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# History of Computers CSC101: Introduction to Computing Concepts

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### History of Computers CSC101: Introduction to Computing Concepts

1. 1. History of Computers CSC101: Introduction to Computing Concepts February 3, 2004 Providence Campus Shephard 301C Instructor: Cynthia N. Prudence
2. 2. 1847 – 1854 Boolean Logic <ul><li>Invented by George Boole </li></ul><ul><li>It is lattice where all values are broken into two cateogories: True and False </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this important to Computer Science? (hint: binary numbers) </li></ul><ul><li>Boolean logic allows the use of and, or, not operators. </li></ul><ul><li>Also have the more complicated operators not or (nor), not and (nand), exclusive or (xor). </li></ul><ul><li>Involves some set theory (union, intersection, compliment). </li></ul>
3. 3. 1869 – Jevons Logic Machine <ul><li>The Jevons' Logic Machine was notable because it was the first machine that could solve a logical problem faster than that problem could be solved without using the machine. </li></ul><ul><li>This device, which was about 3 feet tall, consisted of keys, levers, and pulleys, along with letters that could be either visible or hidden. </li></ul><ul><li>When the operator pressed keys representing logical operations, the appropriate letters appeared to reveal the result. </li></ul><ul><li>The machine was a cross between an abacus and a piano. </li></ul>
4. 4. 1874 – Sholes (Qwerty) Keyboard <ul><li>Sholes keyboard which is known to us as the QWERTY keyboard, because of the ordering of the first six keys in the third row. </li></ul><ul><li>Sholes also craftily ensured that the word &quot;Typewriter&quot; could be constructed using only the top row of letters. This was intended to aid salesmen when they were giving demonstrations. </li></ul>
5. 5. 1883-1906 Vacuum Tube <ul><li>Edison discovered while working on lightbulbs that you could detect electrons flowing through the tube, this is called the Edison Effect. </li></ul><ul><li>An english physicist, John Ambrose Fleming, discovered that you could use the Edison Effect to detect radio waves and convert them to electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>Fleming invented a two element vacuum tube called a diode </li></ul><ul><li>Later, the american inventor Lee De Forest, introduced a third element to the tube, the resulting triode could both act as an amplifier and a switch. </li></ul><ul><li>De Forest's invetion was used in early radio transmitter. </li></ul>
6. 6. 1926 - Transistors <ul><li>1926, Dr. Julius Edgar Lilienfield from New York filed for a patent on what we would now recognize as an NPN junction transistor being used in the role of an amplifier. </li></ul><ul><li>Transistors are made of semiconductor material. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, in depth research on semiconductors would not get underway till WWII. </li></ul>
7. 7. 1936 - Z Series Computers <ul><li>A series of automatic calculators </li></ul><ul><li>Invented by Konrad Zuse, who worked in Berlin during WWII. </li></ul><ul><li>The Z1 was the first binary calculator. </li></ul><ul><li>The Z2 was the first fully functioning electro-mechanical computer. </li></ul><ul><li>The Z3, built from recycled materials, was the world's first electronic, fully programmable digital computer based on a binary floating-point number and switching system. </li></ul>
8. 8. 1942 – ABC Computer <ul><li>In late 1939, John Atanasoff teamed up with Clifford Berry to build a prototype. </li></ul><ul><li>They created the first computing machine to use electricity, vacuum tubes, binary numbers and capacitors. </li></ul><ul><li>The final product was the size of a desk, weighed 700 pounds, had over 300 vacuum tubes, and contained a mile of wire. </li></ul><ul><li>It could calculate about one operation every 15 seconds, today a computer can calculate 150 billion operations in 15 seconds. </li></ul>
9. 9. 1944 – Harvard Mark Series <ul><li>Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper designed the MARK series of computers at Harvard University. </li></ul><ul><li>The MARK series of computers began with the Mark I in 1944. </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine a giant roomful of noisy, clicking metal parts, 55 feet long and 8 feet high. </li></ul><ul><li>The 5-ton device contained almost 760,000 separate pieces. </li></ul><ul><li>Used by the US Navy for gunnery and ballistic calculations, the Mark I was in operation until 1959. </li></ul><ul><li>By today's standards, the Mark I was slow, requiring 3-5 seconds for a multiplication operation. </li></ul>
10. 10. 1946 – ENIAC I <ul><li>In 1946, John Mauchly and J Presper Eckert developed the ENIAC I </li></ul><ul><li>E lectrical N umerical I ntegrator A nd C alculator </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. military sponsored their research; they needed a calculating device for writing artillery-firing tables (the settings used for different weapons under varied conditions for target accuracy). </li></ul><ul><li>The ENIAC contained 17,468 vacuum tubes, along with 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors, 1,500 relays, 6,000 manual switches and 5 million soldered joints. It covered 1800 square feet (167 square meters) of floor space, weighed 30 tons, consumed 160 kilowatts of electrical power. </li></ul>
11. 11. 1948 – The Williams Tube <ul><li>The Williams Tube provided the first large amount of random access memory (RAM), and it was a convenient method of data-storage. It did not require rewiring each time the data was changed, and programming the computer went much faster. It became the dominant form of computer memory until outdated by core memory in 1955. </li></ul><ul><li>Core Memory - The old term for main memory, which was composed of doughnut-shaped magnets called cores. </li></ul>
