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  1. 1. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment Hong Kong University of Science and Technology SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Instructor Prof. Jerry Patchell Report for Stage1: Design for Environment “Personal Computer (PC) Rental Scheme and eco-PC in Apple Computer Inc.” Team members: HO, Yuk Ki 05228229 bo_hykaa@stu.ust.hk CHAN, Yik Lai 04683329 cs_cyl@stu.ust.hk LEE, Chi Hang 04101008 ma_lchab@stu.ust.hk
  2. 2. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment Table of contents Table of contents CONTENTS PAGE 1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................1 1.1 Company (Apple Computer) Background......................................................................................2 1.2 Environmental Impact of Personal Computer (PC).......................................................................3 1.2.1 Extraction of the raw material (metal).........................................................................................3 1.2.2 Material processing......................................................................................................................3 1.2.3 Parts manufacture (monitor, mouse, keyboard and motherboard)...............................................4 1.2.4 Product assembly.........................................................................................................................4 1.2.5 Distribution..................................................................................................................................4 1.2.6 Consumption................................................................................................................................4 1.2.7 Landfill.........................................................................................................................................4 1.2.8 Incineration..................................................................................................................................4 1.2.9 Recycle.........................................................................................................................................5 2 PRODUCT OF DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT PROJECT...........................7 3 NEW DESIGN.................................................................................................9 3.1 New Design of Business Model (Personal Computer Rental Scheme)..........................................9 3.2 New Design of PC Production (eco-PC)...........................................................................................9 3.2.1 Materials selection.......................................................................................................................9 3.2.2 Production process.....................................................................................................................11 3.2.3 Delivery channel........................................................................................................................11 3.2.4 Energy consumption...................................................................................................................11 3.2.5 PC end-of-life process (included data disposal & transfer).......................................................11 3.3 Expected Environmental Goals and Corresponding Metrics......................................................13 3.4 Product Lifecycle of our new design and their interdependence.................................................14 4 INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY.............................................................................15 4.1 Social infrastructure .......................................................................................................................15 4.1.1 Legalization................................................................................................................................15 4.1.2 Marketing and promotion...........................................................................................................15 4.1.3 Education and training...............................................................................................................16 4.1.4 Subsidy.......................................................................................................................................16 4.2 Physical infrastructure....................................................................................................................16 4.2.1 Resource extraction....................................................................................................................16 4.2.2 Material processing &parts manufacture...................................................................................16 4.2.3 Produce assembly and distribution ............................................................................................16 4.2.4 Consumption .............................................................................................................................17 4.2.5 Material collection:....................................................................................................................17 4.2.6 Recycling....................................................................................................................................17 5 INCENTIVE PROVIDED BY VALUE...........................................................19 I
  3. 3. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment Table of contents 5.1 Materials Obtainment......................................................................................................................19 5.2 Use recycle materials.......................................................................................................................19 5.3 Cooperation with material suppliers .............................................................................................19 5.4 The Use of Returned PCs................................................................................................................20 5.4.1 Components in Good Conditions...............................................................................................20 5.4.2 Re- rental....................................................................................................................................20 5.4.3 Accessories Renew.....................................................................................................................20 6 CONCLUSION..............................................................................................21 7 REFERENCE................................................................................................22 II
