Syntax and Stylistics Passive, Theta Roles, and Wh-movement
Generative Grammar Phrase Structure Rules Lexicon Deep Structure Surface Structure  Transformational Rules <ul><li>T-rule...
Overgeneration <ul><ul><li>Ungrammatical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The boy relied on the girl. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ung...
Subcategorization frames <ul><li>Verbs come in different flavors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V i :  The woman walked </li></ul>...
Connecting PS and V frames S NP VP V put  [ ___ NP PP] the The boys PP P NP on the porch NP dinner The frame puts selectio...
Argument Structure <ul><li>Through subcategorization, the verb makes sure that it has all the arguments it requires. </li>...
Exercise #1 <ul><li>Workout the subcategorization frame of each of the lexical items:  aspire ,  declare, conduct, aware, ...
Subacategorization <ul><li>But what about:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The dinner was put on the porch. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>...
Passive Transformation  <ul><li>Demotion of the subject to an adjunct introduced by  by.   </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of ...
Transformational Grammar and Movement Rules S NP  VP The kids V  NP ate  the chocolate Deep Structure S NP  VP The chocola...
The Passive T-rule <ul><li>The children  ate  the chocolate . </li></ul><ul><li>The chocolate  was eaten by  the children ...
Passives <ul><li>Why do writers often mistakenly think that some sentences are passive, when they are not? </li></ul><ul><...
Semantic Roles are different from Grammatical Relations <ul><li>Subjects can play different roles in the sentence: </li></...
Motivation for the existence of Semantic Roles <ul><ul><li>John  opened the door with  a key . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Thematic Roles <ul><li>Because linguists like to make up technical-sounding words, they usually refer to semantic roles as...
Examples of Theta Roles <ul><li>Agent:  an agent acts volitionally or intentionally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The students wor...
Examples of Theta Roles <ul><li>Experiencer and Stimulus :  An  experiencer  is an animate being that perceives something ...
Examples of Theta Roles <ul><li>Patient : A patient is affected by an action. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sam kicked  the ball ....
Theta  Roles for Directed Motion: Ray Jackendoff <ul><li>Theme : changes location, is located somewhere, or exists </li></...
Exercise #2:  <ul><li>Define the theta roles of the underlined constituents. </li></ul><ul><li>(a)  Joel  gave  the detect...
Linking Definition : The term linking refers to the  relationship between thematic roles  and grammatical relations. Agent...
Linking <ul><li>In an unmarked declarative sentence,  agents  map to subject positions,  themes  onto object position, and...
Generative Grammar Phrase Structure Rules Lexicon Deep Structure Surface Structure  Transformational Rules <ul><li>T-rule...
<ul><li>Theta-role prerequisite for the passive:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Object must be a patient! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>T...
<ul><li>Only English allows for passivization of imperatives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t get bitten by snakes! </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Only German allows for passivization of intransitives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In den Fluren wird nicht gerannt! (su...
Problems with Semantic Roles <ul><li>The definitions are vague: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If themes are things that moved, is ...
Generative Grammar Phrase Structure Rules Lexicon Deep Structure Surface Structure  Transformational Rules <ul><li>T-rule...
Two kinds of Questions <ul><li>Yes/No questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did you see the octopus? yes/no/*dog </li></ul></ul...
Wh-words <ul><ul><li>who </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>where  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>whe...
Wh-questions involve movement <ul><li>I bought  a book </li></ul><ul><li>What did you buy  _____ </li></ul>S NP VP I V NP ...
Where from? <ul><li>What  did you say [ was hit ______ ]? </li></ul>gets theta role here cf. John hit  the ball Ends up here
How Far away? <ul><li>What  did you say Joel dreamed Kyra thought Ayla said [ was hit ______ ]? </li></ul>still gets theta...
Traces? <ul><li>want + to    wanna </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who i  do you wanna  kiss  t i  ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Wh...
Exercise #3 <ul><li>Where does the wh-word receive its theta role in the following sentences (i.e., where is the trace)? <...
Generative Grammar Phrase Structure Rules Lexicon Deep Structure Surface Structure  Transformational Rules <ul><li>T-rule...
Preposition vs. Particle <ul><li>Try the cleft-test on these: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John ran  into the street . </li></ul>...
Sam  climbed  up  the  ladder. Sam  picked  up  the  ladder. N  V  P  Det  N N  V  P  Det  N NP NP NP VP S V S Tree  1 Tre...
Particle Shift <ul><li>There is a transformational rule that allows the movement of a verb particle to the end of a senten...
Particle Shift <ul><li>Now consider the following sentences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*She stood up them. </li></ul></ul><ul>...
