Computer Basics (all technology courses should at least skim ...Presentation Transcript
Computer Basics (all technology courses should at least skim over computer basics, so that is what we are going to do)
Hardware vs. Software
Hardware is what makes up the computer itself…the CPU, the memory, etc. The physical parts of the computer.
Software is the programs or applications that you run on the hardware, controlling how it functions and directing its operation. All the programs we run are software, as is the operating system we run them on.
An operating system is software that
handles the interaction of the user with the computer through peripheral devices
manages the file system for the storage of programs and data files (retrieving and storing files the user works with)
manages the interaction of the user with various application programs and the user’s own programs.
Examples of Operating Systems:
DOS (which stands for disk operating system)
MAC OS (currently at OS X.5.8; X.6 is out Aug 28th)
Windows (currently Vista; Windows 7 is out October 22nd)
Pictures in a little bit…
The Anatomy of a Computer The hardware
The Hardware Components
The basic hardware components of a computer include:
The CPU (Central Processing Unit)
The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the “brains” of the computer and is made up of one or more microprocessor
It controls all that goes on in the computer
The clock speed of the CPU is measured in gigahertz, and used to be measured in megahertz (1 GHz = 1000 MHz)
In general, the bigger the number, the faster the computer is. However, this can be made a little confusing by the fact that computers will multi-core processors with lower clock speeds will actually run faster than a computer with a single-processor at a higher clock rate.
What is a respectable speed for recent dual-core processor computers?
There are several different CPU manufacturers: AMD and Intel are the most popular ones.
The primary memory of a computer stores software and data while it is being used .
When you turn the power off, you loose what is in primary memory.
Consists of RAM (Random Access Memory)
Generally , the more RAM you have, the more things you can have happening at once on your computer without it slowing down
How much RAM is in most new PCs these days?
Memory is pretty cheap, and one of the best ways to speed up a slow-running system
Secondary memory stores data in a more permanent way
Also called "Auxiliary Storage"
It is cheaper and slower than primary memory.
Examples of secondary memory are hard drives (like your C: drive), CDs, DVDs, floppy disks, and USB memory sticks
How much space is on the hard drives of new computers these days?
The speed that the hard drive is able to search for data on it is measured in rpm (revolutions per minute), and is commonly 5,400 rpm or 7,200 rpm.
This encompasses all of the non-essential support devices for a computer
Includes input/output (I/O) devices like the keyboard and mouse, monitors, printers, speakers, scanners, etc.
Most versions of Windows 7 will include built-in support for multi-touch monitors, which seems to be the way things are moving towards since the release of the iPhone
A Brief History of Computers How did we get here?
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)
ENIAC, the first computer, was created at the University of Pennsylvania in 1946.
It filled an entire room and used enough electricity for an entire block.
It failed, on average, every hour.
Source: http:// www.npl.co.uk ENIAC
Evolution of Computers
1950’s saw IBM’s first business computer.
Could only perform a single task at a time.
1960’s was the advent of time-sharing computers.
1969 saw the invention of ARPAnet, which the Internet developed from
1980’s was the first time PC’s were owned in large numbers.
Evolution of PCs
1977 : The Apple II was introduced and became first practical, successful personal computer. It used low-cost floppy disks, had expansion slots for upgrades, and had a wide variety of software for it. It went through several versions and remained in use throughout the 80s.
1984 : The Apple Macintosh was the first computer with a GUI OS (like you are used to with Windows today).
1981 : The IBM PC was introduced with DOS. Eventually, many manufacturers would use IBM's standards to develop their own PCs.
1992 : Windows 3.1 came around in 1992 and was the first really popular Windows OS on IBM-compatible machines. An earlier Microsoft graphical OS was Windows 3.0, which came out in 1990.
