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A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Chapter 2 Introducing Operating Systems
Objectives <ul><li>Learn how an OS interfaces with users, files and folders, applications, and hardware </li></ul><ul><li>...
Introduction <ul><li>A computer comprises hardware and software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical devices are the visible com...
Operating Systems Past and Present <ul><li>What an operating system (OS) does: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages hardware  </l...
A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Figure 2-1  Users and applications depend on the OS to relate to all appl...
DOS (Disk Operating System) <ul><li>The first OS used by IBM computers/compatibles </li></ul><ul><li>Where DOS can still b...
A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Figure 2-3  Windows 3.x was layered between DOS and the user and applicat...
Windows 9x/Me <ul><li>Refers to Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me </li></ul><ul><li>Combine a DOS core with graphical use...
A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Figure 2-5  Windows 9x/Me is the bridge from DOS to Windows NT
Windows NT <ul><li>Two versions of Windows NT (New Technology): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT Workstation for desktops ...
Windows 2000 <ul><li>Upgrades Windows NT (both desktop and server)  </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements over Windows NT: </li><...
Windows XP <ul><li>Integrates Windows 9x/Me and Windows 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Two main versions: Home Edition and Profess...
Windows Vista <ul><li>Next generation of Windows operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Noteworthy new features: </li></ul><u...
Windows 7 Wikipedia <ul><li>Release Date July 22 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Basically an updated Vista </li></ul><ul><li>Featu...
Windows Server 2003 <ul><li>Refers to a suite of Microsoft operating systems:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Small Busines...
UNIX <ul><li>Comprises a class of operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>UNIX versions referred to as flavors or distribution...
Linux <ul><li>Variation on UNIX created by Linus Torvalds </li></ul><ul><li>OS kernel and source code are freely distribut...
OS/2 <ul><li>Jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft </li></ul><ul><li>Chiefly used in certain types of networks </li></ul>...
Mac OS <ul><li>First introduced in 1984 with Macintosh computers  </li></ul><ul><li>Current version: Mac OS X (10.5) </li>...
A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Figure 2-10  The Mac OS X desktop is intuitive and easy to use
What an Operating System Does <ul><li>Four functions common to all operating systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*** Providing ...
Operating System Components <ul><li>Components common to all OSs: shell and kernel </li></ul><ul><li>The  shell  exposes f...
A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Figure 2-11  Inside an operating system, different components perform var...
An OS Manages Hardware <ul><li>OS interacts with hardware using drivers or BIOS  </li></ul><ul><li>Software falls into thr...
A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Figure 2-23  An OS relates to hardware by way of BIOS and device drivers
How an OS Uses Device Drivers to Manage Devices <ul><li>Device drivers: specify how to interact with a device </li></ul><u...
How an OS Uses System BIOS to Manage Devices <ul><li>System BIOS contains device information  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instru...
Understanding the Boot Process <ul><li>Key learning objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know how to boot a PC </li></ul></ul>...
Booting a Computer <ul><li>Process that drives a computer to a working state </li></ul><ul><li>Hard (cold) boot: turn the ...
Choosing Between a Hard Boot and a Soft Boot <ul><li>Hard boots are more stressful on machines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power...
The Startup BIOS Controls the Beginning of the Boot <ul><li>The startup BIOS gets a system up and running </li></ul><ul><l...
A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Figure 3-40  Boot Step 1: The ROM BIOS startup program surveys hardware r...
Changing the Boot Sequence <ul><li>BIOS looks to CMOS RAM to locate the OS  </li></ul><ul><li>Boot sequence: order of driv...
A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Figure 3-42  Numbered steps show how BIOS searches for and begins to load...
How to Troubleshoot a PC Problem <ul><li>Assume the attitude of an investigator </li></ul><ul><li>Do not compound the prob...
Steps to Solving a PC Problem <ul><li>Key advice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask good questions  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doc...
A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Figure 3-44  General approach to troubleshooting
Troubleshooting a Failed Boot <ul><li>It takes time to acquire troubleshooting skills </li></ul><ul><li>Hands-on training:...
