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Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
Information System
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Information System

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  • 1. Computer Hardware Computer Software
  • 2. Computer Components Input Devices Secondary Storage Primary Storage CPU Output Devices Communications Devices Buses
  • 3. How Computers Represent Data
    • Bit
      • Binary Digit. On/off, 0/1, Magnetic/not
    • Byte
      • Group of Bits for One Character
        • EBCDIC- Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (8 or 9 Bits Per Byte)
        • ASCII- American Standard Code for Information Exchange (7 or 8 Bits Per Byte)
    • Parity Bit
      • Extra Bit Added to Each Byte to Help Detect Errors
  • 4. Examples Of Bytes
    • C: 1100 0011 0 100 0011 1
    • A: 1100 0001 1 100 0001 0
    • T: 1110 0011 1 101 0100 1
    • Note how sum for each byte is an EVEN number
    EBCDIC ASCII (assume even-parity system)
  • 5. CPU - Central Processing Unit
    • It is the Heart of the Computer.
    • A Collection Of Electronic Circuits.
    • Electronic Impulses Enter The CPU From An Input Device.
    • These Impulses Are Sent Under Program Control Through Circuits To Create A Series Of New Impulses.
    • A Set Of Impulses Leaves The CPU For The Output Device.
  • 6. Two CPU Sections
    • Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU) - Performs Arithmetic And Logical Operations On Data.
      • Arithmetic Operations: + - * /
      • Logical Operations: Comparing Data
    • Control Unit - Section Of The CPU That Directs The Flow Of Electronic Traffic Between:
      • Memory And The ALU
      • CPU and Input And Output Devices
  • 7. Memory
    • Primary (Internal) Storage Holds:
      • Programs And Data Passed To The Computer For Processing
      • Intermediate Processing Results
      • Output That Is Ready To Be Transmitted To Secondary Storage Or To An Output Device.
      • Eg: RAM
  • 8. Memory Address
    • Once Programs, Data, Intermediate Results, And Output Are Stored In Memory, The CPU Must Be Able To Find Them Again.
    • Each Location In Memory Has An Address.
  • 9. Memory Size
    • Kilobyte (KB): 2 10 Bytes... 1024 Bytes
    • Megabyte (MB): 2 10 KB... “Million” Bytes
    • Gigabyte (GB): 2 10 MB... “Billion” Bytes
    • Terabyte (TB): 2 10 GB... “Trillion” Bytes
  • 10. Registers
    • A High Speed Staging Area Within The Computer That Temporarily Stores Data During Processing.
    • These Areas Called Registers.
    • Part Of The CPU
  • 11. Four Types Of Registers
    • Instruction
    • Address
    • Storage
    • Accumulator
    • Holds The Part Of The Instruction Indicating What The Computer Is To Do Next.
    • Contains The Memory Location Of Data To Be Used.
    • Prior To Processing, The Register That Temporarily Stores Data That Have Been Retrieved From Memory.
    • Stores The Result Of An Arithmetic Or Logical Operator.
  • 12. Types Of Memory
    • RAM : Random Access Memory
      • Dynamic: Changes Thru Processing
      • Static: Remains Constant (Power On)
    • ROM : Read Only Memory (preprogrammed)
      • PROM: Program Can Be Changed Once
      • EPROM: Erasable Thru Ultraviolet Light
      • EEPROM: Electrically Erasable
  • 13. How Devices Are Linked BUS CPU RAM ROM Add-In Boards I/O Devices Ports I/O Devices BUS allows CPU to communicate with RAM, ROM, and peripheral devices connected through either boards or ports.
