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  • Hierarchy - parent/child relationship Pwd Cd allows us to move within this hierarchy
  • Example of relative and absolute paths Pwd Cd . ..
  • Where can we look to find m ore info?
  • os_unix.ppt

    1. 1. Introduction <ul><li>A computer system consists of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>system programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>application programs </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. History of Operating Systems (1) <ul><li>Early batch system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bring cards to 1401 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>read cards to tape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>put tape on 7094 which does computing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>put tape on 1401 which prints output </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Computer Hardware Review (1) <ul><li>Components of a simple personal computer </li></ul>Monitor Bus
    4. 4. Type of Computers <ul><li>Supercomputing: used for scientific computing </li></ul><ul><li>Mainframes: used to be primary form of computer, used in centralized computers, used in businesses for timesharing </li></ul><ul><li>Servers: computers used to connect other computers to the internet, printer, file sharing, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Desktops: Personal Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Workstations: More powerful version of the personal computer </li></ul><ul><li>Handheld: Smaller operating Systems for handhelds </li></ul><ul><li>Real Time: Operating Systems for information that needs to be updated in real time </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded Systems: Systems that are found within another System </li></ul>
    5. 5. History of Operating Systems <ul><li>First Operating System </li></ul><ul><li>Originally developed in AT&T Bell Labs (now know as Lucent Technologies) </li></ul><ul><li>UNIX was taken to University of California Berkley leading to the foundation of the Berkeley Standard Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>UNIX then opened up the computer industry to many other UNIX type operating systems and more </li></ul><ul><li>To date, Apple MAC OS X is the most widely used desktop version of UNIX </li></ul>
    6. 6. Types of Operating Systems <ul><li>UNIX </li></ul><ul><li>Linux </li></ul><ul><li>Windows </li></ul><ul><li>MAC OS </li></ul>Go on to next page
    7. 7. Linux <ul><li>Free UNIX-type operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Linus Torvalds started creating in 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Started out as MINIX then formed into Linux </li></ul><ul><li>Continuously updated </li></ul><ul><li>Popular among college students </li></ul><ul><li>Intended for small servers, workstations, desktops, and handhelds </li></ul><ul><li>Cost: Free </li></ul>
    8. 8. What is Unix? <ul><li>A fully featured modern operating system </li></ul><ul><li>It is available in a variety of “flavors.” </li></ul><ul><li>It’s comprised of simple tools that perform a single function well. </li></ul><ul><li>These tools can be used together to perform complex tasks. </li></ul>
    9. 9. A Little History First: UNIX <ul><li>Initial design by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and others at AT&T's Bell Telephone Laboratories (BTL) in 1969: 32 years ago! </li></ul><ul><li>AT&T made the source available to Universities for research and educational use. </li></ul><ul><li>1973 UNIX was rewritten in C resulting in Version 4. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The C language was also originally designed and developed for use on the UNIX system by Dennis Ritchie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C was evolved from 'B', developed by Thompson. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Commercialization <ul><li>Interactive Systems first commercial (1977) </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft and SCO release XENIX (1980) </li></ul><ul><li>1982 Bill Joy left Berkeley and founded Sun Microsystems. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SunOS originall based on BSD 4.2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SunOS 5 (Solaris 2.X) was a collaborative effort based on System V, release 4 (SVR4). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AIX from IBM </li></ul><ul><li>HP/UX from Hewlett Packard Corporation </li></ul><ul><li>ULTRIX from Digitial Equipment Corporation, followed by DEC OSF/1. DEC purchased by Compaq </li></ul>
    11. 11. Unix is Made Up of <ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Running Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User owned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System owned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Files </li></ul><ul><li>Regular Files: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executables <-- usually start a process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Directory Files </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain other files and directories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special Files </li></ul>
    12. 12. Our View of the World as Users Your Shell A shell is a process that acts as an interface to the OS. It allows the user to run programs individually and together to accomplish a task. Unix Shell
    13. 13. Simple Unix Directory Structure / usr etc home bin var ... local bin ... class grad ugrad ... mmscott jpeckhar ...
    14. 14. Your First Command <ul><li>Syntax: man topic </li></ul><ul><li>man provides online documentation on nearly every standard command and configuration file. </li></ul><ul><li>Optional Syntax: man -k keyword </li></ul><ul><li>man man for more details </li></ul>Man(manual) -- Documentation is your friend
    15. 15. Special Directories <ul><li>Home Directory </li></ul><ul><li>/home/grad/jpeckhar </li></ul><ul><li>~jpeckhar </li></ul><ul><li>~ </li></ul><ul><li>A user generally has permission to freely manipulate files within this directory and its children. </li></ul><ul><li>Users start with their home directory as their pwd when they login. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Changing Directories <ul><li>The cd( C hange D irectory) command is used to change directories </li></ul><ul><li>cd path </li></ul><ul><li>Paths can be relative or absolute </li></ul><ul><li>pwd reports present working directory </li></ul><ul><li>cd when entered by itself sets the pwd to the user’s home directory. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Other File System Utilities Removes directories <ul><li>rmdir </li></ul>Makes directories <ul><li>mkdir </li></ul>Deletes files <ul><li>rm </li></ul>Moves files <ul><li>mv </li></ul>Copies files <ul><li>cp </li></ul>Lists all files in a directory <ul><li>ls </li></ul>
    18. 18. Basic Syntax rmdir directory to be removed <ul><li>rmdir </li></ul>mkdir new directory name <ul><li>mkdir </li></ul>rm file <ul><li>rm </li></ul>mv source dest OR mv source … dir <ul><li>mv </li></ul>cp source dest OR cp source … dir <ul><li>cp </li></ul>ls <ul><li>ls </li></ul>
    19. 19. Using Other Commands Syntax: command file Sorts the contents of a file <ul><li>sort </li></ul>Counts the words in a file and more <ul><li>wc </li></ul>Same as more but more features <ul><li>less </li></ul>Echos a file a line at a time <ul><li>more </li></ul>Searches a file for a string <ul><li>grep </li></ul>Echos file contents to the screen <ul><li>cat </li></ul>
    20. 20. Pipes <ul><li>Pipes connect stdout of one command to stdin of another comand. i.e. </li></ul><ul><li>ls | less </li></ul><ul><li>cat student_list | grep senior | sort </li></ul>
    21. 21. I/O Redirection <ul><li>I/O redirection allows the user to change where input to a command or output from a command goes to/comes from. </li></ul><ul><li>cat student_list > outfile </li></ul><ul><li>program < infile </li></ul><ul><li>program < infile > outfile </li></ul>
    22. 22. Standard File Handles <ul><li>Every Unix process automatically comes with three file handles or descriptors. </li></ul><ul><li>These are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard Input (stdin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard Output (stdout) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Display </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard Error (stderr) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Display (unbuff) </li></ul></ul></ul>