Source: Wikipedia 5.25 in floppy
Hardware – the different PCs and their components
Software – the different operating systems running on these machines, and the programs by the operating system
The Anatomy of a New Computing Device a look inside nontraditional computing devices: the iPhone, Kindle, and NetBooks from http:// www.maximumpc.com /article/features/autopsy
Internet Basics Some key terms and vocabulary
Networks and the Internet
When two computers are connected together in a way that lets them communicate with each other, you have a network
The Internet is a collection of computer networks that communicate with each other using a common set of rules called a protocol
Intranet vs. Internet
An Intranet is a private (closed) Internet, running inside a LAN (Local Area Network)
It can be accessed only by authorized persons.
Many businesses will have an Intranet…MISD has one, for example
It is basically a little bitty piece of the Internet that doesn’t allow any outsiders into it.
Intranets use a firewall to protect against unauthorized access.
The World Wide Web (WWW) is not the same thing as the Internet. The Web is instead a set of additional protocols that run on top of the Internet.
The WWW was released in 1992, based on public specifications.
All pages on the WWW use the Hypertext Transfer Protocol , or HTTP.
Additional standards for the WWW are developed by the World Wide Web Consortium, or the W3C ( www.w3.org ), which was founded in 1994.
A domain name is the friendly name we type in to go to a site, like www.google.com , cnn.com , etc.
When you type in a name, a name server looks up the IP address that goes with that name.
An IP address is a unique number identifying every computer on the Internet.
Sites with lots of traffic like Google may have multiple computers hosting them, resulting in a single domain name corresponding to multiple IP addresses, depending on when/where the address is requested from the name server
Similarly, a single computer can host multiple sites, meaning that multiple domain names go to the same IP address
An IP address for Google, for instance, is 126.96.36.199 .
An IP address for MISD is 188.8.131.52
A Quick History of Web Browsers
When the WWW started up in the early 90s, browsers were text-only (no images).
Mosaic was a browser that came out in 1993 and first supported images…a big deal.
Netscape ruled from around 1994 to 1997. It added cookies and support for new tags. Originally, you had to pay to use Netscape
Internet Explorer was pretty insignificant for its first few versions, but with IE3 (1995) it got a little better. IE was free, which meant Netscape had to become free as well or people wouldn’t use it.
Newcomer Mozilla (not Firefox yet) came out in 2002 after IE6
IE7 and Mozilla Firefox 2 were both released in the fall of 2006. Both were MUCH improved in how they work with web standards
A Quick History of Web Browsers
I E8 , Firefox 3.5 , and Google Chrome are the current major Windows browsers
IE8 is trying to make changes with with "WebSlices", but as of yet they haven't really caught on in popularity yet
Other browsers: Apple’s Safari browser on Mac and Windows, and Opera , which is available on a lot of different formats (Wii, Mac, PC, Linux, cell phones, etc)
In 1993, web pages were mostly static (non-changing). People and companies made a site, and updated infrequently, with little feedback from the person viewing the page.
Very little to no audio, no video, primative graphics (and even no graphics before Mosaic came around)…the web was a very different place than it is today
Since then, other developments have made a big impact on the Internet, including:
peer-to-peer filesharing, which speed up the development of legal, for-pay download services
The Web…then and now
The Web 2.0
The Web 2.0, or the "Read-Write Web", is a buzzword describing web services allow users to be a part of a web community and interact with each other
Blogs, social networking sites like MySpace and Facebook, Digg.com (where user ranking of news makes it more seen), Wikipedia (where users write, edit, and maintain an encylopedia), YouTube (where users post, rate, and respond to videos) and eBay are good examples of this interaction idea
Basically, it just a marketing term for web pages that do more than post information, letting users contribute or interact with it in a more involved manner
Virtually EVERY major website launched in the past five years or so has been "read/write"
What is next? What is the Web 3.0 going to include?
Assignment for today
Go to the web page and, using this PowerPoint and the web page links provided, answer the posted questions.
You can work in small groups, but each person has to turn in a sheet of notebook paper with the answers on them by the end of class for a daily grade.
When you get done, look over the W3School's "Introduction to HTML" tutorial to prepare you for next class, when we'll start HTML