History of the PC

950 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
950
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
46
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

History of the PC

  1. 1. History of the PC Computer Repair Technician
  2. 2. The Abacus <ul><li>A calculator, circa 500 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Used for addition, subtraction, division, & multiplication </li></ul>
  3. 3. Analytical Engine <ul><li>Pre-electronic computer </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Babbage - 1822 - 1871 </li></ul><ul><li>First mechanical computer, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Received instructions from punched cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory bank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printed solutions to math problems </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Dr. Herman Hollerith <ul><li>Designed 1st computer designed for data processing - 1889 </li></ul><ul><li>Built for U.S. Census Bureau - 1890 </li></ul><ul><li>IBM created </li></ul><ul><li>Hollerith card </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80-column punch card </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Digital Electronic Computers <ul><li>ABC ( Atanasoff-Berry Computer ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st electronic digital computer 1939 - 1942 at Iowa State </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weighed 750 pounds and could store 3,000 bits (0.4 KB) of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Binary arithmetic -Regenerative memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel Processing -Separate memory & Computer functions </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. ENIAC ( Electronic Numerical Integrator & Computer ) <ul><li>Univ of Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><li>US Army - WWII, 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Classified military project for preparing firing & bombing tables (calculated trajectory values in seconds) </li></ul>
  7. 7. ENIAC ( Electronic Numerical Integrator & Computer ) <ul><li>1800 square feet of floor space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thirty separate units, plus power supply & forced air cooling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weighed 30 tons (Portable?) </li></ul><ul><li>Used 19,000 vacuum tubes ( not transistors ) </li></ul><ul><li>1500 relays </li></ul><ul><li>Hundred of thousands of resistors, capacitors, & inductors </li></ul>
  8. 8. ENIAC ( Electronic Numerical Integrator & Computer ) <ul><li>200 kilowatts of electrical power to operate </li></ul><ul><li>Many people needed to program it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required manual switches & cable connections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Considered prototype for most of today’s computers </li></ul><ul><li>Begins the modern computer age </li></ul>
  9. 9. Colossus I <ul><li>Hertz, England - 1943 </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose - crypto-analysis ( cracking of codes) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Mainframes & minis <ul><li>1960s and 1970s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM, DEC ( Digital Equipment Corporation ),Tektronics, VAX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information stored on punch cards or tape drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large, air-cooled rooms </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Punch Card
  12. 12. 1969 - Who is Intel? <ul><li>Founded when two guys left a company that they started </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese Company wanted Intel to design 12 chips </li></ul><ul><li>One engineer thought he could design 1 chip for all 12 functions </li></ul><ul><li>1971 - the first microprocessor </li></ul>
  13. 13. 1971 Kenbak-1 <ul><li>First personal computer </li></ul><ul><li>$750 in Scientific American </li></ul><ul><li>integrated circuits </li></ul><ul><li>Switches for input and lights for output </li></ul><ul><li>256-byte memory </li></ul><ul><li>Sold 40 machines </li></ul>
  14. 14. 1974 Alto <ul><li>Xerox Palo Alto Research Center </li></ul><ul><li>First work station with a built-in mouse for input </li></ul><ul><li>Stored several files simultaneously in windows </li></ul><ul><li>Menus and icons </li></ul><ul><li>Link to a local area network. </li></ul><ul><li>Never sold the Alto commercially-gave a number of them to universities </li></ul>
  15. 15. 1975 - MITS Altair kit <ul><li>1st personal computer sold to the public </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion slots for adapter cards </li></ul><ul><li>No operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Bill Gates sold them Micro-soft BASIC </li></ul>
