Advanced gerund inf

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Advanced gerund inf

  1. 1. Complex Structures
  2. 2. <ul><li>Passive gerund (being done) </li></ul><ul><li>Passive infinitive (to be done) </li></ul><ul><li>Use: To describe actions which are done to the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>She loves being told how beautiful she is. </li></ul><ul><li>My car needs to be serviced </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Perfect gerund ( having done) </li></ul><ul><li>Perfect infinitive ( to have done) </li></ul><ul><li>Use: when we want to emphasize an action that is completed or in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>Having studied one language before makes it easier to learn another. </li></ul><ul><li>By the time I’m 30 I hope to have started a business </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Often there is no difference between a simple gerund or infinitive and a perfect gerund or infinitive. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare: </li></ul><ul><li>He denied stealing/having stolen the money. </li></ul><ul><li>We were silly not to lock/not to have locked the car. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Perfect infinitive is used after: </li></ul><ul><li>Would like </li></ul><ul><li>Would love </li></ul><ul><li>Would hate </li></ul><ul><li>Would prefer </li></ul><ul><li>Would rather </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to an earlier action. </li></ul><ul><li>I would like to see the Eiffel tower </li></ul><ul><li>I would like to have seen the Eiffel tower </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>(to be + verb + ing) </li></ul><ul><li>Use an action is in progress around the time of use. </li></ul><ul><li>I’d like to be lying on the beach right now! </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>A gerund is used after certain expressions with it or there. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. There is no point worrying </li></ul><ul><li>It’s not worth thinking about. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Used after nouns formed from verbs which take the infinitive. </li></ul><ul><li>Agree/plan/hope etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Our plan is to take the CAE in June. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>After expressions with quantifiers : enough, too much, a lot etc.. </li></ul><ul><li>Is there anything to eat? </li></ul><ul><li>When we want to refer to the subject of the infinitive verb we use for + person or object pronoun before the infinitive. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s very difficult for me to decide what to do. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>After something, anywhere etc . </li></ul><ul><li>After question words (except why) </li></ul><ul><li>After superlatives and first, second, last etc. </li></ul>

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