Chapter 1 Introduction to Operating Systems

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Operating Systems

  1. 2. Introduction to Operating Systems An Overview of Microcomputers What’s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? Purpose, Types, and Functions of Microcomputer Operating Systems Yesterday’s Operating Systems Desktop OSs Available Today Chapter 1
  2. 3. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Describe the microcomputers in use today </li></ul><ul><li>Identify common computer hardware components </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the purpose and functions of microcomputer operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Describe major events in the evolution of microcomputer operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>List and compare the common microcomputer operating systems </li></ul>
  3. 4. An Overview of Microcomputers <ul><li>What is a Microcomputer? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A computer built around a microprocessor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microprocessor performs calculations or processing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A personal computer (PC) is a microcomputer that complies with hardware standards set and supported by Microsoft and Intel </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 5. An Overview of Microcomputers <ul><li>What Types of Microcomputers Are Used Today? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktops and laptops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Servers – provide services to other computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handheld devices – designed for a specific purpose </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. What’s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? <ul><li>Microprocessor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as the CPU or processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central component of a microcomputer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performs calculations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One or more per microcomputer </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. What’s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? <ul><li>Microprocessor (continued ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Since the 386DX, Intel Microprocessors support three modes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Real mode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>286 protected mode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>386 protected mode </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. What’s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? <ul><li>Microprocessor (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intel processors power up in this mode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total address space = 1MB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>640KB limit for OS and application </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single-tasking </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. What’s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? <ul><li>Microprocessor (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>286 protected mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total address space = 16 MB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can multitask certain applications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not support virtual machines </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. What’s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? <ul><li>Microprocessor (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>386 protected mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total address space = 4GB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports the use of virtual machines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multitasking </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. What’s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? <ul><li>Microprocessor (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processors can work with 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, and 64-bit chunks of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of bits (binary digits) is the size of data that can be processed at one time </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. What’s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? <ul><li>Motherboard and Chipset </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motherboard – central circuit board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains one or more CPU slots or sockets into which the processor is plugged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chipset, memory slots, voltage regulator module (VRM), ROM BIOS, and the expansion bus slots are components of a motherboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chipset controls the flow of signals to and from the processor and other components </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. What’s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? <ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chips that store programs and data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Random-access memory (RAM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read-only memory (ROM) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. What’s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? <ul><li>Memory (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System, main, or physical memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used by active programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One or more circuit cards with memory chips </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Volatile – all is lost when the computer is powered off </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. What’s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? <ul><li>Memory (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ROM BIOS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stores programs permanently </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Called ‘firmware’ since it is non-volatile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ROM BIOS contains: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Code for starting the computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Code for controlling communications between the processor and other components </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A setup program for configuring system options </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Configuration information stored in a special kind of non-volatile RAM called the CMOS RAM </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. What’s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? <ul><li>ROM BIOS configuration information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk drive types and capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk boot order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connectors (ports) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other information determined by motherboard and ROM BIOS manufacturers </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. What’s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? <ul><li>Video Adapter and Display </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video adapter – circuitry that sends the controlling output signals to the display screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Display screen – a monitor or a flat panel display (FPD) for visual output from the computer </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. What’s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? <ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An input device with a typewriter style layout of alphanumeric and punctuation keys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes additional function, control, arrow, and editing keys </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. What’s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? <ul><li>Pointing Device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required to move a graphical pointer (cursor) around in a GUI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouse is the most common pointing device – connects via a physical cable or a wireless connection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other pointing devices: touch pad, track ball, joystick, and light pen </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. What’s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? <ul><li>Disk Drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Store data and programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoded on surface of small spinning platters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic or optical technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floppy drives and hard disk drives use magnetic technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compact disk (CD) and digital versatile disk (DVD) drives use optical technologies </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. What’s Contained in and Attached to a Microcomputer? <ul><li>Peripheral Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad term for nonessential add-on devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes printers, scanners, pointing devices, digital cameras, external modems, and disk drives </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>What is an Operating System? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An Operating System is: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The central control program for a computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The intermediary between applications & hardware </li></ul></ul></ul>Purpose, Types, and Functions of Microcomputer Operating Systems
