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  1. 1. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Chapter 2 Introducing Operating Systems
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Learn about the various operating systems and the differences between them </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about the components of Windows operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how operating systems interface with users, files and folders, applications, and hardware </li></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  3. 3. Operating Systems Past And Present <ul><li>Operating system (OS) software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls a computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OS services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Runs applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides an interface for users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieves and manipulates files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OS acts as a “middleman” </li></ul><ul><li>Computer needs only one operating system </li></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  4. 4. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Figure 2-1 Users and applications depend on the OS to relate to all applications and hardware components Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning
  5. 5. DOS (Disk Operating System) <ul><li>First OS used by IBM computers/compatibles </li></ul><ul><li>Command line driven set of programs </li></ul><ul><li>Outdated as desktop computer operating system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Still available on troubleshooting disks or CDs </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  6. 6. DOS with Windows 3.X <ul><li>Refers to Windows 3.1 and windows 3.11 </li></ul><ul><li>Uses DOS as the operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Provides user friendly intermediate program between: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DOS, applications, and the user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long lasting features provided: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphical user interface (GUI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to keep more than one application open at the same time </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  7. 7. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Figure 2-3 Windows 3.x was layered between DOS and the user and applications to provide a graphics interface for the user and a multitasking environment for applications Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning
  8. 8. Windows 9x/ME <ul><li>Refers to Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me </li></ul><ul><li>True operating system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combines DOS core with GUI </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  9. 9. Windows NT <ul><li>Two versions of Windows NT (New Technology): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT Workstation for desktops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT Server to control a network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microsoft completely rewrote OS core </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Totally eliminates DOS core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced many new problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First Windows OS using 32 bits at a time </li></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  10. 10. Windows 2000 <ul><li>Upgrades Windows NT (desktop and server) </li></ul><ul><li>Came in several versions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular desktop OS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improvements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stable environment, Plug and Play support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Device Manager, Recovery Console, Active Directory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better network support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Features specifically targeting notebook computers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Targeted towards corporate environment </li></ul><ul><li>Not backward compatible </li></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  11. 11. Windows XP <ul><li>Integrates Windows 9x/Me and Windows 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Two main versions: Home Edition and Professional </li></ul><ul><li>Noteworthy new features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows multiple users to log on simultaneously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each with their own applications open </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporates Windows Messenger and Media Player </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adds advanced security, such as Windows Firewall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service pack: major update or fix to an OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patch: minor fix </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  12. 12. Windows Vista <ul><li>Upgrade from Windows XP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comes in five versions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aero user interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New 3D user interface (not available on all versions) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows XP Start button </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced by Vista sphere with a Windows flag </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complaints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of backward compatibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer resources required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow performance </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  13. 13. Windows 7 <ul><li>Next generation of Microsoft OS </li></ul><ul><li>Should correct Vista complaints </li></ul><ul><li>Expected to run on netbooks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-end inexpensive laptop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small 9- or 10-inch screen, no optical drive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally used for Web browsing, e-mail, word processing </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  14. 14. MAC OS <ul><li>Introduced in 1984 with Macintosh computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current version: Mac OS X (ten) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can work on Intel-based computers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Boot Camp dual boot software by Apple available </li></ul><ul><li>VMWare Fusion creates a virtual machine </li></ul><ul><li>Features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for graphics and multimedia capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of the Finder program to provide the desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior Plug and Play capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent support for multitasking </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  15. 15. Linux <ul><li>Variation on UNIX </li></ul><ul><li>OS kernel and source code freely distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Many popular distributions </li></ul><ul><li>Well suited for server applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes used as a desktop OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not easy to install, use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer applications than Windows, MAC OS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Used on netbooks (Small footprint) </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded operating system on mobile devices </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent training tool for learning Unix </li></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  16. 16. Linux (cont’d.) <ul><li>Shell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relates to the user and to applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First Linux, Unix shells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commands entered at a command prompt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two popular command-line shells for Unix, Linux </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older Bourne shell, newer Bourne-Again shell (BASH) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many users prefer Windows-style GUI desktop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built using X Windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most popular GUI shells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GNOME, KDE, Xfce </li></ul></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  17. 17. Quick Quiz #1 <ul><li>1. A(n) ____________________ is software that controls a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: operating system (OS) </li></ul><ul><li>2. True or False: Windows 9x/Me operating systems are built on a DOS core that provides a graphical user interface. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: True </li></ul><ul><li>3. ____________________ is the next generation of Microsoft operating systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: Windows 7 </li></ul><ul><li>4. The latest Mac OS X (ten) release is called Mac OS X ____________________. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer: Leopard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5. True or False: UNIX is a robust operating system that is a good training tool for Linux. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: False </li></ul>
