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Slides Week6

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  • 1. Managing Software Assets February 25, 2003 Oliver Yao HTM304: Management Information Systems
  • 2.
    • DESCRIBE MAJOR TYPES OF SOFTWARE
    • EXAMINE SYSTEM SOFTWARE & OPERATING SYSTEMS
    • EXAMINE APPLICATION LANGUAGES & SOFTWARE TOOLS
    • DESCRIBE APPROACHES TO SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT
    • IDENTIFY SOFTWARE ISSUES
    • *
    LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  • 3. MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES
    • 1. INCREASING COMPLEXITY & SOFTWARE ERRORS
    • 2. THE APPLICATION BACKLOG
    • *
  • 4.
    • DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS TO CONTROL COMPUTER OPERATIONS
    • PROGRAM: SET OF INSTRUCTIONS TO THE COMPUTER
    • STORED: PROGRAM MUST BE IN PRIMARY STORAGE
    • SYSTEM SOFTWARE: MANAGES COMPUTER RESOURCES
    • APPLICATION SOFTWARE: SPECIFIC BUSINESS APPLICATION
    • *
    SOFTWARE
  • 5. SOFTWARE PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES: ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE; FORTRAN; COBOL; PL / 1; QBASIC; PASCAL; C; C++; FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES HARDWARE SYSTEM SOFTWARE APPLICATION SOFTWARE
    • OPERATING SYSTEM:
    • SCHEDULES COMPUTER EVENTS
    • ALLOCATES COMPUTER RESOURCES
    • MONITORS EVENTS
    • LANGUAGE TRANSLATORS:
    • INTERPRETERS
    • COMPILERS
    • UTILITY PROGRAMS:
    • ROUTINE OPERATIONS
    • MANAGE DATA
  • 6. MULTIPROGRAMMING OPERATING SYSTEM UNUSED MEMORY PROGRAM 1 TRADITIONAL SINGLE-PROGRAM SYSTEM OPERATING SYSTEM UNUSED MEMORY PROGRAM 1 PROGRAM 2 PROGRAM 3 MULTIPROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT
  • 7. MULTITASKING
    • MULTIPROGRAMMING ON A SINGLE-USER SYSTEM SUCH AS A MICROCOMPUTER
    • *
  • 8. MULTITHREADING
    • ABILITY TO EXECUTE DIFFERENT PARTS (THREADS) OF A PROGRAM SIMULTANEOUSLY
    • *
  • 9. VIRTUAL STORAGE
    • METHOD OF HANDLING SEVERAL PROGRAMS IN PRIMARY STORAGE:
    • PROGRAM DIVIDED INTO
      • FIXED LENGTH PORTIONS (PAGES) OR
      • VARIABLE LENGTH (SEGMENTS)
    • CURRENT PORTIONS RESIDE IN PRIMARY STORAGE
    • PORTIONS SWAPPED OUT WHEN DONE
    • *
  • 10. TIME SHARING
    • MANY USERS SHARE LARGE CPU:
    • TIME IN CPU DIVIDED INTO SLICES (e.g.: 2 MICROSECONDS)
    • EACH USER HAS ACCESS TO CPU DURING SLICE
    • SINCE CPU IS FAST, CAN DO MUCH DURING TIME SLICE
    • USER’S JOB SWAPPED OUT AT END OF SLICE
    • *
  • 11. MULTIPROCESSING
    • TWO OR MORE PARALLEL PROCESSORS IN SYSTEM
    • PROGRAM CAN BE DIVIDED TO BE PROCESSED BY MULTIPLE CPUs
    • CAN PROCESS LARGE PROGRAMS MORE RAPIDLY
    • *
  • 12.
    • SOURCE CODE: HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGE INSTRUCTIONS
    • COMPILER: TRANSLATES HIGH-LEVEL CODE INTO MACHINE LANGUAGE
    • OBJECT CODE: TRANSLATED INSTRUCTIONS READY FOR COMPUTER
    • *
    LANGUAGE TRANSLATION
  • 13. TRANSLATION PROCESS SOURCE CODE PROGRAM COMPILER OBJECT CODE LINKAGE EDITOR LOAD MODULE OTHER OBJECT CODE MODULES UTILITY PROGRAMS PERFORM ROUTINE TASKS
  • 14. GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI)
    • OPERATING SYSTEM USES:
    • GRAPHIC ICONS: Icons, buttons, bars, boxes
    • POINTER: Mouse, pen, touch screen
    • TO ISSUE COMMANDS
    • MAKE SELECTIONS
    • *
  • 15. MICROCOMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEMS OPERATING SYSTEM FEATURES 32-bit operating system, GUI, multitasking, networking 32-bit operating system not limited to Intel chips. Multitasking, multiprocessing, networking 32-bit. Developed for IBM PS/2. Multitasking, networking Paired-down for handheld computers, wireless communication devices Windows 98 & 95 Windows NT Me & 2000 Windows CE OS/2
  • 16. OPERATING SYSTEM Mac OS For Macintosh computers. Multitasking. Powerful graphics, multimedia Unix For powerful microcomputers, workstations, minicomputers. Multitasking, multi-user processing, networking. Portable to various computer platforms DOS For IBM (PC-DOS) and PC (MS-DOS). Program memory: 640K Linux Free, reliable alternative to Unix, Windows. Runs on many Platforms. Open-source FEATURES MICROCOMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEMS
  • 17. GENERATIONS OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
    • 1st. Since 1940s. MACHINE LANGUAGE: binary code
    • 2nd. Since early ’50s. ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE: mnemonics for numeric code
    • 3rd. Since mid ‘50s. HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES
    • 4th. Since late ‘70s. MODERN APPLICATION PACKAGES
    • *
  • 18. HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES
    • FORTRAN ( FOR mula TRAN slator) : Scientific, Engineering applications
    • COBOL ( CO mmon B usiness O riented L anguage) : Predominant for transaction processing
    • BASIC ( B eginners A ll-purpose S ymbolic I nstruction C ode) : General purpose PC language
    • *
  • 19. HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES
    • PASCAL: Used to teach structured programming practices. Weak in file handling, input / output
    • C and C++: Powerful PC Language for developing applications. Efficient execution; cross platform. C++ is object oriented
    • *
  • 20. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL)
    • CAN BE EMPLOYED BY END USERS
    • NONPROCEDURAL
    • CAN DEVELOP APPLICATIONS QUICKLY
    • NATURAL LANGUAGES
    • SIX CATEGORIES
    • *
  • 21. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL)
    • 1. QUERY LANGUAGES:
    • Rapidly retrieve data
    • Interactive/ on-line
    • May use NATURAL LANGUAGE
    • Support special requests for data from relational databases
    • *
  • 22. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL)
    • 2. REPORT GENERATORS:
    • Create customized reports
    • Wide range of formats
    • 3. GRAPHICS LANGUAGES:
    • Can manipulate drawings, graphs, photos, videos
    • Presentation managers
    • *
  • 23. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL)
    • 4. APPLICATION GENERATORS:
    • User specifies computer needs
    • Generator creates logic and code for application
    • Greatly reduces development time
    • *
  • 24. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL)
    • 5. VERY HIGH-LEVEL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES:
    • Professional programmer productivity tool
    • Uses fewer instructions
    • Reduces development time
    • *
  • 25. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL)
    • 7. SOFTWARE PACKAGE: Commercially available set of programs...
    • WORD PROCESSING
    • SPREADSHEETS
    • DATA MANAGEMENT
    • PRESENTATION MANAGEMENT
    • INTEGRATED SOFTWARE PACKAGES NOW COMBINE THESE TO SIMPLIFY LEARNING AND USE
    • *
  • 26. SOFTWARE TOOLS
    • WORD PROCESSING
    • SPREADSHEETS
    • DATA MANAGEMENT
    • PRESENTATION GRAPHICS
    • INTEGRATED SOFTWARE SUITES
    • E-MAIL
    • WEB BROWSERS
    • GROUPWARE
    • *
  • 27. GROUPWARE CAPABILITIES
    • GROUP WRITING & COMMENTING
    • ELECTRONIC MAIL DISTRIBUTION
    • SCHEDULING MEETINGS & APPOINTMENTS
    • SHARED FILES & DATABASES
    • SHARED TIME LINES & PLANS
    • ELECTRONIC MEETINGS & CONFERENCES
    • *
  • 28. MIDDLEWARE
    • SOFTWARE ALLOWS DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS TO EXCHANGE DATA
    • *
    APPLICATION A APPLICATION B MIDDLE WARE DATA
  • 29. OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING
    • COMBINES DATA & PROCEDURES INTO A SINGLE OBJECT
    • PROGRAM SENDS MESSAGE TO OBJECT TO PERFORM EMBEDDED PROCEDURE
    • OBJECT’S DATA ENCAPSULATED FROM REST OF SYSTEM
    • CREATES REUSABLE CODE
    • REDUCES TIME AND COST OF WRITING SOFTWARE
    • *
  • 30. OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING
    • VISUAL PROGRAMMING: SELECT AND ARRANGE OBJECTS RATHER THAN WRITE CODE
    • CLASS: ALL OBJECTS OF A CLASS HAVE ALL FEATURES OF THAT CLASS
    • INHERITANCE: SPECIFIC CLASS RECEIVES FEATURES OF A MORE GENERAL CLASS
    • OVERRIDE: SUBCLASS MAY OVERRIDE INHERITED METHOD (e.g.: Printout of an HOURLY worker pay check may differ from that of a WEEKLY worker
    • *
  • 31. OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING
    • JAVA: Sun Microsystems OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE
    • APPLET: TINY PROGRAM TO EXECUTE SMALL FUNCTION
    • APPLETS DOWNLOADED FROM NETWORK
    • RUN ON ANY COMPUTER & OPERATING SYSTEM
    • RESULT SAVED ON NETWORK, NOT ON PC
    • ONLY NETWORK VERSION OF SOFTWARE NEEDS UPGRADE
    • *
  • 32. OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING
    • ActiveX: Controls for Windows software environment to enable OBJECTS : e.g.,
    • CHARTS
    • TABLES
    • ANIMATIONS
    • to be EMBEDDED IN A WEB PAGE
    • *
  • 33. WEB PAGE DEVELOPMENT LANGUAGES
    • HTML: Hypertext markup language, current favorite for Web pages
    • XML: e X tensible M arkup L anguage, further development of HTML describes data more fully
    • XHTML: Hybrid may replace HTML as standard for Web
    • *
  • 34. MANAGING SOFTWARE ASSETS
    • RENT OR BUILD DECISIONS
      • APPLICATION SERVICE
      • PROVIDERS
    • SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE
    • *
  • 35. SELECTING ORGANIZATIONAL SOFTWARE
    • APPROPRIATENESS
    • EFFICIENCY
    • COMPATIBILITY
    • SUPPORT
    • *