OPERATING SYSTEMS Lecture Version START OF PART 1
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OPERATING SYSTEMS Lecture Version START OF PART 1 OPERATING SYSTEMS Lecture Version START OF PART 1 Presentation Transcript

  • OPERATING SYSTEMS Lecture Version START OF PART 1
  • OPERATING SYSTEMS Learning Objectives
    • To understand and learn about:
    • What an operating system (OS) is.
    • The history of DOS and the beginning of Microsoft.
    • 3. The development of Windows OS.
    • 4. Overview of popular operating systems in use today.
  • OPERATING SYSTEMS NERD I am an OS guru. LINUX
  • OPERATING SYSTEMS NERD LINUX
    • Operating Systems
    • Programs that control the computer hardware .
    • Interfaces with application software.
  • OPERATING SYSTEMS NERD LINUX
    • HISTORICAL and POPULAR OS’s
    • MS DOS
    • Windows 3.11 with MS DOS
    • Windows 95/98
    • Windows NT, 2000, xP, Vista
    • Unix
      • HP/UX
      • IBM/AIX
      • Linux
    • Apple’s System X (“Ten”)
    • IBM’s OS/390 (MVS)
  • NERD LINUX
    • MS DOS
    • Microsoft D isk O perating S ystem
    • Last version by MS was 6.22
    • Bill Gates purchased DOS from Seattle Computer Products
    • for $50,000 in 1980.
      • Supplied DOS to IBM…start of Gates’s billions.
    • IBM PC DOS 2000 version is still available.
      • $57.00
      • Requires Pentium II, 32 MB RAM, 2 GB disk storage
      • Very stable OS for the control of devices on assembly lines, etc.
    MS DOS OPERATING SYSTEMS History of DOS and Microsoft
  • The History of the  MS-DOS Operating Systems Microsoft - Tim Paterson - Gary Kildall By Mary Bellis "I don't think it's that significant." - Tandy president John Roach on IBM's entry into the microcomputer field . On August 12, 1981, IBM introduced its new revolution in a box, the " Personal Computer " complete with a brand new operating system from Microsoft and a 16-bit computer operating system called MS-DOS 1.0.   First IBM PC OPERATING SYSTEMS History of DOS and Microsoft
  • NERD In 1980, IBM first approached Bill Gates and Microsoft , to discuss the state of home computers and Microsoft products. Gates gave IBM a few ideas on what would make a great home computer, among them to have BASIC written into the ROM chip. Microsoft had already produced several versions of BASIC for different computer system beginning with the Altair , so Gates was more than happy to write a version for IBM. MITS Altair MITS Altair Altair BASIC. Includes many features not normally found in BASIC. These include Boolean operators, the ability to read or write a byte from any I/O port or memory location, multiple statements per line, and the ability to interrupt program execution and then continue after the examination of variable values. OPERATING SYSTEMS History of DOS and Microsoft
  • As for an operating system (OS) for the new computers, since Microsoft had never written an operating system before, Gates had suggested that IBM investigate an OS called CP/M (Control Program for Microcomputers), written by Gary Kildall of Digital Research. Kildall had his Ph.D. in computers and had written the most successful operating system of the time, selling over 600,000 copies of CP/M, his OS set the standard at that time. Gary Kildall OPERATING SYSTEMS History of DOS and Microsoft I’m rich and getting richer from my CP/M OS.
