CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCING OPERATING SYSTEMS A+ Guide to Software, 4e
Objectives <ul><li>Learn about the various operating systems and the differences between them </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how ...
Introduction <ul><li>Personal computers have changed our lives </li></ul><ul><li>You will gain a deeper understanding of  ...
Operating Systems Past and Present <ul><li>What an operating system (OS) does: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages hardware  </l...
A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-1  Users and applications depend on the OS to relate to all applications and hardware co...
DOS (Disk Operating System) <ul><li>The first OS used by IBM computers/compatibles </li></ul><ul><li>Where DOS can still b...
A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-3  Windows 3.x was layered between DOS and the user and applications to provide a graphi...
Windows 9x/Me <ul><li>Refers to Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me </li></ul><ul><li>Combine a DOS core with graphical use...
A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-5  Windows 9x/Me is the bridge from DOS to Windows NT
Windows NT <ul><li>Two versions of Windows NT (New Technology): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT Workstation for desktops ...
Windows 2000 <ul><li>Upgrades Windows NT (both desktop and server)  </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements over Windows NT: </li><...
Windows XP <ul><li>Integrates Windows 9x/Me and Windows 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Two main versions: Home Edition and Profess...
A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-8  The Windows XP desktop and Start menu
Windows Vista <ul><li>Next generation of Windows operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Code-named Longhorn </li></ul><ul><li...
Windows Server 2003 <ul><li>Refers to a suite of Microsoft operating systems:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Small Busines...
UNIX <ul><li>Comprises a class of operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>UNIX versions referred to as flavors or distribution...
Linux <ul><li>Variation on UNIX created by Linus Torvalds </li></ul><ul><li>OS kernel and source code are freely distribut...
OS/2 <ul><li>Jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft </li></ul><ul><li>Chiefly used in certain types of networks </li></ul>...
Mac OS <ul><li>First introduced in 1984 with Macintosh computers  </li></ul><ul><li>Current version: Mac OS X (ten) </li><...
A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-10  The Mac OS X desktop is intuitive and easy to use
What an Operating System Does <ul><li>Four functions common to all operating systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing a us...
Operating System Components <ul><li>Components common to all OSs: shell and kernel </li></ul><ul><li>The shell exposes fun...
A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-11  Inside an operating system, different components perform various functions
An OS Provides a User Interface <ul><li>Sequence of events occurring after PC is turned on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The opera...
A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-12  Enter command lines in a Command Prompt window
A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-13  A menu-driven interface: Windows Explorer in Windows XP
An OS Manages Files and Folders <ul><li>File system: organizes files and folders  </li></ul><ul><li>File systems used by W...
A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-14  A hard drive or floppy disk is divided into tracks and sectors; several sectors make...
Files and Directories <ul><li>File system hierarchy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directories (called folders in Windows) </li></...
A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-16  A hard drive is organized into directories and subdirectories that contain files
Partitions and Logical Drives on a Hard Drive <ul><li>Hard drives are organized into partitions </li></ul><ul><li>Two type...
A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-19  Use the Windows 2000/XP Disk Management utility to see how a hard drive is partitioned
An OS Manages Applications <ul><li>The OS installs and runs all other PC software </li></ul><ul><li>Application: software ...
Installing Application Software <ul><li>Sources of application software: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet, CDs, DVDs, or flo...
Launching Application Software Using the Windows Desktop <ul><li>An application has to be started before use </li></ul><ul...
Real (16-bit), Protected (32-bit), and Long (64-bit) Operating Modes  <ul><li>Bit type: number of bits simultaneously proc...
16-bit, 32-bit, and 64-bit Software <ul><li>16-bit software  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written for Windows 3.x </li></ul></ul>...
An OS Manages Hardware <ul><li>OS interacts with hardware using drivers or BIOS  </li></ul><ul><li>Software falls into thr...
A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-24  An OS relates to hardware by way of BIOS and device drivers
How an OS Uses Device Drivers to Manage Devices <ul><li>Device drivers: specify how to interact with a device </li></ul><u...