  22. 23. Purpose, Types, and Functions of Microcomputer Operating Systems <ul><li>Operating System Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Device management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Purpose, Types, and Functions of Microcomputer Operating Systems <ul><li>User Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AKA the ‘shell’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A software layer for user interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes the command processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes the visual components of the OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Character-based command line </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GUI </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Purpose, Types, and Functions of Microcomputer Operating Systems <ul><li>Job management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls the order and time in which programs are run </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Task management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in multitasking operating systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls the focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows user to switch between tasks </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Purpose, Types, and Functions of Microcomputer Operating Systems <ul><li>Memory Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages placement of programs and data in memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual memory manager moves code and data to virtual memory (file on hard drive) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Purpose, Types, and Functions of Microcomputer Operating Systems <ul><li>File Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AKA data management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the OS to read, write, and modify data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data is organized into files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows users to organize their files into containers called folders or directories </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Purpose, Types, and Functions of Microcomputer Operating Systems <ul><li>Device Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls hardware through device drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A device driver is unique to a device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created by the manufacturer of the device to work with a specific operating system </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Purpose, Types, and Functions of Microcomputer Operating Systems <ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides password-protected authentication of the user before allowing access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Checks user name and password </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricts the actions that can be performed on a computer, customized for each user </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Purpose, Types, and Functions of Microcomputer Operating Systems <ul><li>Categories of Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-User/Single-tasking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-User/Multitasking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-User/Multitasking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-Time </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>First the machines… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Babbage designed the first computer in the 1820s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple II was the first microcomputer to combine critical elements like keyboard, monitor, operating system, and desirable and useful applications </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>Then the Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early single-purpose computers included system functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OSs did not exist as separate entity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OSs evolved from need for multipurpose computers </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>DOS, CP/M, Apple, and the Killer App </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To be widely accepted a computer needed a ‘killer app’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VisiCalc was the killer app of 1970’s micro- computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VisiCalc ran under the CP/M OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VisiCalc contributed to the success of the Apple II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both PC DOS and a version of CP/M were available for the IBM PC </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Second Wave (second killer app) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lotus 1-2-3 – a DOS spreadsheet application that is fast and provides added functionalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lotus 1-2-3 became the killer app for the IBM-PC/PC DOS combination. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>OS/2 (Operating System/2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Version 1.0 introduced in 1987 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by Microsoft and IBM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.0 had costly memory and disk requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM introduced OS/2 Warp in 1990’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM has ended development of new versions </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>Microsoft Windows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1985 first version – GUI on top of DOS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 3.0, introduced in 1990, provided better support for legacy DOS applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 3. x works in real mode, standard mode, and 386 enhanced mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1992 Windows 3.1 successful with MS Office </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>Windows for Workgroups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DOS and earlier versions of Windows had no networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows for Workgroups 3.1 and 3.11 enabled peer-to-peer networking </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Desktop OSs Available Today <ul><li>DOS from Microsoft </li></ul><ul><li>Windows NT </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 98 </li></ul><ul><li>Windows ME </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Windows XP </li></ul><ul><li>Macintosh OSs </li></ul><ul><li>UNIX </li></ul><ul><li>Linux </li></ul>
  38. 39. Desktop OSs Available Today <ul><li>DOS from Microsoft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DOS provides support for interaction with disk drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft’s first version of DOS, called PC DOS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced with the first IBM-PC in 1981 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each major version of DOS supported new disk capacities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DOS has a text-mode command line interface </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Desktop OSs Available Today <ul><li>Windows NT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Microsoft OS to take full advantage of the capabilities of the Intel’s 386 protected mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two main versions of NT – one for servers and another for desktop computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT 4.0, introduced in 1996, has a GUI similar to Windows 95 </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Desktop OSs Available Today <ul><li>Windows 98 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An evolutionary development compared to the earlier Windows operating system in terms of GUI and integrated components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New options for customizing the GUI, including tighter integration with Microsoft’s Web browser, Internet Explorer (IE) </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Desktop OSs Available Today <ul><li>Windows 98 (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comes with drivers and support for devices like DVD drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was the choice for PCs with plug and play (PnP) hardware, not supported by Windows NT </li></ul></ul>