  • IBM tried to contact Kildall for a meeting, executives met with Mrs. Kildall who refused to sign a non-disclosure agreement. IBM soon returned to Bill Gates and gave Microsoft the contract to write the new operating system , one that would eventually wipe Kildall's CP/M out of common use. The "Microsoft Disk Operating System" or MS-DOS was based on QDOS , the " Quick and Dirty Operating System " written by Tim Paterson of Seattle Computer Products, for their prototype Intel 8086 based computer. Gary Kildall Someday I am going to shoot that woman. OPERATING SYSTEMS History of DOS and Microsoft
  • QDOS was based on Gary Kildall's CP/M, Paterson had bought a CP/M manual and used it as the basis to write his operating system in six weeks, QDOS was different enough from CP/M to be considered legal. Microsoft bought the rights to QDOS for $50,000 , keeping the IBM deal a secret from Seattle Computer Products . Tim Paterson I traded $50,000,000,000 for $50,000 Bill Gates I’m a guy you can trust. OPERATING SYSTEMS History of DOS and Microsoft
  • Gates then talked IBM into letting Microsoft retain the rights, to market MS DOS separate from the IBM PC project, Gates proceeded to make a fortune from the licensing of MS-DOS. In 1981, Tim Paterson quit Seattle Computer Products and found employment at Microsoft . OPERATING SYSTEMS History of DOS and Microsoft MicroSoft Corporate Headquarters
  • OPERATING SYSTEMS
    • MS Windows 3.11 with DOS
    • Uses a GUI ( Graphical User Interface )
      • GUI was first developed at Xerox , at its Palo Alto Research Center.
    • Replaced by Windows 95/98
    • Did not support multithreaded applications or multiprocessors.
  • OPERATING SYSTEMS
    • MS Windows 95/98
    • Newly designed GUI.
    • Has Win 3.11 and DOS within it.
    • Lots of bugs
    • Supports multitasking and multithreaded applications.
    • Does not support Multiprocessors
  • OPERATING SYSTEMS
    • Win NT 4.0, 2000, XP, Vista
    • Has GUI.
    • Completely NEW …no DOS or WIN 3.11
    • Multitasking
    • Multiprocessing
    • Multiprocessors
    • Two versions
    • (1) Server
    • (2) Workstation
    • Very stable for NT 4.0 and 2000, not so for xP and Vista
    • Has network operating system .
    Win NT 4.0, 2000, XP, Vista
  • OPERATING SYSTEMS Mac OS X vs Vista OS Funny,Full screen ok. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QT6YO30GhmQ Videos on MicroSoft Vista Vista Features Voice Recognition-2 - 11 min (Perl) Voice Recognition-3 - 3 min (Demo) Overview of Features-2 - 5 min Other Videos Managing Programs -26 min Keynote Presentation 1hr 16 min
  • OPERATING SYSTEMS
    • Mac OS X (“Ten”)
    • Has new GUI called “Aqua”
    • Uses PowerPC G3 and G4 processors.
    • Multitasking
    • Multiprocessing
    • Multiprocessors
    • Very stable.
    • Has network operating system.
    Mac OS X (“Ten”)
  • OPERATING SYSTEMS NERD LINUX
  • OPERATING SYSTEMS NERD LINUX UNIX: Linux
    • UNIX: Linux (LIN-nucks)
    • Looks like UNIX, but code is different.
      • Linix is a kernel: controls hardware, manages files,
      • separates processes.
    • Has 15 distribution software packages.
      • Redhat Linux is the best known.
    • Created by Linus Torvalds at University of Helsinke
    • Very stable
    • Used on lots of Internet servers .
    • More application software is needed; much of it is free.
      • Example Open Office: http:// www.openoffice.org /
  • START OF PART 2
  • INSTRUCTION OBJECTIVES (SOFTWARE)
    • OBJECTIVES:
    • To understand what software is.
    • To understand what a translator is.
    • To develop an understanding of generations
    • of computer languages:
      • 1 st generation languages
      • 2 nd generation languages
      • 3 rd generation languages
      • 4 th generation languages
      • 5 th generation languages
  • SOFTWARE Just tell me what you want me to do.
    • SOFTWARE DEFINITION:
      • Instructions to the computer using
      • PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES.
  • PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
    • GENERATIONS OF LANGUAGES:
      • First Generation
        • Machine Language
      • Second Generation
        • Assembly Language
      • Third Generation
        • Cobol, BASIC, C++. Java, ADA
      • Fourth Generation
        • SQL, etc.