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Syntax & Stylistics5

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Syntax & Stylistics5

  1. 1. Syntax and Stylistics Passive, Theta Roles, and Wh-movement
  2. 2. Generative Grammar Phrase Structure Rules Lexicon Deep Structure Surface Structure  Transformational Rules <ul><li>T-rules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SAI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wh-move </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Overgeneration <ul><ul><li>Ungrammatical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The boy relied on the girl. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ungrammatical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* The boy relied the girl. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*The boy relied. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grammatical, but Semantically Odd </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*The boy frightens sincerity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Sincerity kicked the boy. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Subcategorization frames <ul><li>Verbs come in different flavors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V i : The woman walked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>V t : John loves Mary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>V dt : Mary gave Peter flowers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>V s : I know that she likes you </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This can be expressed as a kind of frame associated with the lexical entry for each verb: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>walked , V i , [ ___ ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>love , V t , [ ___ NP] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>put , V dt , [ ___ NP NP] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>know , V s , [ ___ S] </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Connecting PS and V frames S NP VP V put [ ___ NP PP] the The boys PP P NP on the porch NP dinner The frame puts selectional restrictions on where a particular verb can appear.
  6. 6. Argument Structure <ul><li>Through subcategorization, the verb makes sure that it has all the arguments it requires. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Exercise #1 <ul><li>Workout the subcategorization frame of each of the lexical items: aspire , declare, conduct, aware, transport, arrange, deliver, silent </li></ul>
  8. 8. Subacategorization <ul><li>But what about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The dinner was put on the porch. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No direct object for put . </li></ul><ul><li>Won’t take one: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*The dinner was put the steak on the porch. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Passive Transformation <ul><li>Demotion of the subject to an adjunct introduced by by. </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of the object to subject status. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of an auxiliary verb: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English be or get </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The chlidren ate the chocolate. --> The chocolate was/got eaten by the children. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Transformational Grammar and Movement Rules S NP VP The kids V NP ate the chocolate Deep Structure S NP VP The chocolate V PP was eaten by the kids Surface Structure Meaning preserving tree-to-tree mapping
  11. 11. The Passive T-rule <ul><li>The children ate the chocolate . </li></ul><ul><li>The chocolate was eaten by the children . </li></ul><ul><li>SD: X - NP 1 - V - NP2 - Y </li></ul><ul><li>SC: X - NP 2 - AUX - V +en - by NP 1 - Y </li></ul>
  12. 12. Passives <ul><li>Why do writers often mistakenly think that some sentences are passive, when they are not? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>My friend suffered an injury while we were canoeing. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Semantic Roles are different from Grammatical Relations <ul><li>Subjects can play different roles in the sentence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The clothes were washed by the woman. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The clock broke. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rock shattered the window. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The window shattered. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ship sank. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The students received awards. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Motivation for the existence of Semantic Roles <ul><ul><li>John opened the door with a key . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The key opened the door . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The door opened. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The door was opened by John with a key . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semantic roles explain what the meanings of these sentences have in common even though their grammatical relations and subcategorization frames are different. </li></ul><ul><li>The key fills the instrument role, whether it is the subject of the sentence or a prepositional phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>John fills the agent role, whether he is the subject or in a prepositional phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>The door fills the theme or patient role, whether it is a subject or direct object. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Thematic Roles <ul><li>Because linguists like to make up technical-sounding words, they usually refer to semantic roles as “Thematic Roles” or just “  -roles.” </li></ul>
  16. 16. Examples of Theta Roles <ul><li>Agent: an agent acts volitionally or intentionally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The students worked. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sue baked a cake. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Examples of Theta Roles <ul><li>Experiencer and Stimulus : An experiencer is an animate being that perceives something or experiences an emotion. The stimulus is the thing that the experiencer perceives or the thing that caused the emotional response. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The students like linguistics . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(emoter and stimulus) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The students saw a linguist . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(perceiver and stimulus) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistics frightens the students . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(emoter and stimulus) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The students thought about linguistics . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(cognizer and stimulus) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Examples of Theta Roles <ul><li>Patient : A patient is affected by an action. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sam kicked the ball . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sue cut the cake . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beneficiary: A beneficiary benefits from an event </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sue baked a cake for Sam . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sue baked Sam a cake . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Malefactive: Someone is affected adversely by an event. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>My car died on me . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instrument: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The boy opened the door with a key . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The key opened the door. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Theta Roles for Directed Motion: Ray Jackendoff <ul><li>Theme : changes location, is located somewhere, or exists </li></ul><ul><li>Source : the starting point of the motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal : the ending point of the motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Path : the path of the motion. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Exercise #2: <ul><li>Define the theta roles of the underlined constituents. </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Joel gave the detective story to Kyra . </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Carolyn rolled the ball towards Kozo . </li></ul><ul><li>(c) The ball rolled towards the fence . </li></ul><ul><li>(d) Grandma had been cold all day. </li></ul><ul><li>(e) Becca likes detective stories . </li></ul><ul><li>(f) Love stories please Susan . </li></ul><ul><li>(g) Ian bought the book from Nathan. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Linking Definition : The term linking refers to the relationship between thematic roles and grammatical relations. Agent Goal Theme John gave Tom the bottle. Subject indirect object direct object