12. 12. 1947-1948 The Transistor <ul><li>A device composed of semiconductor material that amplifies a signal or opens or closes a circuit. </li></ul><ul><li>Prior to the invention of transistors, digital circuits were composed of vacuum tubes, which had many disadvantages. They were much larger, required more energy, dissipated more heat, and were more prone to failures. It's safe to say that without the invention of transistors, computing as we know it today would not be possible. </li></ul>
13. 13. 1951 - UNIVAC <ul><li>The Universal Automatic Computer or UNIVAC was a computer milestone achieved by Dr. Presper Eckert and Dr. John Mauchly, the team that invented the ENIAC computer . </li></ul><ul><li>There research was funded by the US Census Bureau </li></ul><ul><li>The Bureau needed a new computer to deal with the exploding U.S. population (the beginning of the famous baby boom). </li></ul><ul><li>The project went badly overbudget and took for longer then expected, orginally given \$300,000 to build this, it ended up costing close to a million dollars to deliver the first UNIVAC to the government. </li></ul>
14. 14. 1953 – IBM 701 EDPM Computer <ul><li>The year 1953 saw the development of IBM's 701 EDPM, which, according to IBM, was the first commercially successful general-purpose computer. </li></ul><ul><li>The 701's invention was part of the Korean War effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 19 were built, but they could be rented for \$15,000 a month. </li></ul><ul><li>The first 701 went to IBM's world headquarters in New York. Three went to atomic research laboratories. Eight went to aircraft companies. Three went to other research facilities. Two went to government agencies, including the first use of a computer by the U.S. Department of Defense. Two went to the navy and the last machine went to the U.S. Weather Bureau in early 1955. </li></ul>
15. 15. 1958 – The Integrated Circuit <ul><li>A collection of transistors and electrical circuits all built onto a single crystal. Today's integrated circuits are no more than a centimeter long, and they can carry millions of microscopic transistors. All computers have integrated circuits inside. </li></ul>
16. 16. Important Dates <ul><li>1962 – The first computer game, Space. </li></ul><ul><li>1964 – The computer mouse, names so because thee wirecoming out of it resembled a tail. </li></ul><ul><li>1964 – the idea of a window invented (think of the various windows you have open when you use Microsoft Windows). </li></ul><ul><li>1969 – Arpanet, the orginal (grandfather)of the internet </li></ul>
17. 17. Important Dates <ul><li>1971 – The Intel 4004 Computer Microprocessor, the first microprocessor. </li></ul><ul><li>1971 – The Floppy disk, named so for its flexibility. </li></ul><ul><li>1973 – Ethernet Computer Networking </li></ul><ul><li>1979 – Wordstar Software – first word processor </li></ul><ul><li>We will discuss some of these topics with more depth later. </li></ul>
18. 18. 1981 – IBM PC <ul><li>The first IBM PC ran on a 4.77 MHz Intel 8088 microprocessor. The PC came equipped with 16 kilobytes of memory, expandable to 256k. </li></ul><ul><li>The PC came with one or two 160k floppy disk drives and an optional color monitor. </li></ul><ul><li>The price tag started at \$1,565, which would be nearly \$4,000 today. </li></ul><ul><li>What really made the IBM PC different from previous IBM computers was that it was the first one built from off the shelf parts (called open architecture) and marketed by outside distributors (Sears & Roebucks and Computerland). </li></ul>
19. 19. 1981 - MS-DOS <ul><li>The OS for IBM's PC. </li></ul><ul><li>The &quot;Microsoft Disk Operating System&quot; or MS-DOS was based on QDOS, the &quot;Quick and Dirty Operating System&quot; written by Tim Paterson of Seattle Computer Products, for their prototype Intel 8086 based computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Gates then talked IBM into letting Microsoft retain the rights, to market MS DOS separate from the IBM PC project, Gates proceeded to make a fortune from the licensing of MS-DOS. </li></ul>
20. 20. 1983 – The Apple Lisa Computer <ul><li>T he Lisa was the first personal computer to use a GUI,Graphical User Interface. </li></ul><ul><li>Other innovative features for the personal market included a drop-down menu bar, windows, multiple tasking, a hierarchal file system, the ability to copy and paste, icons, folders and a mouse. </li></ul><ul><li>It cost Apple \$50 million to develop the Lisa and \$100 million to write the software, and only 10,000 units were ever sold. </li></ul><ul><li>One year later the Lisa 2 was released with a 3.5&quot; drive instead of the two 5.25&quot; and a price tag slashed in half from the original \$9,995. </li></ul>
21. 21. 1985 – The Apple Macintosh Computer <ul><li>CPU: MC68000 </li></ul><ul><li>CPU speed: 8 Mhz </li></ul><ul><li>RAM: 128k </li></ul><ul><li>ROM: 64k </li></ul><ul><li>Serial Ports: 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Floppy: 1  3.5&quot; 400k </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor: 9&quot; 512x384 square pixels built-in B/W  </li></ul><ul><li>Power: 60 Watts </li></ul><ul><li>Weight:  16.5 lbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Dimensions:  13.6&quot; H x 9.6&quot; W x 10.9&quot; D </li></ul><ul><li>System Software: Mac OS 1.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Production: January 1984 to October 1985 </li></ul><ul><li>Cost: \$2,495 </li></ul>
22. 22. 1985 – Microsoft Windows <ul><li>On November 10, 1983, at the Plaza Hotel in New York City, Microsoft Corporation formally announced Microsoft Windows, a next-generation operating system that would provide a graphical user interface (GUI) and multitasking environment for IBM computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows faced potential competition from IBM's own Top View, and there were others. VisiCorp's short-lived VisiOn, released in October 1983, was the official first PC-based GUI. </li></ul><ul><li>The second was GEM (Graphics Environment Manager), released by Digital Research in early 1985. Both GEM and VisiOn lacked support from the all-important third-party developers--and, if nobody wanted to write software programs for an operating system, nobody would want to buy it. </li></ul>
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