      • Fifth Generation
        • Natural Language
  • FIRST GENERATION NERD I love this stuff. 1 ST GL
  • FIRST GENERATION I only understand one language, that is machine language: 111100101001010
    • MACHINE LANGUAGE
      • Consists of binary zeros and ones:
      • 1100000100111100001101
  • FIRST GENERATION Here’s how I add two numbers in binary. ADD 2 13 00100101 00000010 00001101
  • FIRST GENERATION Here’s how I subtract two numbers in binary. SUBTRACT 2 13 00100111 00000010 00001101
  • FIRST GENERATION That’s right, I only understand binary zeros and ones.
  • FIRST GENERATION I love binary, but programmers hate it. 11111000 11100010 10001111 10011101 10001111 00011111 10001010 11100011 00011110
  • FIRST GENERATION I need a TRANSLATOR. He needs AA
  • TRANSLATORS 11110000 11001100 10001111 10001101 10000111 01111011 10011110 10001110 10001100 10100100 10011101 10100010 10010101 01110101 11100011 11100110 10100101 01110000 11100101 10010101 10100101 10010101 10001010 10100100 TRANSLATORS make me happy. HUMAN LANGUAGE: GROSS = 40 * 6.00 OT = 5 * 9.00 PAY = GROSS + OT PRINT PAY TRANSLATOR MACHINE LANGUAGE A program
  • TRANSLATORS 1 st GL 10001101 10000111 01111011 10011110 10001110 10001100 10100100 10011101 10100010 10010101 01110101 11100011 11100110 10100101 01110000 11100101 10010101 10100101 10010101 10001010 10100100 2 nd GL 3 rd GL 4 th GL 5 th GL 1 st GL’s don’t need TRANSLATORS, but I could use another drink. Machine Languages Human Languages TRANSLATOR A program
  • REVIEW QUESTION Why don’t 1 st GLs have TRANSLATORS? ANSWER
  • REVIEW QUESTION Why don’t 1 st GLs have TRANSLATORS? ANSWER None needed because 1 st GLs are in the native language of the computer.
  • SECOND GENERATION LANGUAGES NERD This stuff turns me on. 2 nd GL
  • SECOND GENERATION It’s called Assembly Language It’s a little better than machine language.
  • SECOND GENERATION Here’s an example:
    • AR 5, 3
      • This means Add the contents of Register 5 to the contents of
      • Register 3, and put the results in Register 5.
  • SECOND GENERATION Here’s another example:
    • SR 5, 3
      • This means Subtract the contents of Register 5 from the
      • contents of Register 3, and put the results in Register 5.
  • SECOND GENERATION Its translator is called an ASSEMBLER .
  • SECOND GENERATION 1 st GL 10001101 10000111 01111011 10010101 10001010 10100100 AR 5, 3 SR 5, 3 Translators make me happy. Let’s celebrate. Machine Languages Assembly
    • ASSEMBLER (a program)
      • 1-to-1 translation
    TRANSLATOR A program
  • SECOND GENERATION ASSEMBLY is what you call this second generation language. ASSEMBLER is what you call the TRANSLATOR of this second generation language.
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS Computers understand Assembly Language? True or False
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS Computers understand Assembly Language? True or False FALSE
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS An assembly language translator is called… Answer
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS An assembly language translator is called… Answer an assembler.
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS Each assembly language instruction gets translated into how many machine language instructions? Answer
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS Each assembly language instruction gets translated into how many machine language instructions? Answer One. There is a 1-to-1 translation.
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS Machine language consists of binary 1s and 0s only? True or False
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS Machine language consists of binary 1s and 0s only? True or False True
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS Assembly language is a 1 st generation language? True or False
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS Assembly language is a 1 st generation language? True or False False
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS All generations of languages need translators? True or False
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS All generations of languages need translators? True or False False
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS The guy next to me is a drunk? True or False
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS I have NEVER swallowed. FALSE...