  4. 4. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment 1. Introduction 1 Introduction Because of the rapid growth of the computer technologies, consumption of the computer is very large in recent years, which cause lots of the problem. When the computers break down and wear out, what we will do with them .We usually dump it into the rubbish and throw it away. However, these actions have a lot of environment impacts, the e-waste problem [7]. Good Firstly, the huge amount of worn out computers require large area of land for land filling. That can destroy the environmental habitat and affect numerous living organisms. Secondly, we may dispose it by incineration; again, this method will create huge amount air pollution and waste a lot of energy. Moreover, electronic computer equipment is a complicated assembly materials, many of which are highly toxic, such as chlorinated and brominated substances, toxic gases, toxic metals, photo-active and biologically active materials, acids, plastics and plastic additives. When we carry out land filling and incineration of computers, these toxic substances can contaminate the land, water and air. Therefore, no matter using landfill or incineration pollution will be created. Even improper recycle (informal recycle problem) [7] of computer can cause a lot of environmental impact too, which cause serious e-waste problem in developing countries nowadays. To solve the problems, our group designed a new product to minimize the environmental impact, which is a new design of production process and marketing method. Very good intro. Page 1 of 18
  5. 5. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment 1. Introduction 1.1 Company (Apple Computer) Background Apple Computer establish on April 1, 1976. The Apple Computer is one of the major precursors of Personal Computer manufactory. It is a 14,800-employee company with more than USD14 billion in sales and an internationally recognized product line. In year 2005, Apple Computer ship over 4 million of Macintosh Personal Computers. According to its financial report in fourth quarter, there is 48 percent growth in Macs over the year-ago quarter. The Apple Computer have around 5% market share of the current globe PC market. It is not a very large PC manufacture, but that is a good starting point of the innovative environmental concerned business model reformation. On the other hand, since the software “Boot Camp” released on April 5, 2006 that enables Intel-based Macs to run Windows XP. It is a milestone of the Apple Computer and the industrial analyst expected the sale of Macs will growth continuous to get bigger market shares. Existing Environment Friendly Policy in Apple Computer • Energy consumption — creating features that minimize the power required to operate our systems • Expandability — designing selected features into the products that help optimize their useful life • Materials management — minimizing the use of environmentally relevant substances • Recycling — designing the products to facilitate disassembly, materials sorting and recycling Apple Computer is a company that very concerned the environmental problems [7]. Most products are assessed the environmental impacts and the reports are issues for public reference [7]. The environmental friendly policy listed above can meet the most countries’ environmental policy already. But can Apple Computer do it more and resolve the e-waste problem? Good Page 2 of 18
  6. 6. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment 1. Introduction 1.2 Environmental Impact of Personal Computer (PC) In the life cycle of computer, there are a lot of impacts produced [7, 7]. The different impacts of personal computers manufactory in different stage of its product life cycle will be discuss in this section. The Life-Cycle Analysis (LCA) method has used to measure the environmental impact caused in the PC product lifecycle. 1.2.1 Extraction of the raw material (metal) The raw materials include silicon, gold, silver; copper, etc are extracted from nature, waste is formed in the process such as CO2, NOX, SO2, CO, VOC. During the extraction/mining, the habitat of the nature will be destroyed, so that the lives of animal will be affected. Also, it cause air pollution, the sand and small power?? will flow into air become pollutants, it can cause acidic rain and global warming. Moreover, it cause water pollution, mining require plenty of water, the used water become polluted and it will flow to river and sea cause more serious water pollution. 1.2.2 Material processing In this process, wasted material, CO2, NOX, SO2, CO, VOC can be formed. And they can cause air pollution, land pollution and water pollution. In the production factory, a lot of energy is required for process, so air pollution is formed. Water is also required in the process, so a lot of polluted water is formed. And large amount of waste is formed in the manufactures that made the land pollution. For the air pollution, the greenhouse gases (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide etc.) will cause the global warming; the air pollution also can cause ozone depletion (since CFCs is formed in production of plastic), also can cause acid rain that can influence the plant and organism live in sea and water (since they only suitable to live in certain pH) the air pollution can affect the human heath too (e.g. Asthma and lung cancer). For the water pollution, it can affect the marine lives and coral reef, and then can be affect the whole ecology. Also, cause the extinction of some endanger living organism. And if the human eat the toxic marine will cause disease, even fatal. For land pollution, since the pollutants are heavy metal and toxic substance, they will pollute the soil and affect the plant near to these pollutants. All this is pretty general without much connection to the product. Page 3 of 18
  7. 7. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment 1. Introduction 1.2.3 Parts manufacture (monitor, mouse, keyboard and motherboard) In the process, wasted parts, CO2, NOX, SO2, CO, VOC can be formed and cause pollution. The most serious problem is the air pollution. Since large amount of electrical energy is needed, so large amount of exhausted gases can be formed .The air pollution can form the photochemical smog, decrease the transparency and visibility of sky .it also causes global warning and green house effect as above. I think there is a lot of more specific information out there about the environmental impacts of computer manufacture. 1.2.4 Product assembly Packaging is needed. Therefore many papers and plastic sheet are used. As trees make papers, habitat is destroyed in the production of papers. Also air pollution is made in production of plastic. And some papers and plastic become the waste, thus solid waste is produce in the process, which cause land pollution. Moreover, electricity is used in the process, and then air pollution is also formed (eg. CO2, NOX, SO2, CO, VOC) 1.2.5 Distribution In distribution, products are transported to another place. In the process, the vehicles will produce air pollution, such as NOX, SO2, CO etc. The polluted air can cause global warming, ozone depletion, acid rain and affect human heath as above. 1.2.6 Consumption The used computer and computer component become solid waste and dispose as land filling or incineration. You discuss landfill next, what about energy use? 1.2.7 Landfill Land pollution can be production; the toxic material can go to the solid and pollute the soil which can also cause water pollution, then marine and water ecology can be affected. 1.2.8 Incineration It can cause air pollution, since CO, CO2, PFCs, CFCs, etc. are formed, and they can cause global warming, ozone depletion, acid rain and affect human health as above. Page 4 of 18