How an OS Uses System BIOS to Manage Devices <ul><li>System BIOS contains device information  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instru...
How an OS Manages Memory <ul><li>Memory functions performed by OS at startup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Launches utilities to m...
A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-29  Protected mode allows more than one program to run, each protected from the other by...
OS Tools to Examine a System <ul><li>A variety of tools are available: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Windows Desktop </li></ul...
The Windows Desktop <ul><li>Primary tool provided by the Windows shell </li></ul><ul><li>Terms associated with the desktop...
A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-30  The Windows XP desktop and Start menu
My Computer and Windows Explorer <ul><li>Used to manage files, folders, and other resources </li></ul><ul><li>Tools share ...
A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-43  Create a new file using Windows Explorer
System Properties <ul><li>Two ways to open utility: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right-click My Computer and select Properties </...
Control Panel  <ul><li>Contains applets used to manage the system </li></ul><ul><li>Accessing Control Panel in Windows XP ...
Device Manager <ul><li>Primary graphical tool for solving hardware problems </li></ul><ul><li>Primary screen displays a li...
A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-49  Windows XP Device Manager gives information about devices and allows you to uninstal...
System Information <ul><li>Used to view detailed information about the system </li></ul><ul><li>Important features  </li><...
Windows Help and the Microsoft Web Site <ul><li>Key guide to system  </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent troubleshooting resource ...
A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-53  Troubleshooter making a suggestion to resolve a problem with using the modem to conn...
Keystroke Shortcuts in the OS <ul><li>Simplify interaction with the operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul>...
Summary <ul><li>The OS manages system resources for users and applications </li></ul><ul><li>DOS (disk operating system): ...
Summary (continued) <ul><li>OS functions: providing a user interface, managing files, managing applications, and managing ...
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Chapter 1

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCING OPERATING SYSTEMS A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Learn about the various operating systems and the differences between them </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how an OS interfaces with users, files and folders, applications, and hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about a few OS tools you can use to examine and maintain a system </li></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Personal computers have changed our lives </li></ul><ul><li>You will gain a deeper understanding of the operating system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Troubleshoot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimize </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learn different operating systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What they do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How they work to control the hardware </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  4. 4. Operating Systems Past and Present <ul><li>What an operating system (OS) does: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Runs applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides an interface for users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieves and manipulates files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The OS can be analogized to a “middleman” </li></ul><ul><li>A computer needs only one operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Operating systems have evolved to a complex form </li></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  5. 5. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-1 Users and applications depend on the OS to relate to all applications and hardware components
  6. 6. DOS (Disk Operating System) <ul><li>The first OS used by IBM computers/compatibles </li></ul><ul><li>Where DOS can still be found: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized systems using older applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On troubleshooting disks or CDs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows 3.x and DOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 3.x provided a graphical interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underlying OS functions were performed by DOS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows 9x/Me uses DOS in the underlying OS </li></ul><ul><li>Windows XP/2000 run DOS emulation programs </li></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  7. 7. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-3 Windows 3.x was layered between DOS and the user and applications to provide a graphics interface for the user and a multitasking environment for applications
  8. 8. Windows 9x/Me <ul><li>Refers to Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me </li></ul><ul><li>Combine a DOS core with graphical user interface </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to bridge legacy and newer technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backward-compatible with older systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to accommodate new technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cautionary note on minimum requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May differ for upgrades and new installations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May differ for installation and run-time operation </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  9. 9. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-5 Windows 9x/Me is the bridge from DOS to Windows NT
  10. 10. Windows NT <ul><li>Two versions of Windows NT (New Technology): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT Workstation for desktops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT Server to control a network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Best known feature: new OS core replacing DOS </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid installing Windows NT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT introduced many new problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems only solved in later versions of Windows </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  11. 11. Windows 2000 <ul><li>Upgrades Windows NT (both desktop and server) </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements over Windows NT: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A more stable environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for Plug and Play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Device Manager, Recovery Console, Active Directory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better network support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Features specifically targeting notebook computers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OS includes only qualified hardware and software </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 is being phased out </li></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  12. 12. Windows XP <ul><li>Integrates Windows 9x/Me and Windows 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Two main versions: Home Edition and Professional </li></ul><ul><li>Noteworthy new features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows two users to logon and open applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporates Windows Messenger and Media Player </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adds advanced security, such as Windows Firewall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardware requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>64 MB RAM (128 MB recommended) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.5 GB free hard drive space (2 GB recommended) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>233-MHz CPU speed (300-MHz recommended) </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  13. 13. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-8 The Windows XP desktop and Start menu