  16. 16. MITS Altair (1975) <ul><li>·   Advertised in Popular Mechanics </li></ul><ul><li>Albuquerque, NM </li></ul><ul><li>Read only bits </li></ul><ul><li>Had to be hand-programmed </li></ul><ul><li>Intel 8080 processor </li></ul><ul><li>Gates & Allen licensed BASIC as the software language </li></ul><ul><li>8800-sold for $297 </li></ul><ul><li>256 bytes of memory (expandable to 64K) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Floppy Disks (1976) <ul><li>The 5 1/4&quot; flexible disk drive and diskette </li></ul><ul><li>Invented by Shugart Associates, 1976 </li></ul><ul><li>More than 10 manufacturers producing 5 1/4&quot; floppy drives by 1978 </li></ul>
  18. 18. 1977 - Apple II <ul><li>Gaming machine for Atari games </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced IBM’s 1st PC </li></ul><ul><li>1st system sold with a keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Television was the monitor </li></ul>
  19. 19. Apple 2 (1977) <ul><li>Debut 1977, at local computer show </li></ul><ul><li>First true ‘Personal Computer” </li></ul><ul><li>First computer with color graphics (16 colors) </li></ul><ul><li>First computer with a case </li></ul>
  20. 20. Apple 2 (1977) <ul><li>Popular demand </li></ul><ul><li>Success of Apple Disk II- inexpensive and easy-to-use floppy drive </li></ul><ul><li>Utilized Integer BASIC and Applesoft BASIC as operating system </li></ul>
  21. 21. TRS-80 (Trash-80) (1977) <ul><li>Made and sold by Radio Shack </li></ul><ul><li>Very popular PC </li></ul><ul><li>Included black and white video monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Utilized BASIC programming </li></ul><ul><li>Sold 10,000 units </li></ul><ul><li>Included a simple manual; required no basic knowledge of computers </li></ul>
  22. 22. 1977 Commodone PET <ul><li>Fully assembled ready to operate </li></ul><ul><li>4 or 8 kilobytes of memory </li></ul><ul><li>Membrane “chiclet” keyboard </li></ul>
  23. 23. VisiCalc (1979) <ul><li>VisiCalc (Visible Calculator) </li></ul><ul><li>Made spreadsheets easy </li></ul><ul><li>Idealized the “killer application,” the program that made you NEED the computer, not just because it was neat </li></ul>
  24. 24. VisiCalc (1979) <ul><li>Transformed the Apple II PC into a business machine </li></ul><ul><li>A huge success, more than 100,000 copies sold in one year </li></ul>
  25. 25. Apple 3 (1980) <ul><li>Apple Company rapidly expanding </li></ul><ul><li>Business PC to compete with IBM </li></ul><ul><li>Improved RAM capacity </li></ul><ul><li>1st release included many defects </li></ul><ul><li>Apple SOS- new OS </li></ul>
  26. 26. 1981 - IBM Personal Computer <ul><li>Designed as a desktop system (suitcase-like) </li></ul><ul><li>4.7 MHz 8088 processor </li></ul><ul><li>64 KB of RAM </li></ul><ul><li>MS-DOS 1.0 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 files & some utilities </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Apollo DN100 (1981) <ul><li>Offered more power than many other computers </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper and more affordable than other PC’s </li></ul><ul><li>Could run computer-intensive graphics programs </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for engineering </li></ul>
  28. 28. IBM PC 8088 (1981) <ul><li>Features a 4.77 MHz Intel 8088 CPU (Central Processing Unit) </li></ul><ul><li>Used Gate’s PC-DOS 1.0 (Microsoft's MS-DOS) </li></ul>
  29. 29. IBM PC 8088 (1981) <ul><li>Included Microsoft BASIC, VisiCalc, UCSD Pascal, CP/M-86, and Easy-writer 1.0. </li></ul><ul><li>Fully loaded version with color graphics cost US $6000 </li></ul>
  30. 30. 1981 Osborne I <ul><li>The first portable computer </li></ul><ul><li>Weighed 24 pounds and cost $1,795 </li></ul><ul><li>Included software worth about $1,500. </li></ul><ul><li>5-inch display, 64 kilobytes of memory, a modem, and two 5 1/4-inch floppy disk drives </li></ul>
  31. 31. 1982 - Intel Processor <ul><li>Develops the 80286 </li></ul><ul><li>16 bit processor </li></ul><ul><li>150,000 transistors </li></ul><ul><li>MS-DOS 1.1 supports double-sided disks which hold 360 KB of data </li></ul>
  32. 32. Lotus 1-2-3 IBM Software (1982) <ul><li>Developed and written for the IBM PC </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheet capabilities and graphics and data retrieval capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Useful business application matched the popularity of VisiCalc for the Apple II </li></ul>
  33. 33. Apple LISA (1983) <ul><li>Local Integrated Software Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>First pc with a graphical user interface (GUI) </li></ul><ul><li>Featured 5 MHz microprocessor, 1 MB RAM, 2 MB ROM </li></ul><ul><li>Software cost $100 million dollars to develop </li></ul>
  34. 34. Apple LISA (1983) <ul><li>Price for a LISA cost $10,000. </li></ul><ul><li>During its lifetime, only 100,000 units were produced. </li></ul><ul><li>Placed Apple Computers in financial difficulty </li></ul>
  35. 35. Compaq IBM PC Clone (1983) <ul><li>Compaq Computer Corp. introduced first PC clone </li></ul><ul><li>Used same software as the IBM PC </li></ul><ul><li>Designers and researchers reverse-engineered to comply with IBM copyrights and patents </li></ul>
  36. 36. Compaq IBM PC Clone (1983) <ul><li>The result was a PC nearly identical to that of IBM </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t violate copyright patent </li></ul><ul><li>The Compaq clone was nearly 100-percent compatible with the IBM </li></ul><ul><li>Compaq recorded first-year sales of $111 million, the most ever by an American business in a single year. </li></ul><ul><li>Began market for clone PC </li></ul>
