History of the PC
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History of the PC Presentation Transcript

  • 1. History of the PC Computer Repair Technician
  • 2. The Abacus
    • A calculator, circa 500 B.C.
    • Used for addition, subtraction, division, & multiplication
  • 3. Analytical Engine
    • Pre-electronic computer
    • Charles Babbage - 1822 - 1871
    • First mechanical computer,
      • Received instructions from punched cards
      • Memory bank
      • Printed solutions to math problems
  • 4. Dr. Herman Hollerith
    • Designed 1st computer designed for data processing - 1889
    • Built for U.S. Census Bureau - 1890
    • IBM created
    • Hollerith card
      • 80-column punch card
  • 5. Digital Electronic Computers
    • ABC ( Atanasoff-Berry Computer )
      • 1st electronic digital computer 1939 - 1942 at Iowa State
      • Weighed 750 pounds and could store 3,000 bits (0.4 KB) of data
      • Binary arithmetic -Regenerative memory
      • Parallel Processing -Separate memory & Computer functions
  • 6. ENIAC ( Electronic Numerical Integrator & Computer )
    • Univ of Pennsylvania
    • US Army - WWII, 1945
    • Classified military project for preparing firing & bombing tables (calculated trajectory values in seconds)
  • 7. ENIAC ( Electronic Numerical Integrator & Computer )
    • 1800 square feet of floor space
      • Thirty separate units, plus power supply & forced air cooling
    • Weighed 30 tons (Portable?)
    • Used 19,000 vacuum tubes ( not transistors )
    • 1500 relays
    • Hundred of thousands of resistors, capacitors, & inductors
  • 8. ENIAC ( Electronic Numerical Integrator & Computer )
    • 200 kilowatts of electrical power to operate
    • Many people needed to program it
      • Required manual switches & cable connections
    • Considered prototype for most of today’s computers
    • Begins the modern computer age
  • 9. Colossus I
    • Hertz, England - 1943
    • Purpose - crypto-analysis ( cracking of codes)
  • 10. Mainframes & minis
    • 1960s and 1970s
      • IBM, DEC ( Digital Equipment Corporation ),Tektronics, VAX
      • Information stored on punch cards or tape drives
      • Large, air-cooled rooms
  • 11. Punch Card
  • 12. 1969 - Who is Intel?
    • Founded when two guys left a company that they started
    • Japanese Company wanted Intel to design 12 chips
    • One engineer thought he could design 1 chip for all 12 functions
    • 1971 - the first microprocessor
  • 13. 1971 Kenbak-1
    • First personal computer
    • $750 in Scientific American
    • integrated circuits
    • Switches for input and lights for output
    • 256-byte memory
    • Sold 40 machines
  • 14. 1974 Alto
    • Xerox Palo Alto Research Center
    • First work station with a built-in mouse for input
    • Stored several files simultaneously in windows
    • Menus and icons
    • Link to a local area network.
    • Never sold the Alto commercially-gave a number of them to universities
  • 15. 1975 - MITS Altair kit
    • 1st personal computer sold to the public
    • Expansion slots for adapter cards
    • No operating system
    • Bill Gates sold them Micro-soft BASIC
  • 16. MITS Altair (1975)
    • ·   Advertised in Popular Mechanics
    • Albuquerque, NM
    • Read only bits
    • Had to be hand-programmed
    • Intel 8080 processor
    • Gates & Allen licensed BASIC as the software language
    • 8800-sold for $297
    • 256 bytes of memory (expandable to 64K)
  • 17. Floppy Disks (1976)
    • The 5 1/4" flexible disk drive and diskette
    • Invented by Shugart Associates, 1976
    • More than 10 manufacturers producing 5 1/4" floppy drives by 1978
  • 18. 1977 - Apple II
    • Gaming machine for Atari games
    • Influenced IBM’s 1st PC
    • 1st system sold with a keyboard
    • Television was the monitor
  • 19. Apple 2 (1977)
    • Debut 1977, at local computer show
    • First true ‘Personal Computer”
    • First computer with color graphics (16 colors)
    • First computer with a case
  • 20. Apple 2 (1977)
    • Popular demand
    • Success of Apple Disk II- inexpensive and easy-to-use floppy drive
    • Utilized Integer BASIC and Applesoft BASIC as operating system
  • 21. TRS-80 (Trash-80) (1977)
    • Made and sold by Radio Shack
    • Very popular PC
    • Included black and white video monitor
    • Utilized BASIC programming
    • Sold 10,000 units
    • Included a simple manual; required no basic knowledge of computers
  • 22. 1977 Commodone PET
    • Fully assembled ready to operate
    • 4 or 8 kilobytes of memory
    • Membrane “chiclet” keyboard
  • 23. VisiCalc (1979)
    • VisiCalc (Visible Calculator)
    • Made spreadsheets easy
    • Idealized the “killer application,” the program that made you NEED the computer, not just because it was neat
  • 24. VisiCalc (1979)
    • Transformed the Apple II PC into a business machine
    • A huge success, more than 100,000 copies sold in one year
  • 25. Apple 3 (1980)
    • Apple Company rapidly expanding
    • Business PC to compete with IBM
    • Improved RAM capacity
    • 1st release included many defects
    • Apple SOS- new OS
  • 26. 1981 - IBM Personal Computer
    • Designed as a desktop system (suitcase-like)
    • 4.7 MHz 8088 processor
    • 64 KB of RAM
    • MS-DOS 1.0
      • 3 files & some utilities
  • 27. Apollo DN100 (1981)
    • Offered more power than many other computers
    • Cheaper and more affordable than other PC’s
    • Could run computer-intensive graphics programs
    • Useful for engineering
  • 28. IBM PC 8088 (1981)
    • Features a 4.77 MHz Intel 8088 CPU (Central Processing Unit)
    • Used Gate’s PC-DOS 1.0 (Microsoft's MS-DOS)
  • 29. IBM PC 8088 (1981)
    • Included Microsoft BASIC, VisiCalc, UCSD Pascal, CP/M-86, and Easy-writer 1.0.
