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  • 1. CSC 2260 Operating Systems and Networks Chapter 6 Fall 2008 Dr. Chuck Lillie
  • 2.  
  • 3. Making the Windows GUI Work for You Who Invented the Desktop? Navigating the Windows GUI Configuring & Customizing the Windows Desktop Managing Files in Windows Launching Programs in Windows Selecting a Strategy for Leaving the Desktop Troubleshooting Common Desktop Problems Chapter 6
  • 4. Learning Objectives
    • Explain the nature and history of the Windows GUI
    • Navigate the Windows GUI
    • Configure and customize the Windows desktop
    • Manage files in Windows
    • Launch applications in Windows
    • Select a method for leaving the desktop
    • Troubleshoot common Windows desktop problems
  • 5. Who Invented the Desktop?
    • 1968: Douglas Engelbart’s demonstration
    • 1970’s: Xerox PARC influences others
    • Result: desktop metaphor
  • 6. Navigating the Windows GUI
    • Getting to the Desktop via Logon
      • User Accounts
        • Each account is a record in an accounts database
        • Local database or server-based
        • Windows 9 x does not have local accounts database
      • Workgroups and Domains
        • Workgroups
          • Logical grouping for sharing resources
          • Unique name on the network
          • No central accounts database – only local
  • 7. Navigating the Windows GUI
    • Getting to the Desktop via Logon (continued)
      • Workgroups and Domains (continued)
        • Domains
          • Logical grouping for sharing resources
          • Unique name on the network
          • Central accounts database
      • The use of CTRL-ALT-DELETE before logon
        • Most versions of Windows can require Ctrl-Alt-Delete to open logon dialog box
        • Security measure to clear memory
  • 8. Navigating the Windows GUI
    • Getting to the Desktop via Logon (continued)
      • Working with Logon Dialog Boxes
        • Logging onto a stand-alone or workgroup computer
          • Windows XP Welcome to Windows dialog box
          • Windows NT Logon Information dialog box
          • Windows 98 Welcome or Enter Network Password
          • Windows 2000 Log On to Windows dialog box
  • 9. Navigating the Windows GUI
    • Getting to the Desktop via Logon (continued)
      • Working with Logon Dialog Boxes (continued)
        • Logging onto a Microsoft Windows Domain
          • User logs on to access domain resources
          • A computer can be a member of a domain and be centrally managed as a resource of a domain
          • The computer from which a user logs on must be a domain member
          • Windows 9x exception – user logon without computer membership
          • Windows XP Home cannot be a member of a domain, and a user cannot log onto a domain from XP Home
  • 10. Navigating the Windows GUI
    • Getting to the Desktop via Logon (continued)
      • Working with Logon Dialog Boxes (continued)
        • Buttons in the Logon Dialog Boxes
          • OK
          • Cancel
          • Help
          • Shut Down
          • Options
  • 11. Navigating the Windows GUI
    • Step-by-Step 6.01
    • Logging Onto Windows
    • Page 258
  • 12. Navigating the Windows GUI
    • A Tour of the Desktop
      • Getting Started
        • Special dialog boxes in Windows NT, 98, and 2000
        • Cartoon-style message balloon in Windows XP
      • First Look
        • Default desktop includes mouse pointer, taskbar, Start menu button, and one or more icons
  • 13. Navigating the Windows GUI
    • A Tour of the Desktop (continued)
      • Desktop Icons
        • Default icons vary among versions of Windows
        • My Computer, Internet Explorer, Recycle Bin. Network Neighborhood, My Network Places, My Briefcase, My Documents, MSN Internet Account, Online Services, Connect to the Internet
  • 14. Navigating the Windows GUI
    • A Tour of the Desktop (continued)
      • Taskbar
        • Default position across bottom of screen
        • Start button
        • Quick Launch toolbar
        • Buttons for running programs
        • Notification area (AKA system tray or systray)
        • Reposition and resize
        • Windows XP default locked
        • Taskbar Properties
  • 15. Navigating the Windows GUI
    • A Tour of the Desktop (continued)
      • Start Menu
        • Programs/All Programs
        • Documents/My Recent Documents
        • Personal Folders
  • 16. Navigating the Windows GUI
    • Step-by-Step 6.02
    • Using the Start Menu
    • Page 271
  • 17. Configuring and Customizing the Windows Desktop
    • Classic Desktop vs. Active Desktop
      • Active Desktop: web content on desktop
      • Classic desktop: double-click to open objects
      • Enable/Disable in Display applet
        • Web tab
        • Desktop tab in Windows XP
        • Single-click a separate option in Windows XP
  • 18. Configuring and Customizing the Windows Desktop
    • Decorating the Desktop: Background, Color Schemes, and Settings
      • Background/Desktop page of Display applet
        • Background
        • Wallpaper
        • Colors
        • Screen saver
        • Themes
  • 19. Configuring and Customizing the Windows Desktop
    • Customizing the Taskbar
      • Quick Launch toolbar
        • An area on the taskbar designed to launch programs that are used frequently
  • 20. Configuring and Customizing the Windows Desktop
    • Step-by-Step 6.03
    • Customizing the Desktop
    • Page 274
  • 21. Managing Files in Windows
    • File and Folder Basics
      • A file is information organized as a unit
      • A folder is a special file that holds a list of files and other folders
      • An application may save to a default folder
      • User may choose to save in other folder
  • 22. Managing Files in Windows
    • File and Folder Basics (continued)
      • File/folder management actions
        • Opening
        • Closing
        • Copying
        • Moving
        • Deleting
  • 23. Managing Files in Windows
    • What Files Should You Manage?