  22. 22. Linking <ul><li>In an unmarked declarative sentence, agents map to subject positions, themes onto object position, and goals onto indirect objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Only arguments of the verb have a  -role. </li></ul><ul><li>NPs can have only one  -role at a time. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Generative Grammar Phrase Structure Rules Lexicon Deep Structure Surface Structure  Transformational Rules <ul><li>T-rules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SAI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wh-move </li></ul></ul> -linking
  24. 24. <ul><li>Theta-role prerequisite for the passive: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Object must be a patient! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>That means, the object must have been affected by the relevant event before it can be moved into the subject position. </li></ul>Passives
  25. 25. <ul><li>Only English allows for passivization of imperatives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t get bitten by snakes! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>German: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* Werde nicht von Schlangen gebissen! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lass dich nicht von Schlangen beißen! </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Only German allows for passivization of intransitives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In den Fluren wird nicht gerannt! (subjectless) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>English: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Running is not allowed in the corridors. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Problems with Semantic Roles <ul><li>The definitions are vague: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If themes are things that moved, is his hand a theme in John moved his hand? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linguists keep making up new role names without proper motivation. Proper motivation would be a test. </li></ul><ul><li>Linguists keep writing about the same small set of verbs that have clearly identified roles. Many roles are not clearly covered. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He risked death. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We resisted the enemy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She resembles her mother. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Generative Grammar Phrase Structure Rules Lexicon Deep Structure Surface Structure  Transformational Rules <ul><li>T-rules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SAI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wh-move </li></ul></ul> -linking
  29. 29. Two kinds of Questions <ul><li>Yes/No questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did you see the octopus? yes/no/*dog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have you eaten yet? yes/no/*apple </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wh-questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who was here last week? Fergus/*no </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you have there? donuts/*yes </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Wh-words <ul><ul><li>who </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>where </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>why </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>which X </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Wh-questions involve movement <ul><li>I bought a book </li></ul><ul><li>What did you buy _____ </li></ul>S NP VP I V NP bought a book S NP VP you V NP bought t What CP C
  32. 32. Where from? <ul><li>What did you say [ was hit ______ ]? </li></ul>gets theta role here cf. John hit the ball Ends up here
  33. 33. How Far away? <ul><li>What did you say Joel dreamed Kyra thought Ayla said [ was hit ______ ]? </li></ul>still gets theta role here
  34. 34. Traces? <ul><li>want + to  wanna </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who i do you wanna kiss t i ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Who do you wanna kiss the puppy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who i do you want t i to kiss the puppy? </li></ul></ul>intervenes, so blocks wanna contraction
  35. 35. Exercise #3 <ul><li>Where does the wh-word receive its theta role in the following sentences (i.e., where is the trace)? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who did your mother say the dog bit on the leg? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What did the instructor tell the student? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who did the guide say built the tower? </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Generative Grammar Phrase Structure Rules Lexicon Deep Structure Surface Structure  Transformational Rules <ul><li>T-rules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SAI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wh-move </li></ul></ul> -linking
  37. 37. Preposition vs. Particle <ul><li>Try the cleft-test on these: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John ran into the street . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paul called up to Tim . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The child slipped into the closet . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I calmed down the clerk . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The student filled in the blanks . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deer can leap over the fence . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why do only some work? </li></ul>
  38. 38. Sam climbed up the ladder. Sam picked up the ladder. N V P Det N N V P Det N NP NP NP VP S V S Tree 1 Tree 2 NP VP PP
  39. 39. Particle Shift <ul><li>There is a transformational rule that allows the movement of a verb particle to the end of a sentence, as in the following sentence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jake threw out the trash. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jake threw the trash out . </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Particle Shift <ul><li>Now consider the following sentences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*She stood up them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She stood them up. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*I wrote down it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I wrote it down. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*The bartender kicked out him. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The bartender kicked him out. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Describe the circumstances under which the particle must be separated from its verb. </li></ul>

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