Chapter 4


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Chapter 4

  1. 1. Chapter 4: Initial Installation A Guide to Operating Systems: Troubleshooting and Problem Solving
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Understand the overall process of operating system installation </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for operating system installation </li></ul><ul><li>Install the MS-DOS operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Install Windows 3.11 for Workgroups and understand the differences between this and the MS-DOS installation </li></ul><ul><li>Install Windows 95 and Windows 98 and understand the various options presented during the installation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Install Windows NT Server and Workstation understand options presented during the install, and understand the differences between these versions of Windows NT </li></ul><ul><li>Install UNIX variety Linux and understand the basic differences between this installation and those of other operating systems covered in this chapter </li></ul><ul><li>Install Mac OS version 8.5 and understand some of the options you will have during the installation </li></ul>
  4. 4. Preparing for Installation of an Operating System <ul><li>Check the computer to make sure it meets or exceeds the hardware and software requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that all equipment is powered and operating correctly (computer and peripheral devices) </li></ul><ul><li>Have appropriate floppy disks or CDs on hand </li></ul>
  5. 5. Preparing for Installation of an Operating System <ul><li>Understand the general features of the operating system being installed, and decide which modules to install and or omit </li></ul><ul><li>Have the most up-to-date device drivers for CD-ROM, SCSI devices, printers, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Have pertinent information available about your computer and peripheral devices </li></ul>
  6. 6. During the Installation of an Operating System <ul><li>Decide where to install the operating system (in which directory or path) </li></ul><ul><li>Determine which type of to perform (typical/default, portable, compact, custom, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Input personal information (your name, company name, computer or workgroup name) </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain licensing information (usuallya license key or ID number) </li></ul><ul><li>Determine which components of the operating system to install </li></ul>
  7. 7. Actual Installation of Operating System <ul><li>Insure proper loading/ running the installation program </li></ul><ul><li>Gather system information </li></ul><ul><li>Determine which elements of the operating system are to be installed </li></ul><ul><li>Configure devices and drivers </li></ul>
  8. 8. Actual Installation of Operating System <ul><li>Create a floppy disk used to boot the operating system in an emergency </li></ul><ul><li>Copy operating system files onto your computer </li></ul><ul><li>Restart the system and finalize configuration of devices </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 95/ 98 have a feature called Plug and Play </li></ul>
  9. 9. Checking Hardware Prior to Installation <ul><li>Many operating systems detect hardware connected to your computer automatically </li></ul><ul><li>External peripheral devices such as SCSI devices, tape drives, disk drives, and scanners </li></ul><ul><li>Non-working hardware can be a failed installation </li></ul>
  10. 10. Hardware Component Information
  11. 11. More Plug and Play <ul><li>Many cards installed in machine can have settings that are performed on card </li></ul><ul><li>The Intel PC architecture cards often need to be configured to interface with the computer </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 95 and later Windows products use the Plug and Play system to do this </li></ul><ul><li>Plug and Play operating system card configuration will be automatic </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 98 supports true Plug and Play mode </li></ul><ul><li>With newer hardware there may be BIOS settings that can turn on or off Plug and Play capability </li></ul>
  12. 12. Checking Drivers <ul><li>CD-ROM drives, software-driven modems, and input devices such as scanners require special drivers to work correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Drivers will be on the disks that come with the devices, but often these disks do not include drivers for all or the most up-to-date drivers </li></ul><ul><li>Driver availability can be obtained by calling or viewing the manufacturer’s Web page </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ensuring Hardware Compatibility <ul><li>Hardware compatibility list (HCL) - is usually a list or book that contains brand names and models for all hardware supported by the operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Windows NT and some UNIX systems will include an HCL </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 95 and Mac OS probably will not have an HCL but provides separate technical information </li></ul><ul><li>Consider a 2 GB hard drive and 32 MB of RAM as the bare minimum to install any modern operating system </li></ul>
  14. 14. Installing MS-DOS <ul><li>It takes 20 minutes to an hour to get DOS up and running </li></ul><ul><li>Drivers needed for a basic DOS installation are those for a CD-ROM drive </li></ul><ul><li>These are installed after the basic MS-DOS install completes </li></ul><ul><li>Use a floppy disk to save uninstalled information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.5-inch floppy disk may suffice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For 5.25-inch floppy drives, two disk may be required </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. MS-DOS Hardware Requirements <ul><li>Inserting MS-DOS disk 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Machine boots from the floppy disk </li></ul>