      • Users only manage data files
      • Understand folder structure:
          • Document and Settings
          • Windows
          • Program Files
          • Fonts
          • System and System32
          • Temp
  • 24. Managing Files in Windows
    • What Files Should You Manage? (continued)
      • Hands Off System Files!
        • Root of drive C:
        • WINNT or WINDOWS folder
        • Hidden by default in Windows 2000 and XP
        • Make system files visible in Tools | Folder Options
  • 25. Managing Files in Windows
    • What Files Should You Manage? (continued)
      • Managing Data Files
        • Data File types
          • Text files
          • Word processing document files
          • Graphic files
          • Database files
          • Spreadsheet files
  • 26. Managing Files in Windows
    • Organizing Files Using Folders
      • GUI Techniques
        • Drag-and-Drop Rules in Explorer/My Computer
          • Dragging while pressing right mouse button = options
          • Dragging while pressing CTRL = move
          • Dragging to another drive = copy
          • Dragging to another drive while pressing SHIFT = move
          • Dragging a program file creates a shortcut to program
  • 27. Managing Files in Windows
    • Step-by-Step 6.04
    • Managing Files and Folders
    • Page 280
  • 28. Managing Files in Windows
    • Non-GUI Techniques—The Command Prompt
      • Open command prompt and run commands
      • Launch any program that runs in Windows
      • Work at command prompt within Windows
  • 29. Managing Files in Windows
    • Non-GUI Techniques—The Command Prompt (continued)
      • The Command Prompt in Windows 9 x
        • DOS Virtual Machine
        • Uses DOS Command shell (COMMAND.COM)
        • Start | Programs | MS-DOS Prompt
  • 30. Managing Files in Windows
    • Non-GUI Techniques—The Command Prompt (continued)
      • The Command Prompt in Windows NT, Windows 2000, and Windows XP
        • Menu item = Command Prompt
        • Launches CMD.EXE
        • 32-bit character-mode command prompt
        • Do no Harm!
          • Never do file management at the command prompt
          • Never run third-party disk utilities at the command prompt
  • 31. Managing Files in Windows
    • Non-GUI Techniques—The Command Prompt (continued)
      • The Command Prompt in Windows NT, Windows 2000, and Windows XP (continued)
        • 8.3 File Names vs. Long File Names
          • Windows creates both a long file name and an 8.3 alias
          • Best-supported in GUI
          • Using the 8.3 file name from the command prompt brings risk of losing the long file name
  • 32. Managing Files in Windows
    • Non-GUI Techniques—The Command Prompt (continued)
      • The Command Prompt in Windows NT, Windows 2000, and Windows XP (continued)
        • The Dangers of FDISK and Other DOS Utilities
          • FDISK will not run in Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, or Windows Server 2003
          • FDISK is the only partitioning program in Windows 9 x
          • FDISK run after booting with a startup disk will run unrestricted
  • 33. Managing Files in Windows
    • Step-by-Step 6.05
    • Working at the Command Prompt in Windows
    • Page 285
  • 34. Managing Files in Windows
    • Maintenance of Disks and Files
      • Perform basic maintenance regularly
        • Remove excess files that accumulate over time
        • Reorganize how files are saved on disk
        • Back up valuable data and system files
  • 35. Managing Files in Windows
    • Maintenance of Disks and Files (continued)
      • Remove excess files with Disk Cleanup
        • Not available in Windows NT
        • Start | All Programs | Accessories | System Tools
        • Start | Run | cleanmgr
  • 36. Managing Files in Windows
    • Maintenance of Disks and Files (continued)
      • Defragmenting a Disk
        • Disk Defragmenting utility (not in Windows NT)
        • Start | All Programs | Accessories | System Tools | Disk Defragmenter
        • Start | Run | dfrg.msc
  • 37. Managing Files in Windows
    • Maintenance of Disks and Files (continued)
      • Backing up data
        • Data is more valuable than hardware and software
        • Therefore, backup is critical
        • Most Windows versions include backup program
        • Third party programs offer more features
  • 38. Launching Programs in Windows
    • Start Menu
    • Program Shortcut
    • Start | Run
    • Launch by Association