  • 14. Secondary Storage
    • Disk
    • Tape
    • Optical Storage
  • 15. Optical Storage
    • CD-ROM: 500-660 MEGABYTES
      • LAND: Flat parts of disk surface reflects light
      • PITS: small scratch on surface scatters light
    • WRITE ONCE / READ MANY (WORM):
      • CD-R: Compact Disk - Recordable
      • CD-RW: CD - Rewritable
    • DIGITAL VIDEO DISK (DVD): CD size, up to 10 gigabytes of data
  • 16. Input/Output Devices
    • Pointing Devices
    • Source Data Automation
    • Output Devices
  • 17. Pointing Devices
    • Keyboard
    • Mouse
      • Wired
      • Infra-red
      • Trackball
      • Touch Pad
    • Joystick
    • Touch Screen
  • 18. Source Data Automation
    • Captures Data In Computer Form At Time & Place Of Transaction
    • Barcode
      • Identifies Products in Stores, Warehouses, Shipments
    • Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR)
      • Special Ink Identifies Bank, Account, Amount
  • 19. Source Data Automation
    • Pen-Based Input
      • Digitizes Signature
    • Digital Scanner
      • Translates Images & Characters Into Digital Form
    • Voice Input Devices
      • Converts Spoken Word Into Digital Form
    • Sensors
      • Devices That Collect Data From Environment for Computer Input (E.G., Thermometers, Pressure Gauges)
  • 20. Output Devices
    • Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
    • Printer
    • Plotter
    • Voice Output Device
  • 21. Data Processing
    • Batch Processing
      • Transaction Data Stored Until Convenient to Process As a Group. Useful for Less Time-sensitive Actions.
    • On-line Processing
      • Transaction Data Entered Directly Into System, Constantly Updating Files. Requires Direct-access Devices.
  • 22. Categories Of Computers
    • Supercomputer
    • Mainframe
    • Midrange & Minicomputer
    • Server
    • Personal Computer (PC)
    • Workstation
  • 23. Supercomputer
    • Highly Sophisticated
    • Complex Computations
    • FASTEST CPUs
    • Large Simulations
    • State-of-the-art Components
    • Expensive
  • 24. Mainframe
    • Largest Enterprise Computer
    • 50 Megabytes to Over One Gigabyte RAM
    • Commercial, Scientific, Military Applications
    • Massive Data
    • Complicated Computations
  • 25. Midrange/Minicomputer
    • Middle-Range
    • 10 Megabytes To Over One Gigabyte RAM
    • Universities, Factories, Labs
    • Used As Front-End Processor For Mainframe
  • 26. Client / Server
    • Networked Computers
    • Client
      • User (PC, Workstation, Laptop) Requires Data, Application, Communications It Does Not Have
    • Server
      • Component (Computer) Having Desired Data, Application, Communications
  • 27. Client / Server Client Server User Interface Application Function Data Application Function Network Resources Requests Data, Service
  • 28. Microcomputer
    • Desktop or Portable
    • 64 Kilobytes to Over 128 Megabytes RAM
    • Personal or Business Computers
    • Affordable
    • Many Available Components
    • Can Be Networked
  • 29. Workstation
    • Desktop Computer
    • Powerful Graphics
    • Extensive Math Capabilities
    • Multi-tasking
    • Usually Configured To Special Function: e.g.; CAD, Engineering, Graphics
  • 30. Centralized / Distributed
    • Centralized
      • Processing By Central Computer Site
        • One Standard
        • Greater Control
    • Distributed
      • Processing By Several Computer Sites Linked By Networks
        • More Flexibility
        • Faster Response
  • 31. Sharing Computers
    • Network Computer
      • Simplified Desktop Computer Stores Minimum Data to Function (Uses Server)
    • Peer-to-Peer Computing
      • Networked Computers Share Data, Disk Space, Processing. Parallel Processing on a Smaller Scale
  • 32. Managing Hardware Assets
    • Understand Technology Requirements
    • Determine Total Cost Of Ownership
      • Hardware, Software, Installation, Training, Support, Maintenance, Infrastructure
    • Plan Capacity & Scalability
    • Identify Trends
  • 33. Computer Software
  • 34. Software
    • Detailed Instructions To Control Computer Operation
    • Program
      • Set Of Instructions To The Computer
    • Stored
      • Program Must Be In Primary Storage
