Slides for Direct Manipulation


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  • The actual function of the system prohibits marks in the range from 48-50 from being rounded down. The system actually will round up in all cases. The user would be surprised by the result when an expected rounding down in this range actually results in a rounding up.
  • The new design informs the user that marks in the range of 48-50 have no choice but to be rounded up. The user knows what to expect from the system.
  • Harmonious members of families. Similar functions should have similar icon traits. Movement animation Show animation when dragging. Detail information, shading, animation, colour As file is printed it is being consumed. Colour, document yellows as it gets older . Combining Icons to show function, such as copying, locking folders, Attribute Joins in Data Bases. Dragging a document on a word processor icon executes the WP.
  • Representation of: Reply Reply All Forward
  • Slides for Direct Manipulation

    1. 1. Direct Manipulation
    2. 2. Deleting a file 1
    3. 3. Deleting a file 2
    4. 4. Action Cycle
    5. 5. Direct Mappings of Interaction Levels
    6. 6. Gensys Screen Before Correction
    7. 7. Screen After Correction
    8. 8. Articulatory Directness Mouse Locator, Macro Express
    9. 9. Foundations of DM <ul><li>Visibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is the operation easily visible to the user? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are relevant objects visible to the user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affordance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is the use of the object apparent? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conceptual Models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is the users concept of what needs to be done in sync with the system? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mapping Principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>does the use of the object follow standards? </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Foundations of DM cont. <ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>does the user know the exact state of the system at all times? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>incremental action at the interface with rapid feedback. E.g. moving a file, file is visible during the move. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drawing on user knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can the user draw on experience knowledge to help cope with the object or task? </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Foundations of DM cont.. <ul><li>Constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>does the system ensure the user follows the &quot;Yellow Brick Road” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Replacement of complex command languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>actions manipulate the visible objects directly. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syntactic correctness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>every user action is a syntactic legal action. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Icon Guidelines A picture is worth a 1000 words <ul><li>Familiar and Recognizable </li></ul><ul><li>Limit number of different Icons </li></ul><ul><li>Icons should stand out from background </li></ul><ul><li>3D icons </li></ul><ul><li>Selected icons are clearly visible </li></ul><ul><li>Make Icons distinctive from other icons </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonious members of families </li></ul><ul><li>Movement animation </li></ul><ul><li>Detail information, shading, animation, colour </li></ul><ul><li>Combining Icons to show function, such as copying, locking folders, Attribute Joins in Data Bases. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Harmonious Icon Grouping MS Outlook Eudora
    14. 14. Macro Express allows automation of Windows Environment
    15. 15. Access Expression Builder
    16. 16. Access Query Design
    17. 17. NextStep & OpenStep <ul><li>Started in 1989 by Steve Jobs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Next computer, designed for edu. use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A failure, as a company </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>NextStep OS - Object Oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ran on “Next” computers, Ported to Sun, HP, Intel & 68xxx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed desktop objects to be combined to form new applications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Took the lead in OPP programming. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now part of Apple (Mac OSx). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rapid Application Development (RAD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual tools to allow applications to be developed quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interface building applications. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed Object C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First WebBrowser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pioneered HTML </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Guideline for DM programming Environment <ul><li>Sufficient computational generality (conditionals, iteration) </li></ul><ul><li>Access to data structures (files, directories, booleans, i/o widgets) </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of programming (by example, by demonstration) modularity, argument passing. </li></ul><ul><li>Simplicity in invocation and assignment of arguments (direct manipulation, simple library strategies, in-context execution). </li></ul><ul><li>Low risk (should work, low error rate, halt & resume, error recovery, reversal). </li></ul>
    19. 19. Visual Basic in Excel
    20. 20. Visual Basic Builder
    21. 21. Access - Relation builder Drag fields to make relationship