  • 39. Launching Programs in Windows
    • Step-by-Step 6.06
    • Launch Programs in Windows
    • Page 291
  • 40. Launching Programs in Windows
    • Command Prompt
      • Launching Windows Programs from the Command Prompt
      • Running DOS Applications in Windows
  • 41. Launching Programs in Windows
    • Step-by-Step 6.07
    • Running MS-DOS Editor in Windows
    • Page 294
  • 42. Selecting a Strategy for Leaving the Desktop
    • Logging Off and Shutting Down
      • Log off
      • Log off and Shut Down
  • 43. Selecting a Strategy for Leaving the Desktop
    • System Standby
      • Sleep state
      • Consumes minimal power
      • On resume, all programs and data open
      • Settings in Power Options applet
      • Not really turned off
      • Requires power (AC or battery)
  • 44. Selecting a Strategy for Leaving the Desktop
    • Hibernate
      • Contents of memory saved to disk
      • Computer powered off – no power required
      • On resume, all programs and data open
      • Settings in Power Options in Control Panel
  • 45. Selecting a Strategy for Leaving the Desktop
    • Start Menu
      • Start | Shut Down
        • Shut Down Windows dialog box
        • May include Log off, Shut Down, Restart, Hibernate (not in NT), and Standby (not in NT)
        • Start | Log off (Windows XP)
        • Start | Turn Off Computer (Windows XP)
  • 46. Selecting a Strategy for Leaving the Desktop
    • Ctrl-Alt-Delete
      • Opens Security dialog box
      • Select Log off or Shut down
  • 47. Troubleshooting Common Windows Desktop Problems
    • Disappearing Dialog Box
      • Dialog box closes before completion
      • Pressing Enter closes
      • Do not press Enter until completed
  • 48. Troubleshooting Common Windows Desktop Problems
    • Inability to Find Something
      • Forget where you saved a file?
      • Use the Windows Find or Search utility
      • Flexible searches on almost anything you can remember about a file
  • 49. Troubleshooting Common Windows Desktop Problems
    • Windows Fails to Start
      • Data floppy disk left in drive
      • Last Known Good
      • Advanced Options Menu
  • 50. Troubleshooting Common Windows Desktop Problems
    • Windows Stalls
      • No response from Windows or apps
      • Cannot close any apps
      • In Windows 9 x press Ctrl-Alt-Delete
      • In newer versions press Ctrl-Shift-Esc
      • If Explorer not responding, restart
      • Any other single app can be removed
  • 51. Troubleshooting Common Windows Desktop Problems
    • An Application Fails to Start
      • Possible lack of memory
      • Close other applications and retry
  • 52. Chapter Summary
    • Who Invented the Desktop?
      • The origins go back several decades
      • Many innovative people contributed to the desktop metaphor; Douglas Engelbart demon- strated the use of a mouse in 1968.
      • The mouse and keyboard are your primary input devices.
  • 53. Chapter Summary
    • Who Invented the Desktop?
      • The Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) was a major contributor to the desktop metaphor.
      • The Apple Macintosh was the first successful consumer product using a GUI and a mouse.
      • The desktop metaphor endures today in Windows, Macintosh OS, and in various GUI interfaces for UNIX and Linux.
  • 54. Chapter Summary
    • Navigating the Windows GUI
      • In most organizations, you must log on and be authenticated before you can access the desktop.
      • A user account is a record in an accounts database that may exist locally (except for Windows 9 x ) or on a network server.
      • Logging onto a computer requires a user name and password that match those in a user account.
  • 55. Chapter Summary
    • Navigating the Windows GUI
      • A workgroup is a grouping of computers on a network for the sake of sharing printers and folders.
      • A Microsoft Windows domain has a centralized security accounts database, maintained on one or more special servers called domain controllers. This database contains accounts for users, groups, and computers in the domain and can be used to authenticate a user for access to any domain resource.
  • 56. Chapter Summary
    • Navigating the Windows GUI
      • For a more secure logon, ctrl-alt-delete is required to bring up the logon dialog box in all but Windows 9 x.
      • By default, Windows XP, Windows 2000 Professional, and Windows NT Workstation allow users to select Shutdown even though no one is logged on. Not allowed on servers.
