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Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
Bias.pdf
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  • 1. Rev 10/2010 1Report Writing Gramma
  • 2. Avoiding Bias in One’s Language
  • 3. Objectives  Understand types of bias  Give examples of language bias  Eliminate language bias from writing Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 3
  • 4. Definition Tendency or preference towards a particular perspective, ideology or result, when the tendency interferes with the ability to be impartial, unprejudiced, or objective.. In other words, bias is generally seen as a 'one-sided' perspective. ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bias  Everyone has biases Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 4
  • 5. There is no truth. There is only perception. Gustave Flaubert Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 5 Escher
  • 6. Perception  Our perceptions are our reality  Our biases are our perceptions  Our biases can blind one to reality  Our biases can exclude other  Our biases can limit one’s experience of life  Our biases can be dangerous Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 6
  • 7. Diversity in the Work Place Advantages Disadvantages  Broader work force  Wider approach to problem solving  Exposure to interesting people  Expands outlook on life  Increases tolerance  Communication issues  Value issues  Conflict  Discrimination, harassment, and bullying Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 7
  • 8. Sources of Bias Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 8 Environment Experience Education Peers Beliefs Ignorance Language
  • 9. Environment  Bias is based on  How one is raised Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 9
  • 10. Experience  Bias is based on  Induction – experience ○ Make-up is used only by women  Stereotypes ○ Computer geeks are inept with women  Faulty logic ○ Terrorists are bad people ○ Arabs are terrorists ○ Arabs are bad people Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 10 False
  • 11. Education  Bias based on  When educated  Where educated  Amount of education  Exposure Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 11
  • 12. Peers  Bias based on whom one socializes with  Fear of ostracism  Need to be in  Crowd (mob) mentality Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 12
  • 13. Beliefs  Culture  Democracy is the best form of government  Women are equal to men  Chauvinism – kindness based on superiority ○ The poor people in Africa just need our help to lead better lives.  Religious Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 13
  • 14. Ignorance  What is unknown may be miss understood  What is unknown can be frightening  What is unknown can be dangerous Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 14 Boroboro Tribesman -- Africa
  • 15. Offensive Bias Offensive bias is the use of words or phrases that some readers may find insensitive. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 15 • Old people should not be allowed to drive.Blatant • I had a blond moment.Subtle • On Secretary's Day one should buy one’s secretary flowers and take her to lunch. Presumptive
  • 16. Language Bias  Race and ethnicity  Sexual Orientation  Disability  Age  Religion  Gender Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 16 Language bias is bias based upon changes in social awareness and word usage.
  • 17. Race and Ethnic Bias  Do not hyphenate multi-word names – Asian American  Unless the term is not a separate word – Afro-American  Either Black or African American is acceptable Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 17
  • 18. Race and Ethnic Bias  Either American Indian or Native American is acceptable.  When practical use tribal names  Use Asian rather than Oriental  Do not use a singular when referring to a group of people  The Seminole fought a war.  The Seminoles fought a war. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 18
  • 19. Sexual Orientation Bias  Use sexual orientation rather than sexual preference when discussing homosexuality or heterosexuality.  Lesbian and gay male is preferred to homosexual.  Avoid terms like – mannish, womanish, effeminate Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 19
  • 20. Disability Bias  Put the people first not their disability  Avoid the and disability – the blind  Avoid comparisons that are not relevant  She dresses very well for a blind person.  Disabled person  person with a disability  Mentally ill person  person with mental illness  AIDS patient  person with AIDS  Wheelchair bound person  person who uses a wheel chair  Mentally retarded  mentally challenged Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 20
  • 21. Age Bias  Avoid age stereotypes  Golden agers  Over the hill  Wet behind the ears  Old folks  Just a kid  Don’t use adjectives as nouns  Elderly – The elderly should not drive cars. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 21 X
  • 22. Religion Bias  Be aware of historical words  Crusade, Inquisition  Avoid disparaging terms – holy roller, orthodox beliefs, fundamentalist  Preferred Islamic spellings  Moslem  Muslim  Koran  Qur’an  Mohammed  Muhammad Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 22
  • 23. Gender Bias The goal is gender neutral writing.  Gender bias is ancient and is still pervasive  It arises from stereotypes of male/female roles  It is embedded in our language  It is often subconscious  Issues  Male/female  Transgender Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 23
  • 24. Gender Terms  Use girls and boys to refer to people under the age of 18  Use parallel terms – ladies and gentlemen, men and women, husband and wives  Do not use coed to describe only female students  Avoid using sex when gender is meant. Sex can be unclear because it refers to the sex act as well as gender.  She didn’t get the job because of her sex. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 24
  • 25. Gender Substitutions  Man  Humans, persons, people  Manpower  Workforce, workers  Businessman  Business person  Chairman  Chair, chairperson  Salesman  Salesperson  Actress  Actor  Waitress  Server, wait staff  Policeman  Police officer  Fireman  Firefighter  Mailman  Letter carrier  Mothering Parenting, nurturing  Secretary  Administrative Assistant Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 25
  • 26. Gender Bias -- Pronouns The goal is gender neutral writing.  Our language has no personal pronoun besides it which is gender neutral.  Few would like to be referred to as it.  It took the money to the bank for deposit.  Our language is being challenged and changed,  150 years ago the singular forms of you fell from common usage. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 26
  • 27. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 27 Gender Gender is used to indicate the sex of what the pronoun refers to. Gender has three sexes: masculine, feminine and neuter. Gender is only used in the third person singular personal pronouns—he, she it.