  18. 18. How Windows 2000/XP/Vista Works <ul><li>Windows 2000, XP, Vista </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three evolutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same basic operating system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many things in common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Way they are built </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Main components </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User interface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other interfaces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Four main functions </li></ul></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  19. 19. What an Operating System Does <ul><li>Four functions common to all operating systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing a user interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing hardware </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  20. 20. Components of Windows <ul><li>Shell: relates to the user and to applications </li></ul><ul><li>Kernel: responsible for interacting with hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Configuration data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information OS keeps about hardware, applications, data, users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shell made up of subsystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operate in user mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subsystems have limited access to system information and can access hardware only through other OS services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Win32 security subsystem </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  21. 21. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Figure 2-10 Inside an operating system, different components perform various functions Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning
  22. 22. Components of Windows (cont’d.) <ul><li>Windows kernel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More power to communicate with hardware devices than the shell has </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operates in kernel mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications cannot get to hardware devices without the shell passing those requests to the kernel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two main components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The HAL (hardware abstraction layer) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Executive services interface </li></ul></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  23. 23. Components of Windows (cont’d.) <ul><li>Configuration data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used when OS first loaded and when needed by hardware, applications, users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored in: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Registry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initialization files </li></ul></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  24. 24. How Windows Manages Applications <ul><li>Launching an application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move from hard drive into memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program running, together with the system resources assigned to it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Request resources through Win32 subsystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Called a thread </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Thread </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single task </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multitasking </li></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  25. 25. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Figure 2-11 A process with two threads Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning
  26. 26. How Windows Manages Hardware <ul><li>Device drivers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small programs stored on the hard drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow kernel to communicate with hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided by OS, vendors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At system startup: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BIOS provides instructions to the CPU for device communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drivers written to work for a specific OS </li></ul><ul><li>Four types of software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system, applications, device drivers, BIOS </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  27. 27. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Figure 2-12 An OS relates to hardware by way of device drivers and possibly system BIOS Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning
  28. 28. How Many Bits At A Time? <ul><li>Central Processing Unit (CPU) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called a processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partly determines which operating system can be installed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major consideration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of bits CPU processes at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel or AMD desktop and laptop processors sold today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process 64 bits at a time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Older processors handled only 32 bits </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  29. 29. How Many Bits At A Time? (cont’d.) <ul><li>32-bit processors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>x86 processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intel used the number 86 in the model number of these earlier processors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Processors using underlying 32-bit processing with 64-bit instructions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid processors known as x86-64 bit processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle a 32-bit OS or a 64-bit OS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>64-bit processors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fully implement 64-bit processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intel Itanium and Xeon processors </li></ul></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  30. 30. How Many Bits At A Time? (cont’d.) <ul><li>Windows 2000: 32-bit OS </li></ul><ul><li>Windows XP Professional x64 Edition: 64-bit OS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All other Windows XP editions: 32-bit OSs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vista Home Basic, Home Premium, Business, Enterprise, Ultimate editions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>32-bit or 64-bit versions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modern desktop, laptop processors today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can handle either a 32-bit or 64-bit OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes referred to as an x86 or x64 OS </li></ul></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  31. 31. How Many Bits At A Time? (cont’d.) <ul><li>Discussion points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>64-bit processing is faster than 32-bit processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>64-bit OS requires that device drivers operating in kernel mode be 64-bit drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application is compiled to process 64 bits or 32 bits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32-bit OS can only address up to 4 GB of memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefit from 64-bit computing if: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many applications open at the same time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You have high computing needs and enough hard drive space and memory </li></ul></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  32. 32. How Many Bits At A Time? (cont’d.) <ul><li>Manufacturers often install a 32-bit OS on a computer that could support a 64-bit OS </li></ul><ul><li>64-bit computing tips </li></ul><ul><ul><li>x86 refers to 32-bit processors and to 32-bit operating systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>x86-64 refers to a 64-bit OS or to 32-bit processors that process 64-bit instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IA64 refers specifically to 64-bit Intel processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>x64 refers to 64-bit operating systems </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  33. 