  16. 16. MS-DOS Configuration Screen <ul><li>Confirms information about country, keyboard layout, system date and time, and the directory you wish to use for DOS </li></ul><ul><li>Use default directory C:DOS, since many programs look for DOS there </li></ul>
  17. 17. Setting Disk Boot Order <ul><li>If BIOS has been set to boot from another drive, reboot computer </li></ul><ul><li>Press designated key or keys (such as F2 or Del) to enter BIOS setup while power-on self-test (POST) is running </li></ul><ul><li>In CMOS or extended BIOS Setup find the option for boot sequence </li></ul><ul><li>The boot order should be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive A: (or your floppy drive), then </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive C: (or your boot hard drive) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Using an Upgrade Version of MS-DOS for a New Install Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Keep your DOS floppy in the drive and restart the machine </li></ul><ul><li>To start MS-DOS hold down the left shift key </li></ul><ul><li>Run the fdisk utility to partition your disk </li></ul><ul><li>Insert a boot disk and use FORMAT command to format the partition </li></ul><ul><li>Installer will recommend you stop installation and restart your computer. DO NOT DO THIS </li></ul><ul><li>This will cause drivers to be loaded; they will be present in memory during the install process (not a good idea) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Installing Additional Hardware and Optimizing Memory <ul><li>Install drivers for additional hardware (mouse and sound card) </li></ul><ul><li>Copy the device drivers to your hard disk </li></ul><ul><li>Config.sys configures specific parts of the operating system and additional drivers </li></ul><ul><li>Autoexec.bat is a file that contains a series of commands </li></ul><ul><li>Memmaker will optimize the way device drivers use memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better use of memory translates into higher execution speeds and more flexibility </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Installing Windows 3.1x Hardware Requirements <ul><li>Network and sound cards make extensive use of IRQ’s, I/O ports, and DMA channels </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 3.1 has no way to figure out hardware settings, however, it will try to put in default values </li></ul>
  21. 21. Windows 3.1 and 3.11 Optimizing Settings <ul><li>It is possible to run Windows 3.1 at a low resolution </li></ul><ul><li>640x480 pixels, with at least 16 colors is recommended </li></ul><ul><li>800 x 600 with 256 colors is better </li></ul><ul><li>Installation should take between 15 and 120 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 3.1x is installed from floppy disks </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 3.11 installation offers express or custom installation. </li></ul><ul><li>Custom installation gives you more control over setup </li></ul>
  22. 22. Differences Between Windows 3.1x and DOS Installation <ul><li>Windows 3.1x goes through a hardware and software detection phase (DOS does not) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware and software are not always correctly identified </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When you finish with hardware selection, you may chose other components and files to be installed </li></ul><ul><li>The drivers and files will be copied to your hard disk </li></ul>
  23. 23. Windows for Workgroups 3.11and Networking <ul><li>NETBEUI is the default networking protocol in Windows environments </li></ul><ul><li>If you are operating in a Windows/ DOS only environment, you may want to remove the IPX/ SPX protocol for Novell NetWare </li></ul><ul><li>Another protocol choice is TCP/ IP (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Network Names in Windows for Workgroups <ul><li>When networking in Windows for Workgroups, you need to specify the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workgroup name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer name </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Names can be up to 15 characters long </li></ul>
  25. 25. Suggested Computer Names <ul><li>When networking use short and meaningful names </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PRINTSERV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FILESERV1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RECEPTION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not use spaces in machine and workgroup names </li></ul><ul><li>User name can be no more than 8 characters </li></ul>
  26. 26. Changes to the CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXE.BAT Files <ul><li>Windows 3.1x installation automatically makes changes to CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT (user may review and edit changes) </li></ul><ul><li>Windows for Workgroups adds netstart to the AUTOEXEC.BAT (starts network functionality) </li></ul><ul><li>When using a CD-ROM drive, the highmem.sys driver is used </li></ul><ul><li>When installing Windows for Workgroups, the IFSHLP.SYS device driver is used (it supports disk sharing features) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Adjusting Memory <ul><li>Start Windows, open the Control Panel , and choose Enhanced </li></ul><ul><li>Click the Virtual Memory button </li></ul><ul><li>In Virtual Memory screen click Change </li></ul><ul><li>If you have disk space to spare, set the Type to Permanent </li></ul>
  28. 28. Adjusting Memory <ul><li>If you have 32-bit file and disk access, you are using an IDE drive and your machine is a 486 or better </li></ul><ul><li>If you have 16 MB of RAM, use 2 MB for disk cache if 32-bit file access is turned on </li></ul><ul><li>If 32-bit file access is not turned on, use about 512 KB cache </li></ul>
  29. 29. Virtual Memory Control Panel
  30. 30. Installing Windows 95 Making a Boot Disk <ul><li>If your machine runs DOS, simply use FORMAT A: /S to make a system floppy, on which you can install your CD-ROM driver and the MSCDEX extensions </li></ul><ul><li>Copy the CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXE.BAT files to the floppy </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure the FORMAT.COM and FDISK.EXE utilities are included </li></ul>