  14. 14. Windows Vista <ul><li>Next generation of Windows operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Code-named Longhorn </li></ul><ul><li>Noteworthy new features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New graphical interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revamped engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new interface between it and applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scheduled release dates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>November 2006 for business editions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>January 2007 for consumer editions </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  15. 15. Windows Server 2003 <ul><li>Refers to a suite of Microsoft operating systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Small Business Server 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage Server 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server 2003 Web Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server 2003 Standard Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server 2003 Enterprise Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server 2003 Datacenter Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not designed for use in a PC </li></ul><ul><li>Not covered in this text </li></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  16. 16. UNIX <ul><li>Comprises a class of operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>UNIX versions referred to as flavors or distributions </li></ul><ul><li>Chief uses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting Internet-based applications </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  17. 17. Linux <ul><li>Variation on UNIX created by Linus Torvalds </li></ul><ul><li>OS kernel and source code are freely distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Popular distributions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SuSE ( www.novell.com/linux/suse ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RedHat ( www.redhat.com ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TurboLinux ( www.turbolinux.com ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used as both a server and a desktop </li></ul><ul><li>X Windows: GUI shells for UNIX and Linux </li></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  18. 18. OS/2 <ul><li>Jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft </li></ul><ul><li>Chiefly used in certain types of networks </li></ul><ul><li>Part of OS/2 was incorporated into Windows NT </li></ul><ul><li>OS/2 is not covered in this book </li></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  19. 19. Mac OS <ul><li>First introduced in 1984 with Macintosh computers </li></ul><ul><li>Current version: Mac OS X (ten) </li></ul><ul><li>Mac OS X can work on some Intel-based computers </li></ul><ul><li>Markets: education, desktop publishing, graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Noteworthy features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for graphics and multimedia capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of the Finder program to provide the desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior Plug and Play capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent support for multitasking </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  20. 20. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-10 The Mac OS X desktop is intuitive and easy to use
  21. 21. What an Operating System Does <ul><li>Four functions common to all operating systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing a user interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All OSs also have similar core components </li></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  22. 22. Operating System Components <ul><li>Components common to all OSs: shell and kernel </li></ul><ul><li>The shell exposes functions to users and applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example 1: enables user to select a CD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example 2: enables application to print a document </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The kernel (core) interacts with hardware devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: passes a print request to a printer device </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Registry database and initialization files </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to store configuration information in Windows </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  23. 23. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-11 Inside an operating system, different components perform various functions
  24. 24. An OS Provides a User Interface <ul><li>Sequence of events occurring after PC is turned on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The operating system is loaded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Running OS provides an interface (desktop) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OS awaits an event, such as a double-click </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A user can initiate an event in several ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click a menu item </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enter a command in Run dialog or command console </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double-click an icon </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  25. 25. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-12 Enter command lines in a Command Prompt window
  26. 26. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-13 A menu-driven interface: Windows Explorer in Windows XP
  27. 27. An OS Manages Files and Folders <ul><li>File system: organizes files and folders </li></ul><ul><li>File systems used by Windows for hard drives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File Allocation Table (FAT): tracks disk space usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Technology File System (NTFS): replacing FAT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organization of a hard drive or floppy disk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Platter contains concentric tracks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Track contains 512 byte sectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cluster contains one or more sectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cluster is the smallest unit on disk for storing a file </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  28. 28. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-14 A hard drive or floppy disk is divided into tracks and sectors; several sectors make one cluster