  37. 37. Apple Macintosh (1984) <ul><li>Introduced during a 60 second 1984 Super Bowl game commercial </li></ul><ul><li>Ad cost $1.5 million, aired only once, among most memorable commercials </li></ul><ul><li>Featured a Motorola CPU </li></ul>
  38. 38. Apple Macintosh (1984) <ul><li>Mac Write and Mac Paint software </li></ul><ul><li>Simple, graphical interface (GUI) </li></ul><ul><li>Offered many capabilities of the LISA, but at a much more affordable price </li></ul>
  39. 39. Intel 80486 (1990) <ul><li>New and improved 80486 microprocessor has over 1 million transistors </li></ul><ul><li>486 chips similar to 386 chips </li></ul><ul><li>Twice as fast as the 386 </li></ul>
  40. 40. Microsoft 3.0 (1990) <ul><li>Followed unsuccessful versions of slow Windows 1.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Apple threatened to sue </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible with DOS programs </li></ul><ul><li>New and improved interface and graphics </li></ul>
  41. 41. Microsoft 3.0 (1990) <ul><li>With the 3.0, multiple programs can run simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous other applications compatible with 3.0 (killer application concept) </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 3.0 has Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft 3.0 made PCs more user-friendly (similar to the Apple Macintosh) </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 3.0 made IBM and IBM-compatible computers more popular. </li></ul>
  42. 42. The AMD 386DX (1991) <ul><li>First successful x86 processor that was NOT built by Intel </li></ul><ul><li>Started an x86 processor price war </li></ul><ul><li>Intel and AMD drop prices to compete with each other </li></ul>
  43. 43. The AMD 386DX (1991) <ul><li>·        The prices of PCs followed the chip prices down, and fell by as much as $1000 </li></ul><ul><li>Market for PC's running Windows expanded by over 33%. </li></ul>
  44. 44. 1992 Michelangelo <ul><li>Dark Avenger's Commander Bomber and Starship. </li></ul><ul><li>Michelangelo-forecast five million computers would go down on March 6 th </li></ul><ul><li>March 6 th - 5,000 and 10,000 machines went down </li></ul>
  45. 45. Viruses <ul><li>Virus authoring packages-VCL (Virus Creation Laboratory) from Nowhere Man, Dark Angel's Phalcon/Skism Mass-Produced Code Generator </li></ul><ul><li>Made it possible for anyone who could use a computer, to write a virus </li></ul><ul><li>Within twelve months, dozens of viruses had been created using these tools. </li></ul>
  46. 46. 1997 Windows 97, 98 <ul><li>Successive upgrades </li></ul><ul><li>Designed for home users </li></ul><ul><li>NT will become the dominant business desktop platform </li></ul><ul><li>Memphis-codename or Windows 97 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  47. 47. The World Wide Web <ul><li>Popularized the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Simple, friendly, graphical way of browsing for information or entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Information stored as formatted hypertext in the HTML format </li></ul>
  48. 48. Internet <ul><li>Information displayed to the user by words or pictures Multimedia such as video and audio (Media Player, Real Player, Win AMP) </li></ul><ul><li>Simple to operate by simple point and click </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Cafe's appeared in shopping malls- people without a computer could surf the web. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Apple iMac (1998, 1999) <ul><li>Targeted low-end consumer market </li></ul><ul><li>Designed with the Internet in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Cool new case design </li></ul><ul><li>Included an internal 56Kpbs modem </li></ul><ul><li>Newly-designed USB keyboard and mouse </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous versions made, affordable price </li></ul>
  50. 50. Intel Pentium 4 Processor (2000) <ul><li>Increased speed suitable for new millennium of high-speed internet access, games, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Superior 3D support for better graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 1.5 GHz (A major improvement over 800Mhz not long ago) </li></ul>
  51. 51. Dell Inspiron 8000 Series (2001) <ul><li>Laptop </li></ul><ul><li>Convenience of portability meets the desktop </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium III processor </li></ul><ul><li>Attachments such as DVD Player Drive, CD Writer/Burner </li></ul><ul><li>Completely customizable to user needs </li></ul>
  52. 52. Palm V <ul><li>The Next Generation </li></ul>
  53. 53. TODAY <ul><li>Microsoft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sets software standards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sets hardware standards </li></ul></ul>Both Set Compatibility Requirements
  54. 54. TREND Computers are becoming smaller, faster, and more efficient

×