My Computer Won’t Boot <ul><li>First step: maintain your calm </li></ul><ul><li>Second step: develop a game plan </li></ul...
A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Figure 3-45  Use this flowchart when first facing a computer problem
Troubleshooting Major Subsystems Used For Booting <ul><li>Categories of troubleshooting steps in Figure 3-45 </li></ul><ul...
A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Table 3-4  Beep codes and their meanings
Summary <ul><li>Some PC repair tools: recovery CDs, screwdrivers, POST, cleaning pads and solutions, diagnostic cards </li...
Summary (continued) <ul><li>Assembling and reassembling a PC prepares the technician for actual repair work </li></ul><ul>...
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Transcript of "A Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e"

  1. 1. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Chapter 2 Introducing Operating Systems
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Learn how an OS interfaces with users, files and folders, applications, and hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Learn what happens when you first turn on a PC before the OS is loaded </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about the Power System. </li></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>A computer comprises hardware and software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical devices are the visible component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The controlling software component is not visible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer technicians need to master both parts </li></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  4. 4. Operating Systems Past and Present <ul><li>What an operating system (OS) does: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Runs applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides an interface for users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieves and manipulates files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The OS can be analogized to a “middleman” </li></ul><ul><li>A computer needs only one operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Operating systems have evolved to a complex form </li></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  5. 5. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Figure 2-1 Users and applications depend on the OS to relate to all applications and hardware components
  6. 6. DOS (Disk Operating System) <ul><li>The first OS used by IBM computers/compatibles </li></ul><ul><li>Where DOS can still be found: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized systems using older applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On troubleshooting disks or CDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used by some diagnostic applications on UBD_CD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows 3.x and DOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 3.x provided a graphical interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underlying OS functions were performed by DOS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows 9x/Me uses DOS in the underlying OS </li></ul><ul><li>Windows XP/2000/Vista run DOS emulation programs </li></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  7. 7. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Figure 2-3 Windows 3.x was layered between DOS and the user and applications to provide a graphics interface for the user and a multitasking environment for applications
  8. 8. Windows 9x/Me <ul><li>Refers to Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me </li></ul><ul><li>Combine a DOS core with graphical user interface </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to bridge legacy and newer technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backward-compatible with older systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to accommodate new technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cautionary note on minimum requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May differ for upgrades and new installations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May differ for installation and run-time operation </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  9. 9. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Figure 2-5 Windows 9x/Me is the bridge from DOS to Windows NT
  10. 10. Windows NT <ul><li>Two versions of Windows NT (New Technology): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT Workstation for desktops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT Server to control a network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Best known feature: new OS core replacing DOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Microsoft product which did not rely on DOS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid installing Windows NT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT introduced many new problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compatibility to most gaming s/w </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not support Direct x </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems only solved in later versions of Windows </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  11. 11. Windows 2000 <ul><li>Upgrades Windows NT (both desktop and server) </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements over Windows NT: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A more stable environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for Plug and Play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Device Manager, Recovery Console </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active Directory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central security authentication & authorization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better network support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Features specifically targeting notebook computers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OS includes only qualified hardware and software. </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 is being phased out. </li></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  12. 12. Windows XP <ul><li>Integrates Windows 9x/Me and Windows 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Two main versions: Home Edition and Professional </li></ul><ul><li>Noteworthy new features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows two users to logon and open applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporates Windows Messenger and Media Player </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adds advanced security, such as Windows Firewall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardware requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>64 MB RAM (128 MB recommended) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.5 GB free hard drive space (2 GB recommended) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typical installs consume 3+ GB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>233-MHz CPU speed (300-MHz recommended) </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  13. 13. Windows Vista <ul><li>Next generation of Windows operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Noteworthy new features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New graphical interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harder to use? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Targeted a less computer literate user </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supported a consumer electronic paradigm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revamped engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faster </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too security conscious for typical users. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new interface between it and applications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some s/w must be upgraded. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many hidden “features”. </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  14. 14. Windows 7 Wikipedia <ul><li>Release Date July 22 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Basically an updated Vista </li></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance enhancements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better support for touch screens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better handwriting & speech recognition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More user centric, users have more control over the look and feel as well as performance tweeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many backward compatible look and feel enhancements which vista had are now a free download from MS, e.g. classic menu. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>H/W resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>32 bit, same as vista </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>64 bit, considerably more, almost double. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Windows Server 2003 <ul><li>Refers to a suite of Microsoft operating systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Small Business Server 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage Server 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server 2003 Web Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server 2003 Standard Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server 2003 Enterprise Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server 2003 Datacenter Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not designed for use in a PC </li></ul><ul><li>Not covered in this text </li></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  16. 16. UNIX <ul><li>Comprises a class of operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>UNIX versions referred to as flavors or distributions </li></ul><ul><li>Chief uses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting Internet-based applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each maker of “Work Stations” had their own UNIX version. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SunOS, Irix (SGI) </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  17. 17. Linux <ul><li>Variation on UNIX created by Linus Torvalds </li></ul><ul><li>OS kernel and source code are freely distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Popular distributions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SuSE ( www.novell.com/linux/suse ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RedHat ( www.redhat.com ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TurboLinux ( www.turbolinux.com ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used as both a server and a desktop </li></ul><ul><li>X Windows: GUI shells for UNIX and Linux </li></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  18. 18. OS/2 <ul><li>Jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft </li></ul><ul><li>Chiefly used in certain types of networks </li></ul><ul><li>Part of OS/2 was incorporated into Windows NT </li></ul><ul><li>OS/2 is not covered in this book </li></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  19. 19. Mac OS <ul><li>First introduced in 1984 with Macintosh computers </li></ul><ul><li>Current version: Mac OS X (10.5) </li></ul><ul><li>Mac OS X can work on some Intel-based computers </li></ul><ul><li>Markets: education, desktop publishing, graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Noteworthy features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for graphics and multimedia capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of the Finder program to provide the desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior Plug and Play capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent support for multitasking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unix based. </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  20. 20. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Figure 2-10 The Mac OS X desktop is intuitive and easy to use
  21. 21. What an Operating System Does <ul><li>Four functions common to all operating systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*** Providing a user interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*** Managing hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All OSs can have similar core components. </li></ul><ul><li>All do the same job </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some better then others. </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  22. 22. Operating System Components <ul><li>Components common to all OSs: shell and kernel </li></ul><ul><li>The shell exposes functions to users and applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example 1: enables user to select a CD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example 2: enables application to print a document </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The kernel (core) interacts with hardware devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: passes a print request to a printer device </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Registry database and initialization files </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to store configuration information in Windows </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  23. 23. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Figure 2-11 Inside an operating system, different components perform various functions
  24. 24. An OS Manages Hardware <ul><li>OS interacts with hardware using drivers or BIOS </li></ul><ul><li>Software falls into three categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Device drivers, Main BIOS or component BIOS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application software </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  25. 25. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Figure 2-23 An OS relates to hardware by way of BIOS and device drivers
  26. 26. How an OS Uses Device Drivers to Manage Devices <ul><li>Device drivers: specify how to interact with a device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: a driver links a computer to a digital camera </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drivers are provided by OS and device manufacturer </li></ul><ul><li>Three kinds of drivers (corresponds to a mode) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>16-bit real, 32-bit protected, and 64-bit long </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Device drivers in Windows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before installation, verify Microsoft has tested device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Registry stores information about 32-bit device drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Updated drivers are available at manufacturer’s site </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  27. 27. How an OS Uses System BIOS to Manage Devices <ul><li>System BIOS contains device information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructions enable CPU to communicate with device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: keyboard activated at startup using BIOS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Configure BIOS device interaction in CMOS setup </li></ul><ul><li>The OS may use system BIOS to access devices </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage of using BIOS device management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BIOS does not operate as fast as device drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Device drivers are faster </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reside in Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BIOS is Firmware, which is slow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maybe limited in functionality. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports only basic operations. </li></ul></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  28. 28. Understanding the Boot Process <ul><li>Key learning objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know how to boot a PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand what happens first when a PC is turned on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand how an operating system is loaded </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  29. 29. Booting a Computer <ul><li>Process that drives a computer to a working state </li></ul><ul><li>Hard (cold) boot: turn the power switch on </li></ul><ul><li>Soft (warm) boot: allow the OS to reboot </li></ul><ul><li>How to soft boot Windows XP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click Start </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click Turn Off Computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click Restart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some utilities that direct the OS to warmboot. </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  30. 30. Choosing Between a Hard Boot and a Soft Boot <ul><li>Hard boots are more stressful on machines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power surges through system when PC is turned on </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reasons to choose a soft boot over hard boot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less stressful on the machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster due to skipping initial steps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some computers have a soft and hard power switch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft power switch shuts down and restarts Windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard power switch cuts power and restarts machine </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  31. 31. The Startup BIOS Controls the Beginning of the Boot <ul><li>The startup BIOS gets a system up and running </li></ul><ul><li>Four phases of the boot process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BIOS runs the POST and assigns system resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>POST: power-on self test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BIOS searches for and loads an OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OS configures system and completes its own loading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application software is loaded and executed </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  32. 32. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Figure 3-40 Boot Step 1: The ROM BIOS startup program surveys hardware resources and needs and assigns system resources to satisfy those needs
  33. 33. Changing the Boot Sequence <ul><li>BIOS looks to CMOS RAM to locate the OS </li></ul><ul><li>Boot sequence: order of drives checked for an OS </li></ul><ul><li>Change boot sequence using CMOS setup utilities </li></ul><ul><li>Access CMOS setup utilities when PC is turned on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: press F8 before Windows screen appears </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  34. 34. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Figure 3-42 Numbered steps show how BIOS searches for and begins to load an operating system (in this example, Windows NT/2000/XP is the OS)
  35. 35. How to Troubleshoot a PC Problem <ul><li>Assume the attitude of an investigator </li></ul><ul><li>Do not compound the problem by your own actions </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the problem as a learning opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions until you understand the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Believe that you can solve the problem </li></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  36. 36. Steps to Solving a PC Problem <ul><li>Key advice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask good questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document the process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four-step problem solving process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1: Interview the user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2: Back up data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 3: Solve the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 4: Verify the fix and document the solution </li></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  37. 37. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Figure 3-44 General approach to troubleshooting
  38. 38. Troubleshooting a Failed Boot <ul><li>It takes time to acquire troubleshooting skills </li></ul><ul><li>Hands-on training: troubleshooting a failed boot </li></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  39. 39. My Computer Won’t Boot <ul><li>First step: maintain your calm </li></ul><ul><li>Second step: develop a game plan </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 3-45 provides a procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan is driven by a set of yes-no questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Does the PC boot properly? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If no, troubleshooter is directed to another question </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If yes, troubleshooter is directed to stop (for now) </li></ul></ul></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  40. 40. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Figure 3-45 Use this flowchart when first facing a computer problem
  41. 41. Troubleshooting Major Subsystems Used For Booting <ul><li>Categories of troubleshooting steps in Figure 3-45 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The electrical subsystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential hardware devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The motherboard, memory, and the CPU </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading from the hard drive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key aides: tables identifying error codes </li></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  42. 42. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Table 3-4 Beep codes and their meanings
  43. 43. Summary <ul><li>Some PC repair tools: recovery CDs, screwdrivers, POST, cleaning pads and solutions, diagnostic cards </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive maintenance plans extend the life of a PC </li></ul><ul><li>Follow an organization’s preventive maintenance plan, or develop one if it does not exist </li></ul><ul><li>Computers present chemical and electrical hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Protect components in case from ESD by grounding yourself and the PC </li></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
  44. 44. Summary (continued) <ul><li>Assembling and reassembling a PC prepares the technician for actual repair work </li></ul><ul><li>Startup BIOS controls when the boot process begins </li></ul><ul><li>Four step boot process: POST, loading the OS, OS initializing itself, loading and executing applications </li></ul><ul><li>Expert troubleshooters ask good questions </li></ul><ul><li>Before tackling a problem, develop a game plan </li></ul>A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
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