  • 28. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 28 Gender — Forms Personal Pronouns I Me My/Mine We Us Our/Ours Thee Thou Thine Ye You Your Masc. He Him His Fem. She Her Hers Neuter It It Its They Them Their/Theirs Plural Singular Plural 1st 2nd Person 3rd Possessive Case Plural Number Subjective Objective Gender Singular Singular
  • 29. Gender Agreement  Pronouns must be consistent in gender with what they refer to  The book for the class is on my desk. She is difficult to read.  English only uses masculine and feminine gender for people and animals that have true sex characteristics Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 29
  • 30. Gender Exceptions  Boats and cars are sometimes referred to as she  Very young children are occasionally referred to as it ○ Mabel has a new baby, and it is so sweet.?  Animals are neuter unless the animal has a clear gender ○ The dog was big. It was ferocious too. ○ My dog Betty is a sweetie. She brings me the paper every day. ○ The hen stopped laying eggs, so she is soup now. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 30
  • 31. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 31 Gender Bias – What to Do  Need to avoid using masculine pronouns when the antecedent can be either male or female.  A student should study daily if he wants to be successful.
  • 32. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 32 Gender Bias — Solution  Some experts suggest new pronouns,  zhe,zher,zhis  ne, ner, nis.  But most thoughtful writers seek solutions within the confines of current English usage.
  • 33. Gender Bias – Solution 1  Replace with he or she  A student should study daily if he or she wants to be successful.  S/he He/she is not acceptable in formal writing  Avoid awkward repetitions  The student should have his or her textbook with him or her in class. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 33
  • 34. Gender Bias – Solution 2  Use an indefinite pronoun  A student should study daily if one wants to be successful. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 34
  • 35. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 35 Gender Bias – Solution 3  Change nouns to plural  Students should study daily if they want to be successful.
  • 36. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 36 Gender Bias – Solution 4  Remove pronouns  The student should have his or her textbook with him or her in class.  The student should have the textbook in class.
  • 37. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 37 Gender Bias – Grammar Error  Do not mix singulars with plurals  A student should study daily if they want to be successful.  Each of the students should study daily if they want to be successful.
  • 38. Gender Exercise 1 . He or she should use gender neutral writing if he or she want to be sensitive to the reader. The actor performed her role well Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 38 C I C I
  • 39. Gender Exercise 2 . Timothy was constantly mothering his 13 year old daughter. Everyone should be proficient in word processing because they will use it every day Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 39 C I C I
  • 40. Gender Exercise 3 . Tiffany Wong is Oriental by heritage, but American by culture. Oscar was a queer as a three dollar bill. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 40 C I C I
  • 41. Gender Exercise 4 . An effective business man always has his cell phone handy. Stephanie was known for her catholic tastes in music. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 41 C I C I
  • 42. Summary  Respect people  Be aware and sensitive  Slang and vulgar words are always inappropriate  Be specific when possible  Hispanic  Cuban, Mentally ill  paranoid  Do not mention issues which are not important  The female doctor was very good diagnostician.  Follow the wishes of the group being described.  Ask if in doubt. Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 42
  • 43. Resources  APA http://www.apastyle.org/styletips.html  A Guide to Bias Free Writing http://tps.studentorg.wisc.edu/TPS/facultysenate/bia sfree.pdf  Guidelines for Inclusiveness http://www.elcic.ca/docs/inclusive.html Rev 10/2010 Report Writing Gramma 43

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