    • Fully loaded version with color graphics cost US $6000
  • 30. 1981 Osborne I
    • The first portable computer
    • Weighed 24 pounds and cost $1,795
    • Included software worth about $1,500.
    • 5-inch display, 64 kilobytes of memory, a modem, and two 5 1/4-inch floppy disk drives
  • 31. 1982 - Intel Processor
    • Develops the 80286
    • 16 bit processor
    • 150,000 transistors
    • MS-DOS 1.1 supports double-sided disks which hold 360 KB of data
  • 32. Lotus 1-2-3 IBM Software (1982)
    • Developed and written for the IBM PC
    • Spreadsheet capabilities and graphics and data retrieval capabilities
    • Useful business application matched the popularity of VisiCalc for the Apple II
  • 33. Apple LISA (1983)
    • Local Integrated Software Architecture
    • First pc with a graphical user interface (GUI)
    • Featured 5 MHz microprocessor, 1 MB RAM, 2 MB ROM
    • Software cost $100 million dollars to develop
  • 34. Apple LISA (1983)
    • Price for a LISA cost $10,000.
    • During its lifetime, only 100,000 units were produced.
    • Placed Apple Computers in financial difficulty
  • 35. Compaq IBM PC Clone (1983)
    • Compaq Computer Corp. introduced first PC clone
    • Used same software as the IBM PC
    • Designers and researchers reverse-engineered to comply with IBM copyrights and patents
  • 36. Compaq IBM PC Clone (1983)
    • The result was a PC nearly identical to that of IBM
    • Didn’t violate copyright patent
    • The Compaq clone was nearly 100-percent compatible with the IBM
    • Compaq recorded first-year sales of $111 million, the most ever by an American business in a single year.
    • Began market for clone PC
  • 37. Apple Macintosh (1984)
    • Introduced during a 60 second 1984 Super Bowl game commercial
    • Ad cost $1.5 million, aired only once, among most memorable commercials
    • Featured a Motorola CPU
  • 38. Apple Macintosh (1984)
    • Mac Write and Mac Paint software
    • Simple, graphical interface (GUI)
    • Offered many capabilities of the LISA, but at a much more affordable price
  • 39. Intel 80486 (1990)
    • New and improved 80486 microprocessor has over 1 million transistors
    • 486 chips similar to 386 chips
    • Twice as fast as the 386
  • 40. Microsoft 3.0 (1990)
    • Followed unsuccessful versions of slow Windows 1.0
    • Apple threatened to sue
    • Compatible with DOS programs
    • New and improved interface and graphics
  • 41. Microsoft 3.0 (1990)
    • With the 3.0, multiple programs can run simultaneously
    • Numerous other applications compatible with 3.0 (killer application concept)
    • Windows 3.0 has Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel
    • Microsoft 3.0 made PCs more user-friendly (similar to the Apple Macintosh)
    • Windows 3.0 made IBM and IBM-compatible computers more popular.
  • 42. The AMD 386DX (1991)
    • First successful x86 processor that was NOT built by Intel
    • Started an x86 processor price war
    • Intel and AMD drop prices to compete with each other
  • 43. The AMD 386DX (1991)
    • ·        The prices of PCs followed the chip prices down, and fell by as much as $1000
    • Market for PC's running Windows expanded by over 33%.
  • 44. 1992 Michelangelo
    • Dark Avenger's Commander Bomber and Starship.
    • Michelangelo-forecast five million computers would go down on March 6 th
    • March 6 th - 5,000 and 10,000 machines went down
  • 45. Viruses
    • Virus authoring packages-VCL (Virus Creation Laboratory) from Nowhere Man, Dark Angel's Phalcon/Skism Mass-Produced Code Generator
    • Made it possible for anyone who could use a computer, to write a virus
    • Within twelve months, dozens of viruses had been created using these tools.
  • 46. 1997 Windows 97, 98
    • Successive upgrades
    • Designed for home users
    • NT will become the dominant business desktop platform
    • Memphis-codename or Windows 97
    •  
  • 47. The World Wide Web
    • Popularized the Internet
    • Simple, friendly, graphical way of browsing for information or entertainment
    • Information stored as formatted hypertext in the HTML format
  • 48. Internet
    • Information displayed to the user by words or pictures Multimedia such as video and audio (Media Player, Real Player, Win AMP)
    • Simple to operate by simple point and click
    • Internet Cafe's appeared in shopping malls- people without a computer could surf the web.
  • 49. Apple iMac (1998, 1999)
    • Targeted low-end consumer market
    • Designed with the Internet in mind
    • Cool new case design
    • Included an internal 56Kpbs modem
    • Newly-designed USB keyboard and mouse
    • Numerous versions made, affordable price
  • 50. Intel Pentium 4 Processor (2000)
    • Increased speed suitable for new millennium of high-speed internet access, games, etc.
    • Superior 3D support for better graphics
    • Up to 1.5 GHz (A major improvement over 800Mhz not long ago)
  • 51. Dell Inspiron 8000 Series (2001)
    • Laptop
    • Convenience of portability meets the desktop
    • Pentium III processor
    • Attachments such as DVD Player Drive, CD Writer/Burner
    • Completely customizable to user needs
  • 52. Palm V
    • The Next Generation
  • 53. TODAY
    • Microsoft
      • Sets software standards
    • Intel
      • Sets hardware standards
    Both Set Compatibility Requirements
  • 54. TREND Computers are becoming smaller, faster, and more efficient