  31. 31. Windows 95 Installation and Hardware Requirements <ul><li>Installation should take 30 to 120 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>The hard disk must be formatted and partitioned </li></ul><ul><li>FAT32 is only available on the OS R2 release </li></ul>Table 4-4 Windows 95 Hardware Requirements
  32. 32. Windows 95 Installation Options <ul><li>Typical (default) option requires very little interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Portable option typically used for laptops </li></ul><ul><li>Compact option is used when you have minimum amount of hard disk space </li></ul><ul><li>Custom allows you to choose installation options </li></ul><ul><li>If you install mail and fax support, you must use the custom installation </li></ul>
  33. 33. Windows 95 Setup Wizard
  34. 34. Windows 98 Installation and Hardware Requirements <ul><li>One blank disk is required to create a system recovery disk </li></ul><ul><li>Installation takes from 40 to 180 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>You will need a Windows 98 boot disk to format your hard disk with the FAT32 file system </li></ul>
  35. 35. Windows 98 Setup <ul><li>Has the same four installation options as Windows 95 </li></ul><ul><li>Custom installation is recommended </li></ul><ul><li>In Windows 98 installation nearly everything is automatic, several restarts occur automatically </li></ul>
  36. 36. Installing Windows NT <ul><li>Windows NT comes in two different versions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NT Server supports several thousand simultaneous users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NT Workstation supports no more than 10 users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NT Server and NT Workstation are both network operating systems </li></ul>
  37. 37. Windows NT Installation and Hardware Requirements <ul><li>Install time is between 45 and 120 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Windows NT comes with a hardware compatibility list (HCL) </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware requirements for Windows NT 3.51 are identical to Windows NT 4.0 </li></ul>
  38. 38. Beginning Installation of Windows NT <ul><li>Have 3 blank formatted disks on hand </li></ul><ul><li>Navigate to I/386 directory (contains installation files for 80486 and Pentium computers using Intel, Cyrix, and AMD processors) </li></ul><ul><li>From an MS-DOS command prompt, run WINNT /OX </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the prompts and you will end up with the startup disks for Windows NT </li></ul><ul><li>Does not require that a hard disk partition be previously created and formatted, NT automatically creates and formats the partition </li></ul><ul><li>The created partition should be at least 500 MB, preferably 1 GB </li></ul>
  39. 39. Windows NT Licensing and Unique Features <ul><li>Per seat licensing (license for each workstation) </li></ul><ul><li>Per server license (single server with several workstations) </li></ul><ul><li>When using Windows NT Server, you must establish a domain </li></ul><ul><li>If you plan to have only one server, make it a stand-alone server </li></ul><ul><li>Windows NT allows you to make an Emergency Repair disk that is unique to the machine </li></ul>
  40. 40. Installing UNIX : Linux <ul><li>There are numerous version of UNIX designed for different hardware platforms </li></ul><ul><li>It takes 15 minutes to 1 hour to install Red Hat Linux </li></ul><ul><li>There is no need to make partitions or format the disk ahead of time </li></ul>
  41. 41. Installing Mac OS <ul><li>Installation of Mac OS 8.5 uses a graphical interface and a setup assistant (similar to Microsoft Setup Wizard) </li></ul><ul><li>Mac OS 8.5 requirements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power PC processor chip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16 MB of RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>approximately 150 MB of hard disk space </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mac OS installer does not require booting from floppy disk, it can be installed by CD-ROM or over Apple Talk network </li></ul>
  42. 42. Booting from CD-ROM <ul><li>Macintosh will only boot from the CD-ROM if told to do so </li></ul><ul><li>Select the CD icon on the startup disk control panel or press C on the keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>A CD icon will appear in the upper right hand corner </li></ul>
  43. 43. Running the Installer
  44. 44. Mac OS Setup Assistant
  45. 45. Name Computer and Set File Sharing Password
  46. 46. Printer Configuration
  47. 47. Mac Internet Setup Assistant
  48. 48. Modem Configuration
  49. 49. Username and Password Screen
  50. 50. Internet Setup Assistant <ul><li>If an Internet account does not exist, create one </li></ul><ul><li>If connected to the Internet via modem, the following are required: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>user name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>password </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>phone number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNS number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP address </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Mac Installation Options <ul><li>The user controls which components are installed </li></ul><ul><li>Three components are unselected by default: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>QuickDraw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English speech recognition </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. CHAPTER SUMMARY <ul><li>Chapter Four: </li></ul><ul><li>Provides an overview of the installation process for several operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Describes how to prepare for installation of operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys basic installation of MS-DOS, 3.11, Windows 95/ 98, Windows NT, UNIX, and Mac OS 8.5 </li></ul>