  29. 29. Files and Directories <ul><li>File system hierarchy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directories (called folders in Windows) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subdirectories (child directories) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Directories can contain subdirectories and files </li></ul><ul><li>Directory table: lists subdirectories and files </li></ul><ul><li>Root directory: directory for a logical drive; e.g., C: </li></ul><ul><li>Path: drive, directories, filename, and file extension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: C:wpdatamyfile.txt points to “myfile” </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  30. 30. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-16 A hard drive is organized into directories and subdirectories that contain files
  31. 31. Partitions and Logical Drives on a Hard Drive <ul><li>Hard drives are organized into partitions </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of partitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary: can only have one logical drive; e.g., C: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended: can have one or more logical drives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Logical drive (sometimes called a volume) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formatted using a file system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a root directory and subdirectories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disk Management tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to create/view partitions, format logical drives </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  32. 32. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-19 Use the Windows 2000/XP Disk Management utility to see how a hard drive is partitioned
  33. 33. An OS Manages Applications <ul><li>The OS installs and runs all other PC software </li></ul><ul><li>Application: software providing services for users </li></ul><ul><li>Applications rely on the OS for support operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: MS word relies on OS to manage memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applications are typically tailored to a single OS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that OS is suitable for a given application </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  34. 34. Installing Application Software <ul><li>Sources of application software: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet, CDs, DVDs, or floppy disks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Installation program is provided by application </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks performed by installation program: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Folders are created on the hard drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Files are copied to the folders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For Windows, entries are made in Windows registry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Icons are usually placed on desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For Windows, entries are added to the Start menu </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  35. 35. Launching Application Software Using the Windows Desktop <ul><li>An application has to be started before use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You run, load, launch, or execute the application </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four ways to run software: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a shortcut icon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the Start menu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the Run command </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Windows Explorer or My Computer </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  36. 36. Real (16-bit), Protected (32-bit), and Long (64-bit) Operating Modes <ul><li>Bit type: number of bits simultaneously processed </li></ul><ul><li>Real (16-bit) mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposes hardware to application (no longer used) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: DOS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protected (32-bit) and Long (64-bit) modes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OS controls how an application accesses hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preemptive multitasking is supported </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Windows XP Professional x64 Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiprocessing involves multiple CPUs </li></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  37. 37. 16-bit, 32-bit, and 64-bit Software <ul><li>16-bit software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written for Windows 3.x </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data access is 16 bits at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>32-bit programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written for Windows NT/2000/XP and Windows 9x/Me </li></ul></ul><ul><li>64-bit programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written for Windows XP Professional x64 Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most software today is 32-bit or 64-bit </li></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  38. 38. An OS Manages Hardware <ul><li>OS interacts with hardware using drivers or BIOS </li></ul><ul><li>Software falls into three categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Device drivers or the BIOS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application software </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  39. 39. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-24 An OS relates to hardware by way of BIOS and device drivers
  40. 40. How an OS Uses Device Drivers to Manage Devices <ul><li>Device drivers: specify how to interact with a device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: a driver links a computer to a digital camera </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drivers are provided by OS and device manufacturer </li></ul><ul><li>Three kinds of drivers (corresponds to a mode) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>16-bit real, 32-bit protected, and 64-bit long </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Device drivers in Windows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before installation, verify Microsoft has tested device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Registry stores information about 32-bit device drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Updated drivers are available at manufacturer’s site </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  41. 41. How an OS Uses System BIOS to Manage Devices <ul><li>System BIOS contains device information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructions enable CPU to communicate with device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: keyboard activated at startup using BIOS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Configure BIOS device interaction in CMOS setup </li></ul><ul><li>The OS may use system BIOS to access devices </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage of using BIOS device management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BIOS does not operate as fast as device drivers </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  42. 42. How an OS Manages Memory <ul><li>Memory functions performed by OS at startup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Launches utilities to manage memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigns addresses to each location of memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drivers, OS, and application use memory addresses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables three software layers to refer to shared data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>16-bit program in real mode has direct access to RAM </li></ul><ul><li>The OS controls memory access in protected mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The address spaces of a program is protected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual memory expands number of running programs </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  43. 43. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-29 Protected mode allows more than one program to run, each protected from the other by the operating system
