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  • Hierarchy - parent/child relationship Pwd Cd allows us to move within this hierarchy
  • Example of relative and absolute paths Pwd Cd . ..
  • Where can we look to find m ore info?


  • 1. Introduction
    • A computer system consists of
      • hardware
      • system programs
      • application programs
  • 2. History of Operating Systems (1)
    • Early batch system
      • bring cards to 1401
      • read cards to tape
      • put tape on 7094 which does computing
      • put tape on 1401 which prints output
  • 3. Computer Hardware Review (1)
    • Components of a simple personal computer
    Monitor Bus
  • 4. Type of Computers
    • Supercomputing: used for scientific computing
    • Mainframes: used to be primary form of computer, used in centralized computers, used in businesses for timesharing
    • Servers: computers used to connect other computers to the internet, printer, file sharing, etc.
    • Desktops: Personal Computers
    • Workstations: More powerful version of the personal computer
    • Handheld: Smaller operating Systems for handhelds
    • Real Time: Operating Systems for information that needs to be updated in real time
    • Embedded Systems: Systems that are found within another System
  • 5. History of Operating Systems
    • First Operating System
    • Originally developed in AT&T Bell Labs (now know as Lucent Technologies)
    • UNIX was taken to University of California Berkley leading to the foundation of the Berkeley Standard Distribution
    • UNIX then opened up the computer industry to many other UNIX type operating systems and more
    • To date, Apple MAC OS X is the most widely used desktop version of UNIX
  • 6. Types of Operating Systems
    • UNIX
    • Linux
    • Windows
    • MAC OS
    Go on to next page
  • 7. Linux
    • Free UNIX-type operating system
    • Linus Torvalds started creating in 1991
    • Started out as MINIX then formed into Linux
    • Continuously updated
    • Popular among college students
    • Intended for small servers, workstations, desktops, and handhelds
    • Cost: Free
  • 8. What is Unix?
    • A fully featured modern operating system
    • It is available in a variety of “flavors.”
    • It’s comprised of simple tools that perform a single function well.
    • These tools can be used together to perform complex tasks.
  • 9. A Little History First: UNIX
    • Initial design by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and others at AT&T's Bell Telephone Laboratories (BTL) in 1969: 32 years ago!
    • AT&T made the source available to Universities for research and educational use.
    • 1973 UNIX was rewritten in C resulting in Version 4.
      • The C language was also originally designed and developed for use on the UNIX system by Dennis Ritchie
      • C was evolved from 'B', developed by Thompson.
  • 10. Commercialization
    • Interactive Systems first commercial (1977)
    • Microsoft and SCO release XENIX (1980)
    • 1982 Bill Joy left Berkeley and founded Sun Microsystems.
      • SunOS originall based on BSD 4.2
      • SunOS 5 (Solaris 2.X) was a collaborative effort based on System V, release 4 (SVR4).
    • AIX from IBM
    • HP/UX from Hewlett Packard Corporation
    • ULTRIX from Digitial Equipment Corporation, followed by DEC OSF/1. DEC purchased by Compaq
  • 11. Unix is Made Up of
    • Processes
    • Running Programs
      • User owned
      • System owned
    • Files
    • Regular Files:
      • Data
      • Executables <-- usually start a process
    • Directory Files
      • Contain other files and directories
    • Special Files
  • 12. Our View of the World as Users Your Shell A shell is a process that acts as an interface to the OS. It allows the user to run programs individually and together to accomplish a task. Unix Shell
  • 13. Simple Unix Directory Structure / usr etc home bin var ... local bin ... class grad ugrad ... mmscott jpeckhar ...
  • 14. Your First Command
    • Syntax: man topic
    • man provides online documentation on nearly every standard command and configuration file.
    • Optional Syntax: man -k keyword
    • man man for more details
    Man(manual) -- Documentation is your friend
  • 15. Special Directories
    • Home Directory
    • /home/grad/jpeckhar
    • ~jpeckhar
    • ~
    • A user generally has permission to freely manipulate files within this directory and its children.
    • Users start with their home directory as their pwd when they login.
  • 16. Changing Directories
    • The cd( C hange D irectory) command is used to change directories
    • cd path
    • Paths can be relative or absolute
    • pwd reports present working directory
    • cd when entered by itself sets the pwd to the user’s home directory.
  • 17. Other File System Utilities Removes directories
    • rmdir
    Makes directories
    • mkdir
    Deletes files
    • rm
    Moves files
    • mv
    Copies files
    • cp
    Lists all files in a directory
    • ls
  • 18. Basic Syntax rmdir directory to be removed
    • rmdir
    mkdir new directory name
    • mkdir
    rm file
    • rm
    mv source dest OR mv source … dir
    • mv
    cp source dest OR cp source … dir
    • cp
    • ls
  • 19. Using Other Commands Syntax: command file Sorts the contents of a file
    • sort
    Counts the words in a file and more
    • wc
    Same as more but more features
    • less
    Echos a file a line at a time
    • more
    Searches a file for a string
    • grep
    Echos file contents to the screen
    • cat
  • 20. Pipes
    • Pipes connect stdout of one command to stdin of another comand. i.e.
    • ls | less
    • cat student_list | grep senior | sort
  • 21. I/O Redirection
    • I/O redirection allows the user to change where input to a command or output from a command goes to/comes from.
    • cat student_list > outfile
    • program < infile
    • program < infile > outfile
  • 22. Standard File Handles
    • Every Unix process automatically comes with three file handles or descriptors.
    • These are:
      • Standard Input (stdin)
        • Keyboard
      • Standard Output (stdout)
        • Display
      • Standard Error (stderr)
        • Display (unbuff)