Brain And Aphasia


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Brain And Aphasia

  1. 1. Introduction to Morphology
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Word Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a rich source of humor? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>word structure: morphemes </li></ul><ul><li>language types and universals </li></ul><ul><li>word formation processes </li></ul>
  3. 3. “ Uglification” <ul><li>“ I never heard of ‘Uglification,’ Alice ventured to say. ‘What is it?’ The Gryphon lifted up both its paws in surprise. “never heard of uglifying!” it exclaimed. “You know what to beautify is, I suppose?’ ‘Yes,’ said Alice doubtfully: ‘it means—to make—anything-prettier.’ ‘Well, then,’ the Gryphon went on, ‘if you don’t know what to uglify is, you are a simpleton.’” </li></ul><ul><li>(Carroll 128-129) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The term “uglification” is part of a longer quote in which Alice is being told about the education system in Wonderland. Students in Wonderland study “Reeling, Writhing, Uglification and Derision.” </li></ul><ul><li>They call their teacher “Tortoise” because he “taught us.” </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons get shorter each day. That’s why they’re called “lessens.” </li></ul><ul><li>In Wonderland, “Latin and Greek” becomes “Laughing and Grief,” and “drawing, sketching and painting in oils” becomes “Drawling, Stretching, and Fainting in Coils.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Carroll 128-129) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Click and Clack, the Tappet Brothers <ul><li>On National Public Radio’s “Cartalk,” Click and Clack are playing with Morphology in their list of credits: </li></ul><ul><li>Copyeditor: Adeline Moore </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts Payable: Ineeda Czech </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution Control: Maury Missions </li></ul><ul><li>Purchasing: Lois Bidder </li></ul><ul><li>Statistician: Marge Innovera </li></ul><ul><li>Russian Chauffeur: Picov Andropov </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Firm: Dewey, Cheetham, and Howe. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Bilingual Morphological Word Play <ul><li>“ Un petit d’un petit S’ étonne aux Halles” </li></ul><ul><li>This makes no sense in French, but it makes perfect sense in English: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Humpty Dumpty Sat on a wall” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Watergate <ul><li>The Watergate Hotel is where the break-in of the National Democratic headquarters occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s dictionaries give more room to the metonymous meaning of Watergate than to the literal meaning of “a gate controlling the flow of water.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Gate” has now become a suffix meaning “scandal” as in Irangate , Contragate, Iraqgate , Pearlygate , Rubbergate , Murphygate , Gennifergate , Nannygate, Monicagate , ad infinitum. </li></ul>
  8. 8. New Definitions <ul><li>Artery : The study of painting </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria : The back door of a cafeteria </li></ul><ul><li>Barium : What doctors do when patients die. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><ul><ul><li>deciduous a b le to make up one’s mind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>longevity b e ing very tall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fortuitous w e ll protected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gubernatorial t o do with peanuts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bibliography h o ly geography </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adamant p e rtaining to original sin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>diatribe f o od for the whole clan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gullible t o do with sea birds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>homogeneous d e voted to home life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stalemate h u sband or wife no longer interesting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tenet a group of ten singers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dermatology s t udy of derms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ingenious n o t very smart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>finesse a female fish </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. What is a Morpheme? <ul><li>Morphemes are minimal units of meaning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>smallest possible string of sounds that still has meaning and can not be reduced any further </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a morpheme can consist of as little as one sound: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>+ plural morpheme /z/ </li></ul><ul><li>+ /e/ as in a-typical </li></ul>
  11. 11. What is a Word? <ul><li>Words are composed of morphemes--sometimes of several morphemes and sometimes just one morpheme makes up a word </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise 1. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Words <ul><li>Lexical Content (Open Class) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In English this class of words is made up mostly of nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We constantly add new words to this class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function Words (Closed Class) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>grammatical words in English = pronouns, conjugations, determiners, prepositions, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>we don’t add new words to these groups </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Morphological Creativity <ul><li>Pinker states in The Language Instinct that the creative powers of English morphology are pathetic when compared to other languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nouns, for example, come in only two forms (duck, ducks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>verbs come in only four forms (quack, quacks, quacked, quacking) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Inflectional Morphology <ul><li>Inflected languages/inflectional morphology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>languages like Spanish, Italian, Russian, have so many verbal and nominal forms because they are inflected languages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>English is not a richly inflected language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In English we have only eight inflected morphemes </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. English Inflectional Morphology <ul><li> -s 3rd person singular present (verb) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-ed past tense verbal ending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-ing progressive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>-en past participle verbal ending </li></ul><ul><li>-s plural </li></ul><ul><li>-’s possessive </li></ul><ul><li>-er comparative </li></ul><ul><li>-est superlative </li></ul>
  16. 16. How Many Words? <ul><li>45,000-60,000? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sail” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sailplane , sailor , sailing-boat , sailcloth </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Derivational Morphology <ul><li>Creation of new word from old ones as in the case of sailor , sailplane , etc. </li></ul><ul><li>English, while weak in inflected morphemes, makes great use of derivational morphology. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Types of Morphemes
  19. 19. English Derivational Morphology <ul><li>English makes great use of prefixes (like un-) and suffixes (-able) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These prefixes and suffixes are also morphemes as they are minimal units of meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>+ un- not </li></ul><ul><li>+ able- converts a verb meaning “to do x” to an adjective meaning “capable of having x done to it” </li></ul>