  44. 44. OS Tools to Examine a System <ul><li>A variety of tools are available: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Windows Desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My Computer and Windows Explorer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System Properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Panel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Device Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Help and the Microsoft Web Site </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  45. 45. The Windows Desktop <ul><li>Primary tool provided by the Windows shell </li></ul><ul><li>Terms associated with the desktop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taskbar: displays information, offers program access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service: support program running in the background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System tray: displays icons for running services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortcut: desktop icon pointing to a program </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tools used to configure the desktop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Display Properties Window </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Taskbar and System Tray </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortcuts </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  46. 46. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-30 The Windows XP desktop and Start menu
  47. 47. My Computer and Windows Explorer <ul><li>Used to manage files, folders, and other resources </li></ul><ul><li>Tools share similar functionality </li></ul><ul><li>Perform a wide range of tasks using shortcut menus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: create a new file </li></ul></ul><ul><li>File and folder operations performed with Explorer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a folder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deleting a folder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing file attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing folder options </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  48. 48. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-43 Create a new file using Windows Explorer
  49. 49. System Properties <ul><li>Two ways to open utility: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right-click My Computer and select Properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click the System applet in the Control Panel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some tasks that can be performed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>View processor and memory information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change the name of the computer on the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access Device Manager on the Hardware tab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control performance on the Advanced tab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Switch System Restore on or off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the Automatic Update tab to control updating </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  50. 50. Control Panel <ul><li>Contains applets used to manage the system </li></ul><ul><li>Accessing Control Panel in Windows XP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click Start and the click Control Panel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two views: Category View and Classic View </li></ul><ul><li>Applets can be launched via the Run dialog box </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: enter Main.cpl to open Mouse Properties </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  51. 51. Device Manager <ul><li>Primary graphical tool for solving hardware problems </li></ul><ul><li>Primary screen displays a list of devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right click Properties to view device details </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some tasks that can be performed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable, disable, uninstall a device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Update device drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uninstall device drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symbols are used to indicate a device status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: red X over device indicates it is disabled </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  52. 52. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-49 Windows XP Device Manager gives information about devices and allows you to uninstall a device
  53. 53. System Information <ul><li>Used to view detailed information about the system </li></ul><ul><li>Important features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BIOS version you are using </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The directory where the OS is installed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How system resources are used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information about drivers and their status </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To open utility, enter Msinfo32.exe in Run dialog box </li></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  54. 54. Windows Help and the Microsoft Web Site <ul><li>Key guide to system </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent troubleshooting resource </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: analyze problem with Internet connection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Web site: http://support.microsoft.com </li></ul><ul><li>Use search engine to locate alternative resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that the alternative site is reputable </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  55. 55. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 1-53 Troubleshooter making a suggestion to resolve a problem with using the modem to connect to the Internet
  56. 56. Keystroke Shortcuts in the OS <ul><li>Simplify interaction with the operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Function keys: F4, F5, F8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text editing operations: Ctrl+C, Ctrl+V, Ctrl+x </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shortcut keys are critical when mouse is not working </li></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  57. 57. Summary <ul><li>The OS manages system resources for users and applications </li></ul><ul><li>DOS (disk operating system): early command- driven OS </li></ul><ul><li>Modern OSs: Windows 2000/XP, Linux, Mac OS X </li></ul><ul><li>Operating systems are divided into a kernel and user shell </li></ul><ul><li>Two OS running modes: real and protected </li></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e
  58. 58. Summary (continued) <ul><li>OS functions: providing a user interface, managing files, managing applications, and managing hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Windows desktop: primary graphical interface to OS </li></ul><ul><li>Windows Explorer: used to navigate directory and manipulate files and folders </li></ul><ul><li>Other tools: System Properties, Control Panel, Device Manager, System Information, and Windows Help </li></ul><ul><li>Keystroke shortcuts provide a way to perform tasks without a mouse </li></ul>A+ Guide to Software, 4e

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