  • 57. Chapter Summary
    • Navigating the Windows GUI
      • Windows Help has improved with each version of Windows. Use it!
      • Windows now has a variety of graphical objects: the cursor, icons, shortcuts, dialog boxes, windows, folders, buttons, toolbars, menus, and the taskbar.
      • The Start button gives you access to menus from which you can launch programs.
  • 58. Chapter Summary
    • Navigating the Windows GUI
      • The Documents shortcut icon contains shortcuts to recently opened data files. In Windows XP this folder is named My Recent Documents, but is not enabled by default.
  • 59. Chapter Summary
    • Navigating the Windows GUI
      • Personal folders are a subset of special folders that Windows creates to hold files and folders for each user. Included are files containing desktop configuration and preference information, each user’s own data files. Shortcuts to some personal folders are on the Start menu.
      • Personal Folders include Start Menu, My Documents, Favorites, Desktop, and many others.
  • 60. Chapter Summary
    • Configuring and Customizing the Desktop
      • If Active Desktop is enabled, choose between the classic Windows desktop and Web view. In classic Windows desktop, double-click to open an object; in Web view, objects on the desktop behave like links in a web page that can be open- ed with a single click.
      • Shortcuts added to the Quick Launch area of the taskbar are launched with a single click.
  • 61. Chapter Summary
    • Configuring and Customizing the Desktop
      • Control Panel contains many applets that allow you to configure your hardware and software.
      • Right-click on the desktop, choose Properties to open the Display Properties box, a Control Panel applet that allows you to customize many aspects of the desktop.
  • 62. Chapter Summary
    • Manage Files in Windows
      • A file is information organized as a unit, and the author of a file determines how much information is stored in a file.
      • Files allow you to put information into manageable chunks.
      • A special type of file acts as a container for files, called a folder in Windows, but previously called a directory in MS-DOS. You can create folders in a hierarchy, enhancing the organization of your files.
  • 63. Chapter Summary
    • Manage Files in Windows
      • File management in the Windows GUI is easier and safer than in DOS because you don’t have to memorize commands that use cryptic syntax; you don’t have to feel like you are taking a typing test every time you want to create, copy, move, or delete a file or folder; and because you can see exactly what files and folders you have selected for a file management operation.
  • 64. Chapter Summary
    • Manage Files in Windows
      • Two important file types are program files and data files. Program files (also called binary files) contain programming code, and data files contain the data you create and work with in your applica- tion programs.
      • It is best not to attempt to manage program files, especially those the operating system requires, called system files. Leave them in the folders in which the operating system or installation pro- grams place them.
  • 65. Chapter Summary
    • Manage Files in Windows
      • Manage data files.
      • A short list of data file types includes
        • Text files—most often have the TXT extension
        • Word processing document files—DOC extension
        • Graphic files—BMP, DIB, GIF, JPG, TIF, etc.
        • Database files—Access uses the MDB extension
        • Spreadsheet files—Excel uses the XLS extension
  • 66. Chapter Summary
    • Manage Files in Windows
      • The Find/Search option has been improved with each version of Windows. In Windows NT, you can search for files, folders, and com- puters, but in Windows XP, you can search for almost anything in the world that is searchable over the Internet.
      • Users can manage files and folders in My Computer and Windows Explorer and from the command prompt. The last is not recommended.
  • 67. Chapter Summary
    • Launching Programs in Windows
      • Users can launch programs by using the Start menu.
      • Another method for launching programs is with the use of shortcuts on the desktop or other locations.
  • 68. Chapter Summary
    • Launching Programs in Windows
      • Using the file extensions of data files, Windows associates the files with applications that can create and read that file type. When you click on a file that has an extension for which Windows has an association, Windows will start the associated program and load the file as data for the program.
  • 69. Chapter Summary
    • Launching Programs in Windows
      • Another method for launching a program is to use Start | Run. Then enter a command name in the box to launch a program.
      • Launch a program from the command prompt. If the program is a GUI program, it will be launch- ed in a window.
  • 70. Chapter Summary
    • Leave the Desktop by Logging Off and Shutting Down
      • Your end-of-day procedure depends on the rules for using the computer.
      • In some organizations, users are required to log off but to leave the computer running.
      • In other organizations, users are required to log off and shut down the computer.
      • Never just switch off your desktop computer with the on/off switch. You should always do so from within Windows.
  • 71. Chapter Summary
    • Troubleshoot Common Windows Desktop Problems
      • Pressing ENTER when you intended to select a new field may cause a dialog box to disappear.
      • Use the Find or Search function to find lost files.
      • Leaving a floppy disk in the drive is a frequent cause of startup failure.
      • If Windows stops responding, you may have no other choice but to restart your computer.

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