33. Using Windows 2000/XP/Vista <ul><li>PC support technician </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs to be a Windows power user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technician knowledge required </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How Windows desktop organized and how it works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to use Windows utilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>My Computer, Windows Explorer, Control Panel, System Information, Command Prompt window </li></ul></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  34. 34. The Windows Vista Desktop <ul><li>Primary tool provided by the Windows shell </li></ul><ul><li>Start menu </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Username shown at the top right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications at the top left </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“pinned” to the menu </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications used often </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Listed below the pinned applications (can change) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User-oriented applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the white column on the left side </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use files and OS utilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entries in the black column on the right side </li></ul></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  35. 35. Quick Quiz #2 <ul><li>1. True or False: The operating system shell is responsible for interacting with hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: False </li></ul><ul><li>2. True or False: A process is a program running together with the system resources assigned to it. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: True </li></ul><ul><li>3. The ____________________, also called a processor, partly determines which operating system can be installed. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: Central Processing Unit (CPU) </li></ul><ul><li>4. True or False: The Windows desktop is the primary tool provided by the Windows shell. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: True </li></ul><ul><li>5. The term ____________________ refers to one or more characters following the last period in a filename. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: file extension </li></ul>
  36. 36. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Figure 2-15 The Vista desktop and Start menu Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning
  37. 37. The Windows Vista Desktop (cont’d.) <ul><li>Vista sidebar and gadgets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New with Windows Vista </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Sidebar Properties box used to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Start the sidebar each time Windows starts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decide where sidebar appears </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remove gadgets in sidebar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Four ways to launch an application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the Start menu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the Search box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Windows Explorer or the Computer window </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a shortcut icon </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  38. 38. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Figure 2-16 Windows Sidebar can be customized with installed and downloaded gadgets Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning
  39. 39. The Windows Vista Desktop (cont’d.) <ul><li>Taskbar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom of Windows desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information about open programs, quick access to others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quick launch icons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notification (system tray or systray) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service: program that runs in the background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports or serves Windows or an application </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right-click the taskbar, use the shortcut menu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control Start menu, taskbar, notification area, open applications </li></ul></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  40. 40. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Figure 2-21 The Windows Vista taskbar with a thumbnail of one open application Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning
  41. 41. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Figure 2-22 Press Win+Tab to view open applications in a flip 3D view when using the Vista Aero interface Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning
  42. 42. The Windows Vista Desktop (cont’d.) <ul><li>Personalize the Windows desktop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right-click anywhere on the desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Choose Personalize from the shortcut menu </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Default programs and file associations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Located in right column of the Start menu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can change default programs associated with certain file extensions and activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File extension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One or more characters following the last period in a filename </li></ul></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  43. 43. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Figure 2-25 The Default Programs window is used to change file associations Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning Figure 2-26 Select the default program to play an .avi video file Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning
  44. 44. Differences In The Windows XP/2000 Desktop and The Vista Desktop <ul><li>Point to All Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List of currently installed software appears </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Back up data, clean up a hard drive, schedule tasks, restore Windows settings, various other things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Vista tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Explorer (No Add-ons) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlling Windows appearance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vista uses Personalization window </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP/2000 uses the Display Properties window </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  45. 45. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Figure 2-27 The Windows XP desktop and Start menu Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning Figure 2-29 Windows XP Display Properties window lets you change settings for your desktop Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning
  46. 46. Differences In The Windows XP/2000 Desktop and The Vista Desktop (cont’d.) <ul><li>Vista user account control (UAC) box </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appears when action requires administrative privileges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Vista account types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Administrator account, standard account </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent malicious background tasks from doing harm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allow administrator to use less powerful account </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be disabled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses color codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Red, yellow, green, grey </li></ul></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  47. 47. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Figure 2-30 The User Account Control box appears each time a user attempts to perform an action requiring administrative privileges: (a) the current account has administrative privileges; (b) the current account does not have administrative privileges Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning
  48. 48. Windows Explorer And The Computer Window <ul><li>Two most useful tools to explore files and folders </li></ul><ul><li>Access Computer or My Computer window </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Vista: click Start and click Computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP: click Start and click My Computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 2000: double-click My Computer on the desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open Windows Explorer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right-click Computer or My Computer and select Explore from the menu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right-click Start and select Explore from the menu </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  49. 49. Windows Explorer And The Computer Window (cont’d.) <ul><li>Files and directories </li></ul><ul><li>Drives organized with single root directory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At top of the top-down hierarchical structure of subdirectories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exception: hard drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divided into partitions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each volume has its own root directory and hierarchical structure of subdirectories </li></ul></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  50. 50. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Figure 2-33 Storage devices such as a USB drive, CD, or hard drive, are organized into directories and subdirectories that contain files Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning
  51. 51. Windows Explorer And The Computer Window (cont’d.) <ul><li>Files and directories (cont’d.) </li></ul><ul><li>Path: location of a file referenced by a drive and directories </li></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Figure 2-34 The complete path to a file includes the volume letter, directories, filename, and file extension; the colon, backslashes, and period are required to separate items in the path Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning
  52. 52. Windows Explorer And The Computer Window (cont’d.) <ul><li>Tips to navigate the directory structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Double-click to drill down to subfolders inside folders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right-click heading bar controls what information appears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use top of the left pane in the Favorite Links area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find a folder or file using the Search box (Vista) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use forward and back arrows (Vista) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Default layout for files and folders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>%SystemDrive%Users folder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>%SystemDrive%Documents and Settings folder </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  53. 53. Windows Explorer And The Computer Window (cont’d.) <ul><li>Changing folder options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls how users view files in a folder, what users can do with the files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File extension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to identify file types (Windows) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Default: hide file types </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can view hidden files and file extensions </li></ul></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  54. 54. Windows Explorer And The Computer Window (cont’d.) <ul><li>Methods to create a file </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a particular application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Windows Explorer or the Computer window </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Figure 2-37 Create a new file using Windows Explorer Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning
  55. 55. Windows Explorer And The Computer Window (cont’d.) <ul><li>Create a folder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select parent folder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right-click in the white area of the right pane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Select New from the shortcut menu </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Select one of three choices for folder types </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make a selection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Folder is created and highlighted so that it may be renamed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can create folders within folders within folders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows desktop is itself a folder </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  56. 56. Windows Explorer And The Computer Window (cont’d.) <ul><li>Copy or delete files or folders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right-click file, select Copy from the shortcut menu </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Click in folder white area where the copied item goes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Select Paste from the shortcut menu </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative way to copy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drag and drop item to its new location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using Explorer, right-click the file or folder, select Delete from the shortcut menu </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycle bin does not really delete files </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  57. 57. Windows Explorer And The Computer Window (cont’d.) <ul><li>Change file attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the Properties window </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Figure 2-39 Properties of a file in Windows Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning
  58. 58. The Control Panel <ul><li>Contains applets used to manage the system </li></ul><ul><li>Accessing Control Panel in Vista and XP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click Start and the click Control Panel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two views: Category View and Classic View </li></ul><ul><li>Applets can be accessed directly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Launched using the Vista Start dialog box (Run dialog box in Windows 200/XP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: enter Main.cpl to open Mouse Properties </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  59. 59. System Information Utility <ul><li>Used to view detailed information about the system </li></ul><ul><li>Important features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processor or BIOS version installed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RAM is installed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OS installation directory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard drive size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Names of currently running drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open utility in Vista </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click Start, and enter Msinfo32.exe in the Start box and press Enter </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  60. 60. Command Prompt Window <ul><li>Used to enter multiple commands to perform a variety of tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to open </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vista Start box or Windows 2000/XP Run box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enter cmd.exe and press Enter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click Start, All Programs, Accessories, and Command Prompt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clear text: type cls </li></ul><ul><li>Close the window </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type exit and press Enter or click the X close window icon in the upper-right corner of the window </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e
  61. 61. Quick Quiz #3 <ul><li>1. The right side of the taskbar is called the notification area, which some call the ____________________. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: system tray or systray </li></ul><ul><li>2. True or False: Windows uses the file extension to know which application to open to manage the file, which is called the file association. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: True </li></ul><ul><li>3. True or False: The Vista UAC box is used to protect the system against malware. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: True </li></ul><ul><li>4. True or False: In Windows XP, Briefcase creates a Briefcase folder, which is a folder that can be used to sync up files in this folder with its corresponding Briefcase folder on another computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: False </li></ul><ul><li>5. Control Panel holds a group of ____________________ to manage the system. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: Applets </li></ul>
  62. 62. Command Prompt Window (cont’d.) <ul><li>Two levels of command prompt windows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard window and elevated window </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Figure 2-44 An elevated command prompt window Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning
  63. 63. Summary <ul><li>OS manages system resources for users and applications </li></ul><ul><li>Many operating systems have evolved over time </li></ul><ul><li>Operating systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided into a kernel and user shell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide user interface, manage files, manage applications, manage hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows desktop, Windows Explorer, System Properties, Control Panel, Device Manager, System Information, Windows Help </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

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