  • THE END OF PART 2
  • SOFTWARE START OF PART 3
  • THIRD GENERATION NERD This makes me salivate. 3 ST GL
  • THIRD GENERATION 3GLs make me want to celebrate.
    • THIRD GENERATION LANGUAGES
    • Procedural
      • Cobol
      • BASIC
      • C
      • Pascal
      • Fortran
  • THIRD GENERATION Cobol will never die. Long live Cobol.
    • COBOL
    • Procedural
    • COmmon Business Oriented Language
      • COBOL
    • 3 Trillion lines of code in businesses
    • Example:
      • MULTIPLY HOURS BY RATE GIVING GROSS-PAY
      • ROUNDED.
  • THIRD GENERATION All this code to add 15 lousy numbers. Example of Cobol code:
  • THIRD GENERATION Example of Cobol code : All this code to add to add 15 lousy numbers.
  • THIRD GENERATION Example of Cobol code : All this code to add to add 15 lousy numbers.
  • THIRD GENERATION BASIC is no longer so basic.
  • THIRD GENERATION See how little programming code is required to add 15 numbers using BASIC.
  • THIRD GENERATION One-too-many drinks. Many 3GL STATEMENT PRINT TOTAL One A third generation TRANLATOR translates a single 3GL statement into MANY statements in machine language. MACHINE LANGUAGE 11010100 10011100 10110101 11011010 10111010 11000001 10101010 10100101 11111000 10101010 10100101 11111000 TRANSLATOR (A program)
  • THIRD GENERATION There are TWO types of TRANSLATORS for 3 rd , 4 th and 5 th GLs. 1. Interpreter 2. Compiler Many 3GL STATEMENT PRINT TOTAL One MACHINE LANGUAGE 11010100 10011100 10110101 11011010 10111010 11000001 10101010 10100101 11111000 10101010 10100101 11111000 TRANSLATOR (A program)
  • THIRD GENERATION Many 3GL STATEMENTS FOR I = 1 TO 15 READ X TOTAL = TOTAL + X NEXT I PRINT TOTAL
    • COMPILER
      • Translates the entire program into machine language. Then, the machine language code can be executed later.
    MACHINE LANGUAGE 11010100 10011100 10110101 11011010 10111010 11000001 10101010 10100101 11111000 11100001 01010010 10010100 10100010 10100100 10101010 11000101 10101001 10101001 11010100 10011100 10110101 11011010 10111010 11000001 10101010 10100101 11111000 11100001 01010010 10010100 10100010 10100100 10101010 11000101 10101001 10101001 TRANSLATOR (A program)
  • THIRD GENERATION Many 3GL STATEMENTS FOR I = 1 TO 15 READ X TOTAL = TOTAL + X NEXT I PRINT TOTAL
    • INTERPETER
      • Translates a single 3GL statement into machine language, then executes that machine language code. Then the interpreter takes the next 3GL statement, translates it into machine code, and executes it, etc.
    MACHINE LANGUAGE 11010100 10011100 10110101 11011010 10111010 11000001 10101010 10100101 11111000 11100001 01010010 10010100 10100010 10100100 10101010 11000101 10101001 10101001 11010100 10011100 10110101 11011010 10111010 11000001 10101010 10100101 11111000 11100001 01010010 10010100 10100010 10100100 10101010 11000101 10101001 10101001 TRANSLATOR (A program)
  • FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES NERD This stuff really BORES me. 4 th GL
  • FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES This SQL code will list the names of all persons making more than $45,000.
    • FOURTH GENERATION
    • Nonprocedural
      • English-like
    • SQL, FOCUS, QBE
    • Example of SQL (Structured Query Language) :
      • SELECT NAMES
      • FROM PAYROLL
      • WHERE SALARY > 45000
  • FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES 4GLs are just too easy to be fun.
    • FOURTH GENERATION
    • Nonprocedural
    • English-like
    • Translation
      • ONE to MANY, MANY, MANY
    • Compilers & Interpreters
    • End-users can develop their own systems.
    • Fast development time.
  • FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES Using a 4GL we can finish the system many times faster. We can also use rapid prototyping. Visual Basic Demo
  • FIFTH GENERATION LANGUAGES NERD This stuff is so easy that it is going to put me out of a job. 5 th GL
  • FIFTH GENERATION LANGUAGES If we use a 5 th GL, we can develop the system by just telling the computer what we want and the programs will be developed automatically. Also, we can query the database with natural language.
  • FIFTH GENERATION LANGUAGES Give us the total shoe sale by Mr. Simmons for last July. Just talk to me as if I were a human.
  • FIFTH GENERATION LANGUAGES Just talk to me as if I were a human.
    • FIFTH GENERATION
    • Nonprocedural
    • Everyday English
    • Translation
      • ONE to MANY, MANY, MANY, MANY, MANY, MANY
    • Compilers & Interpreters
    • End-users can develop their own systems.
    • Fast development time.
  • OBJECT ORIENTED LANGUAGES I think I am in love!
    • O bject O riented P rogramming called OOP s.
    • An OBJECT is anything you can name as a NOUN .
      • Examples:
        • Brick, window, door, checking account, savings account,
        • loan account, car sales, payroll, book, nerd, monitor, etc.
      • An OBJECT contains PROCEDURES and DATA so that
      • it can operate on itself. An object called “brick” contains
      • the procedures and data to draw a brick. So that when the
      • object brick is called in a program, the brick object draws a
      • brick on the computer screen.
  • OBJECT ORIENTED LANGUAGES I am a NERD object.
    • CHARACTERISTICS OF OOP LANGUAGES :
      • REUSABLE CODE is the GOAL .
      • ENCAPSULATION
        • An object contains both procedures and data.
      • POLYMORPHISM
        • The SAME message will elicit a different response depending on the receiver of the message.
        • (Receiver) (Same Message)
          • SavingsAccount . computeInterest()
          • LoanAccount . computeInterest()
      • INHERITANCE
        • An object can inherit characteristics
        • from other objects.
  • OBJECT ORIENTED LANGUAGES
    • Popular OOP Languages
      • Java, C++, Smalltalk, Cobol (OOP version)
      • Visual Basic.net (Visual Basic Ver. 7)
    • EXAMPLE OF OOPs IN GRAPHICS
      • Chimney OBJECT:
        • ENCAPSULALATION: Chimney objects contains the
        • code procedures and data for drawing chimneys
        • on the monitor.
        • POLYMORPHISM: Allows for constructing several
        • different styles of chimneys.
        • INHERITANCE: The chimney objects inherent
        • brick and stone objects, etc.
    Chimney OBJECT
  • GENERATION LANGUAGES SOURCE CODE OBJECT CODE 2 nd GL 3 rd GL 4 th GL 5 th GL 1 st GL Source Code and Object Code TRANSLATOR (A program)
  • REVIEW QUESTION Cobol is a 3 rd GL? T/F
  • REVIEW QUESTION Cobol is a 3 rd GL? T/F True
  • REVIEW QUESTION What is the relationship between a statement in a 3 rd GL and the amount of machine code produced? ANSWER
  • REVIEW QUESTION What is the relationship between a statement in a 3 rd GL and the amount of machine code produced? ANSWER One to many.
  • REVIEW QUESTION For what does COBOL stand? ANSWER
  • REVIEW QUESTION For what does COBOL stand? ANSWER CO mmon B usiness O riented L anguage
  • REVIEW QUESTION Which TRANSLATOR translates all the programming statements into machine language, before the program can be run? ANSWER
  • REVIEW QUESTION Which TRANSLATOR translates all the programming statements into machine language, before the program can be run? ANSWER Compiler
  • REVIEW QUESTION Which TRANSLATOR translates one programming statement at a time into machine language; then executes that machine language statement? ANSWER
  • REVIEW QUESTION Which TRANSLATOR translates one programming statement at a time into machine language; then executes that machine language statement? ANSWER Interpreter
  • REVIEW QUESTION SQL ( Structured Query Language ) is what level language? ANSWER
  • REVIEW QUESTION SQL (Structured Query Language) is what level language? ANSWER 4 th GL
  • REVIEW QUESTION 4 th GLs are procedural? True/False
  • REVIEW QUESTION 4 th GLs are procedural? True/False False
  • REVIEW QUESTION What generation language allows the user to talk in everyday English? Answer
  • REVIEW QUESTION What generation language allows the user to talk in everyday English? Answer 5 th GL
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS True or False The guy next to me is a nerd?