  42. 43. Desktop OSs Available Today <ul><li>Windows Me </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced in 2000 as an upgrade to Windows 98 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved music, video, and home networking support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides utilities as well as applications for dealing with PC software configuration, digital music, and video </li></ul></ul>
  43. 44. Desktop OSs Available Today <ul><li>Windows 2000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family of OS products, introduced in 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combines the best of Windows 98 and Windows NT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 Professional, Windows 2000 Server, Windows 2000 Advanced Server, and Windows 2000 Enterprise Edition </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. Desktop OSs Available Today <ul><li>Windows XP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several products, but no server version </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common are Windows XP Home Edition and Windows XP Professional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved GUI as well as several network- and security-related features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Default desktop only contains the Recycle Bin </li></ul></ul>
  45. 46. Desktop OSs Available Today <ul><li>Macintosh Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only run on Apple Macintosh computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mac OS 9 and Mac OS X common today </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Desktop OSs Available Today <ul><li>Macintosh Operating Systems (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macintosh hardware and software are proprietary products of Apple Computer Company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macintosh computers generally use the PowerPC chip with an architecture that is enhanced for graphics and multimedia </li></ul></ul>
  47. 48. Desktop OSs Available Today <ul><li>UNIX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced by Bell Labs Computing Science Research Center (Bell Labs) as UNIX Version 6 in 1975 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A portable operating system for mini-computers and mainframe computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports timesharing and multi-user systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An excellent server operating system as it utilizes resources carefully, allowing only the required services to be loaded </li></ul></ul>
  48. 49. Desktop OSs Available Today <ul><li>UNIX (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The current commercial versions of UNIX include Sun Microsystems’ Solaris, Hewlett- Packard’s HP-UX, IBM’s AIX, and Compaq’s Tru64 UNIX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many open source versions of UNIX are also available, which can be changed according to requirements </li></ul></ul>
  49. 50. Desktop OSs Available Today <ul><li>Linux </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeled on UNIX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Named for original developer, Linus Benedict Torvalds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begun in 1991 by Torvalds and others as open- source for modern computers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written in the C language using GNU C Compiler (GCC) </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. Desktop OSs Available Today <ul><li>Linux (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vendors sell bundles with extras (utilities, GUIs, manuals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Novell, Red Hat, and others distribute such bundles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fastest-growing computer server OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making inroads on desktop computers </li></ul></ul>
  51. 52. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Microcomputers Today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A computer consists of hardware, applications software, and operating system software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The operating system allows the user to interact with the computer hardware </li></ul></ul>
  52. 53. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Common Microcomputer Hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The basic components of a microcomputer are processor, motherboard, memory, video adapter and display, keyboard, pointing device, disk drives, and peripheral devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can identify hardware components by a visual inspection, by observing information displayed during the boot up process, and by accessing a ROM BIOS setup program </li></ul></ul>
  53. 54. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Purpose and Functions of Microcomputer Operating systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain functions are provided by most, if not all, current operating systems. These functions include a user interface, job management, task management, memory management, file manage-ment, device management, and security. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The operating system makes everything work together </li></ul></ul>
  54. 55. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Purpose and Functions of Microcomputer Operating systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can identify most of the functions provided by your operating system by careful observation. For instance, evidence of support of the security function includes a required logon procedure when you start your computer, and the need for authorization to access resources on your local computer. </li></ul></ul>
  55. 56. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Purpose and Functions of Microcomputer Operating systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are four categories of operating systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single-User/single-tasking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single-User/multitasking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-User/multitasking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Real-Time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Single-User/single-tasking operating system is one that allows only a single user to perform a single task at a time </li></ul></ul>
  56. 57. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Purpose and Functions of Microcomputer Operating systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An operating system that allows a single user to perform two or more functions at once is a Single-User/multitasking operating system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Multi-User/multitasking operating system is an operating system that allows multiple users to run programs simultaneously on a single network server, called a terminal server </li></ul></ul>
  57. 58. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Purpose and Functions of Microcomputer Operating systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time operating systems are defined by their speed and ability to work with special real-time applications programs. A Real-time operating system is a very fast, relatively small OS that is often embedded, meaning it is built into the circuitry of a device and not normally loaded from a disk drive </li></ul></ul>
  58. 59. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Major Events in the Evolution of Microcomputer Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The history of current microcomputers and their OSs involved many technical advances and the imagination of a multitude of innovative people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can find many accounts of the history of computers and operating systems by searching the Internet </li></ul></ul>
  59. 60. Chapter Summary <ul><li>What OSs Are Available Today? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The microcomputer operating systems common today include MS-DOS, several versions of Windows (Windows 98, Windows 2000, and Windows XP), Mac OS 9, Mac OS X, and several versions of UNIX and Linux </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each of today’s common operating systems is best suited for certain uses </li></ul></ul>
  60. 61. Chapter Summary <ul><li>What OSs Are Available Today? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft desktop OSs are common in the business environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both UNIX and Linux can be found on high- end servers and on desktop computers. The use of Linux is growing on all types of systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Mac OSs are commonly used in education and in graphic workstations </li></ul></ul>

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