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Slide 1 - The University of Akron IS UAnet Services


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  • 1. The University of Akron Summit College Business Technology Department Computer Information Systems 2440: 145 Operating Systems Instructor: Enoch E. Damson
  • 2. Operating System
    • The most important program running on a computer
    • It helps:
      • Store information
      • Process data
      • Use application software
      • Access all hardware attached to a computer
      • Control all the computer’s resources
      • Provide the basis upon which application programs can be used or written
  • 3. Types of Operating Systems
    • Different computer systems can have different operating systems
    • For example:
      • Operating Systems for Desktop PCs
        • Microsoft Windows
        • Mac OS
        • Linux
      • Operating Systems for Server Computers
        • Microsoft Windows 2000 Server
        • Microsoft Windows Server 2003
        • UNIX/Linux
        • NetWare
        • Mac OS X Server
  • 4. Types of Operating Systems…
    • Other operating systems include:
      • Operating Systems for Mainframes
        • IBMS’s MVS (Multiple Virtual Storage)
        • z/OS
      • Operating Systems for Network Servers
        • Novell NetWare
        • UNIX/Linux, Windows 2000/XP
        • Windows Server 2000
  • 5. Operating System Components
    • Some of the components of operating systems include:
      • Application Programming Interface (API) – software designed to communicate with the application software and the user
      • Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) – provides the basic input/output functions to communicate with system devices, such as monitors, keyboard, disks, etc
      • Kernel – the core of the operating system that coordinates operating system functions, such as controlling memory and storage
        • Communicates with the BIOS, device drivers, and the API to perform these functions and also interface with the resource managers
  • 6. Operating System Components…
    • Other operating system components include:
      • Device drivers – programs that take requests from the API via the kernel and translate them into commands to manipulate specific hardware devices, such as disks, keyboards, monitors, printers, etc
      • Resource managers – programs that manage computer memory and central processor use
      • Optional drivers – for other functions and devices, such as sound
  • 7. Characteristics of Operating Systems
    • One way to look at a computer and operating systems is to consider them in terms of one or more of the following characteristics:
      • Single-tasking
      • Multi-tasking
      • Time-sharing
      • Batch processing
      • Real-time
      • Multiuser
  • 8. Single Tasking Systems
    • Executes only one process at a time
    • Generally restricted to microcomputers and certain specialized applications
  • 9. Multi-tasking Systems
    • Executes more than one program at a time for a user
    • It can run several programs in the background while users are working on another task in the foreground
  • 10. Time-sharing System
    • A central computer system that is used by multiple users and applications simultaneously
      • Mainframe computers typically fall into this category
      • Most of the work is done in batches or batch processes
  • 11. Batch Processing Systems
    • Execute programs (batch process) that do not require active user intervention
    • Normally uses a noninteractive I/O devices such as disks or document scanners for input and returns results to those same devices
  • 12. Real-time Systems
    • An operating system that interacts directly with the user and responds in real time (immediately or almost immediately) with required information
      • Windows XP and Mac OS X are examples of these systems
  • 13. Multi-user Systems
    • Supports multiple users who are accessing the computer’s and operating systems’ hardware and software facilities
      • Both time-sharing and real-time systems can be multiuser systems
  • 14. Operating Systems Platforms
    • The main operating system platforms include:
      • Windows : by Microsoft Corporation
      • Mac OS : by Apple
      • UNIX
        • Linux
        • Solaris
  • 15. The UNIX Operating System
    • Multiuser, multitasking operating systems with built-in network functions
    • Can be used on systems functioning as:
      • Dedicated servers in a server-based network
      • Client workstations connected to a server-based network
      • Client/server workstations connected to a peer-to-peer network
      • Standalone workstations not connected to a network
    • UNIX/Linux are:
      • Multiuser systems – allow many people simultaneous access and share the resources of a server computer
      • Portable – can be used in a variety of computing environments
  • 16. A Brief History of UNIX/Linux
    • Developed in the 1970s by a group of inventive scientists at Bell Laboratories. The created an operating system consisting of:
      • Kernel – main program to control the CPU and all other hardware
      • Utilities – a collection of user and system programs
      • Filesystem – a structure for keeping and locating data in files on the hard drive
  • 17. UNIX Versions
    • There are two major versions of UNIX:
      • AT&T UNIX version V
      • Berkeley UNIX
  • 18. Other UNIX Systems
    • There are several versions of UNIX running on Sun, HP, IBM, etc that are slightly different:
      • Linux
      • Solaris
      • UnixWare
  • 19. Linux
    • Linus Torvalds and other Internet accomplices wrote Linux (a UNIX look-alike OS) and made it available for free in its basic form
    • Versions of Linux include:
      • OpenSolaris
      • Fedora
      • Red Hat
      • OpenSuse
      • Knoppix
      • Debian