    • System Software
      • Manages Computer Resources
    • Application Software
      • Specific Business Application
  • 35. Software Programming Languages: Assembly Language; Fortran; Cobol; Pl / 1; QBasic; Pascal; C; C++; Fourth Generation Languages
    • Operating System:
    • Scheduled Computer Events
    • Allocates Computer Resources Monitors Events
    • Language Translators:
    • Interpreters
    • Compilers
    • Utility Programs:
    • Routine Operations Manage Data
    Hardware System Software Application Software
  • 36. Language Translation
    • Source Code
      • High-level Language Instructions
    • Compiler
      • Translates High-level Code Into Machine Language
    • Object Code
      • Translated Instructions Ready For Computer
  • 37. Graphical User Interface (GUI)
    • Operating System Uses
    • Graphic Icons
      • Icons, Buttons, Bars, Boxes
    • Pointer
      • Mouse, Pen, Touch Screen
    • To Issue Commands
    • Make Selections
  • 38. Microcomputer Operating Systems Operating System Features 32-bit operating system, GUI, multitasking, networking 32-bit operating system not limited to Intel chips. Multitasking, multiprocessing, networking 32-bit. Developed for IBM PS/2. Multitasking, networking Paired-down for handheld computers, wireless communication devices Windows 98 & 95 Windows NT Me & 2000 Windows CE OS/2
  • 39. Microcomputer Operating Systems Mac OS For Macintosh computers. Multitasking. Powerful graphics, multimedia Unix For powerful microcomputers, workstations, minicomputers. Multitasking, multi-user processing, networking. Portable to various computer platforms DOS For IBM (PC-DOS) and PC (MS-DOS). Program memory: 640K Linux Free, reliable alternative to Unix, Windows. Runs on many Platforms. Open-source Operating System Features
  • 40. Generations Of Programming Languages
    • 1st. Since 1940s. Machine Language: Binary Code
    • 2nd. Since Early ’50s. Assembly Language: Mnemonics for Numeric Code
    • 3rd. Since Mid ‘50s. High-level Languages
    • 4th. Since Late ‘70s. Modern Application Packages
  • 41. High-Level Languages
    • FORTRAN (Formula Translator): Scientific, Engineering Applications
    • COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language): Predominant for Transaction Processing
    • BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code): General Purpose PC Language
  • 42. High-level Languages
    • PASCAL : Used to Teach Structured Programming Practices. Weak in File Handling, Input / Output
    • C and C++: Powerful PC Language for Developing Applications. Efficient Execution; Cross Platform. C++ Is Object Oriented
  • 43. Fourth Generation Languages (4GL)
    • Can Be Employed By End Users
    • Nonprocedural
    • Can Develop Applications Quickly
    • Natural Languages
    • Six Categories
  • 44. Fourth Generation Languages (4GL)
    • Query Languages:
      • Rapidly Retrieve Data
      • Interactive/ On-line
      • May Use NATURAL LANGUAGE
      • Support Special Requests for Data From Relational Databases
  • 45.
    • Report Generators:
      • Create Customized Reports
      • Wide Range of Formats
    • Graphics Languages:
      • Can Manipulate Drawings, Graphs, Photos, Videos
      • Presentation Managers
    Fourth Generation Languages (4GL)
  • 46.
    • Application Generators
      • User Specifies Computer Needs
      • Generator Creates Logic and Code for Application
      • Greatly Reduces Development Time
    • Very High-level Programming Languages
      • Professional Programmer Productivity Tool
      • Uses Fewer Instructions
      • Reduces Development Time
    Fourth Generation Languages (4GL)
  • 47.
    • Software Package: Commercially Available Set of Programs.
      • Word Processing
      • Spreadsheets
      • Data Management
      • Presentation Management
    • Integrated Software Package Now Combine These To Simplify Learning And Use
    Fourth Generation Languages (4GL)
  • 48. Software Tools
    • Word Processing
    • Spreadsheets
    • Data Management
    • Presentation Graphics
    • Integrated Software Suites
    • E-mail
    • Web Browsers
    • Groupware

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