sophisticated facilities, telemedicineallows basic clinics to share the expertise of clinicians and clinical specialistwho may be located centrally or decentralized. And disaster application, the benefits for Disaster Relief are similar torural health and mobile health. Telemedicine allows healthcare deliverycapability to move in quickly after a disaster. This allows the on-sight providersrapid access to advanced expertise and capabilities for triage and careelectronically when and where it is most needed[9]. First of all, telemedicine hasan advantage in terms of ‘‘equal access’’. This implies that regional disparitywill be filled because wherever you are, in a remote place in the mountain or onthe sea, it is possible for everyone to receive suitable medical care. The next advantage is the service for ‘‘point of needs’’. This means thatwithout going afar, one can receive specialist medical supplies locally. Thetransmission of images or data from moving vehicles such as ambulances willalso reinforce cooperation with doctors, and quick yet appropriate medical caresupplies will lead to an increase in the number of lives saved. In the future,international airlines and sea lanes will put the telemedicine system into place.Thirdly, the existing disparity in medical care among the nations in the world isexpected to be written off.
  • 9. Health Information Technology and Factors Facilitating Telemedicine Networks already established for telemedicine should be used as theinitial test beds and role models of mechanisms to exchange health information(e.g., RHIOs). the development of regional approaches to creating uniformpatient health records and a unified billing system is critical to fully realizing thebenefits of remote clinical services. Overcoming resistance from the technologyleaders until health technology, clinical medicine and public health to overcomeresistance and develop joint plans for unified health information networksSurmounting the absence of standards and guidelines Such levels includeallowing different medical record systems to share patient data, assuring thatdifferent remote medical devices can intercommunicate with each other or intothe same system and allowing health professionals providing distant care withimmediate access to the patient’s health history. Financial sustainability. Governance level they planning and implementation of ehealth servicesrequires complex and extended intersecto-ral collaboration, with stakeholdersoften coming from diverse backgrounds and with a range of priorities andagendas. Policy in telemedicine policies and strategies can be used to outline thevisions and objectives regarding the application, provision, control, standards,and ethics related to the national and international use of telemedicine solutions.Scientific development, The involvement of scientific institutions in thedevelopment of telemedicine brings with it a number of potential benefits. Suchresources to the development and testing of a variety of telemedicine initiatives.Evaluation Conducting evaluations and disseminating results may beparticularly important to the field of telemedicine given the scarcity of empiricalevidence on its use.[10]
  • 10. Comparisons Colombia is a country with several barriers in health (access, quality,resilience, internal) Around 28% of their total population located in rural areas.Systematic review several projects developed in areas of Telemedicine. Thesystematic Review focuses in assess Effectiveness, Reliability, Ease of use,Acceptance, Sustainability, Improvement of the Diagnoses, Improvement of theorganization process, Utility variations, Accessibility of the projects. The mainareas of application of the projects were Teledermatology, Teleradiology,Telecardiology, Internal Medicine, Teleambulatory care, Malaria and DengueDiagnose 99 Projects.The main findings are Several projects have failed becausethe implementation have been centered more in the technology than in thepatients or the health provider. Other find show that most of the projectsimplemented in Colombia have not evaluate the feasibility or the economicimpact, evaluation which is important for policy makers to address decisions.Several Challenges are affecting the development of InformationCommunication Technologies in Colombia is infrastructure, ICT Literacy,Conflict problems.[11] Explain the challenges and opportunities of Telemedicine in India.According with the reviewers 0,1 % of the existent technologies are used in thetotal potential utilization. The authors describe several barriers Lack ofinadequate infrastructure, Low computer literacy, Reluctance of physicians touse Telemedicine, Policy Makers are addressing raw problems to address thenthe access. Its evident that the TM is extremely useful in India, India is a ruralcountry,70% of the population live in remote areas. A new barrier is appearingin the horizon, its related to the reluctance of health provider to give telehealthservices, because they have evidence their earn, and profit are affected, becausethere is not clear the mechanism of reimbursement. In the other hand the policymakers have not addressed clearly which is the target population[12-13].
  • 11. Conclusion Telemedicine as tool have an important role to play in the improvementof the quality and efficiency of health systems in the world. It deserves specialconsideration for the local Access should as well be focus on elements that helpintroduce the telemedicine, (Infrastructure, Standards, Policies, ICTtechnologies), even more when worldwide satellite communication is availableat reasonable cost, telemedicine can be used in many different ways such asimproving healthcare access, supporting health workers in isolated settings oraddressing the shortage of specialist doctors. Harmonized globally interoperablestandards fundamental to ensure global exchange of information inTelemedicine. Telemedicine thus works toward the concept of medicine, whichtranscends boundaries.Referances :[1] B. Bygstad, G. Lanestedt / International Journal of Project Management 27(2009) 234–242[2] Dena Puskin, Barbara and Stuart, [2006 The American TelemedicineAssociation May 2006[3] WHO definition: WHO. A health telematics policy in support of WHO’sHealth, 11–16 December, Geneva, 1997. Geneva, World Health Organization,1998[4] T.Takahashi :International Journal of Medical Informatics 61(2001)131–137[5] Rosen, E. (1997), “The history of desktop telemedicine, TelemedicineToday, Vol. 5 No. 2, pp. 16-17, 28.[6] Currell, Telemedicine versus face to face patient care: effects on professionalpractice and health care Outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews,2000.[7] Strode SW, Gustke S, Allen A. Technical and clinical progress intelemedicine. JAMA. 1999 Mar 24-31;281(12):1066-8
  • 12. [8] Satva RM, emerging technologies for surgery in the 21st century,Arch surg1999; 134:1197-1202[9] Victoria Garshnek et al, J Am Med Inform Assoc.1999 Jan-Feb; 6(1): 26–37.[10] Telemedicine: opportunities and developments in Member States: report onthe second global survey on eHealth 2009. WHO (Global Observatory foreHealth Series, 2[11] Carlos Rey-Moreno, Javier Simó Reigadas, Estrella Everss Villalba, JuanJose Vinagre† and Andrés Martínez Fernández, systematic review of, doi:10.1258/jtt.2009.090709, J Telemed Telecare, April 2010 vol. 16 no. 3 114-119.[12] Shabbir, Syed-Abdul, Scholl J., Jian W and Li Y. Challenges andopportunities for the adoption of telemedicine in India, DOI: 10.1258/jtt Journalof Telemedicine and Telecare Vol 17 No 6 2011 pg 336-337 October 2011.[13] Siriginidi, Subba Rao, Achieving millennium development goals: Role ofICTS innovations in India, Telematics and Informatics VL26 IS2 Sp127 Ep143February 2008.

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