  • REVIEW QUESTIONS TRUE…but how could you tell?
  • TECHNICAL TERMS NERD Terms make me breathe fast and salivate. TERMS
  • TECHNICAL TERMS Multiprocessing
  • TECHNICAL TERMS Multiprocessing Two or more CPU’s
    • EFFECTIVE MULTIPROCESSING REQUIRES:
      • Windows 2000, Windows xP, Vista
      • Unix, Linux
      • Multithreaded software and/or multiple applications
      • running at once.
      • SMP (Symmetrical MultiProcessing)
  • TECHNICAL TERMS Multithreaded Applications Any of the 9 PARTS can be sent to any of the two processors, if the processor is not busy.
  • TECHNICAL TERMS Multithreaded Applications Any of the 5 PARTS can be sent to any of the two processors, if the processor is not busy.
  • TECHNICAL TERMS Single-threaded Applications Each application will be assigned to one of the processors.
  • TECHNICAL TERMS Single-threaded Applications The single application will be assigned to one of the processors, while the other one sleeps.
  • REVIEW QUESTION Under what conditions could a second CPU slow down your system? Answer
  • REVIEW QUESTION Under what conditions could a second CPU slow down your system? Answer
    • When running one, single-threaded
    • application.
    • The additional OS overhead in order to
    • coordinate two processors could cause
    • a 5-10 percent performance loss.
    • Remember, one processor is idle.
  • TECHNICAL TERMS Multitasking This stuff turn me on.
    • Multitasking:
    • Running two or more programs (tasks)
    • at once.
    • Refers to a single user .
    PROGRAMS
  • TECHNICAL TERMS Multiprogramming WOW!
    • Multiprogramming:
    • Running two or more programs (tasks)
    • at once.
    • Refers to two or more users
    • timesharing a single computer.
    User-1 User-2 User-3 User-4 User-5 User-5 MANY PROGRAMS
  • TECHNICAL TERMS Virtual Storage
    • VIRTUAL STORAGE : Hard disk used to extend memory.
    • Program too big to fit in free DDR-SDRAM.
    • 100 – 500 MB of HD space is often reserved for VIRTUAL STORAGE .
    • For programs larger than amount of free memory.
    • 64 MBs of DDR-SDRAM may only have 32 MB free to run a
    • 128 MB program. The program is taken off the disk, 32MB at
    • a time, and transferred to DDR-SDRAM and then to the CPU for
    • execution.
    64 MB RAM 32 MB free 60 GB 128 MB Program on disk 32 MB 32 MB 32 MB 32 MB
  • TECHNICAL TERMS COMPUTER BUG
  • REVIEW QUESTION A single-threaded application can only be run on one processor? True/False
  • REVIEW QUESTION A single-threaded application can only be run on one processor? True/False True
  • REVIEW QUESTION Multiprogramming requires two or more users at one time? True/False
  • REVIEW QUESTION Multiprogramming requires two or more users at one time? True/False True
  • REVIEW QUESTION
    • Virtual storage is located:
    • on the hard drive.
    • on DDR2 RAM.
    Answer
  • REVIEW QUESTION
    • Virtual storage is located:
    • on the hard drive .
    • on DDR2.
    Answer a. on the hard drive.
  • REVIEW QUESTION Historically a “bug” is moth? True/False
  • REVIEW QUESTION Historically a “bug” is a moth which caused the computer to malfunction? True/False True
  • THE END OF PART 3