  8. 8. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment 1. Introduction 1.2.9 Recycle PFCs, CFCs, CO2, NOX, SO2, CO, PVC are formed in the process .these substance can cause air pollution, acid rain ozone depletion, global warming, changing the natural habitat and affect human heath. Good to mention the environmental impacts of recycling, but what can you be a little more specific? Page 5 of 18
  9. 9. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment 1. Introduction Energy Extraction of raw material waste (CO 2 , NO X, SO 2 , CO, VOC ) Raw material (metal , semi metal , petroleum , glass) Energy & material Material processing waste (wasted material , CO 2 , NO X, SO 2 , CO, VOC ) Processed material (plastic , copper coil , silicon , iron , gold , silver) Energy & material / cycle material Parts manufacture waste (wasted parts , CO 2 , NO X , SO2 , CO, VOC ) Product (mouse , keyboard , mother board and monitor ) Energy ,paper , plastic sheet , waste (paper , plastic , CO 2 , Product & material PC assembly NO X, SO 2 , CO, VOC ) Packed product waste (unburned hydrocarbon , CO 2 , Energy Distribution NO X, SO 2 , CO, VOC ) Delivered product Recycle material Energy (electricity ) Consumption waste (ozone , CO 2 , NO X, SO 2 , CO , VOC ) Wasted computer Energy Material collection Waste (CO 2 , NO X, SO 2, CO, VOC ) Wasted computer Recycle Landfill Incineration Waste (Methane , toxic chemical , heavy metal , PFCs ) Waste ( toxic chemical , heavy metal , unburned carbon , waste (PFCs , CFCs, CO 2 , NO X, SO 2 , CO, PVC ) PFCs , CO 2 , NO X, SO 2, CO , PVC ) Figure 1: Lifecycle inputs and outputs in the PC manufactory industry Good, but your written discussion of this chart should elaborate on it rather than just repeat it. Page 6 of 18
  10. 10. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment 2. Product of Design for Environment Project 2 Product of Design for Environment Project Enter On entering the 21st century the personal computer (PC) becomes a part of our lives. We play PC games at home, do assignment in schools and present products to customer by power point. PCs are everywhere. On the other hand, the new computer technologies are developed rapidly. To keep the competitiveness power, to use the most updated program for research and to play the 3D games smoothly, customers would to update their PC in a short period of time. What problem would be caused by this high consumption rate? More you buy the latest PC, more e-waste you created. However, part of e-waste can be recycled to form the material for producing chipsets and other components again. In other to protect our Earth, we should close the lifecycle of PC. We believe that manufacturers of electronic goods, who have benefited from sales of their products, should take responsibility for them from production through to the end of their lives. To prevent an e-waste crisis, manufacturers must design clean electronics with longer lifespan, that are safe and easy to recycle and will not expose workers and the environment to hazardous chemicals. We focus on the PC set included:  PC tower (included its inside components, eg. Mother board, CPU, Display Card, Sound Card, and DVD-ROM, etc.)  Monitor  Keyboard  Mouse As a global PC manufacturer, we should take responsibility for the whole product lifecycle included the end-of-life process. To prevent an e-waste crisis, we must design the new Page 7 of 18
  11. 11. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment 2. Product of Design for Environment Project industrial ecology with new business model and new production process of PCs. Good. Page 8 of 18
  12. 12. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment 3. New Design 3 New Design There are two major phases in our New Design: 3.1 New Design of Business Model (Personal Computer Rental Scheme) For the phase 1 New Design of Business Model, we proposed a Personal Computer Rental Scheme (PCRS). Nowadays most PCs are the manufacturers sell to consumers and the consumers will waste them to landfill after the end of the product life. In the PCRS, we focus on the PC function and service provide rather then sell. Good For example a PC cost HKD9,000.00. We may rent it at HKD1,000.00 per year and HKD8,000.00 refundable deposit required. That seems pretty cheap, I’ll take one. However, it seems it will take 9 years for you to break evern. Within the rental period, full warranty provided for guarantee the PC can provide its reasonable function and service for our customer. When the customer wants to change a newer model PC or do not use it any more, we will take back the PC and we may re-rental rent-?? (if it still in a good condition) or de-assemble the components for other purpose (eg. re- assemble different components to a new PC). According to this scheme, we will response to all our PCs’ end-of-life process and stop to landfill. This process can also solve the informal recycle problem because all recycle process are performed officially and governed by suitable environmental protection policies. 3.2 New Design of PC Production (eco-PC) For the phase 2 New Design of Personal Computer Production, the eco-PC is the major goal. Some basic guide lines of our eco-PC production we proposed: 3.2.1 Materials selection Environmental friendly materials selected for our PC production only, they must be recyclable, remanufacture- able, and renewable. We also avoid the toxic/hazardous materials by follow the RoHS (Restriction of the use of Page 9 of 18
  13. 13. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment 3. New Design certain Hazardous Substances) and WEEE (Waste Electrical & Electronic Equipment) legislation [7]. Page 10 of 18
  14. 14. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment 3. New Design 3.2.2 Production process In production process, we should pay effort for design an effective production process. There are included modularize design the PC components to be easy assembly and de-assembly, reduce the production complexity, and make the components are interchangeable. Therefore we can easily remanufacture our PCs and components. On the other hand, the extension of our PCs’ useful life is very important action, so our product must be high scale expandability. Good. 3.2.3 Delivery channel The direct rental channel adopted in order to reduce the re- transportation and repackage. The modern logistic and supply chain management technology can help us reduce the inventory period; provide high efficient transportation and safety recycle material transfer. Packaging optimization also performed and required the logistic company response for collect back our package for us to reuse when the PC delivery to our customer. 3.2.4 Energy consumption Energy consumption is one of the most significant environmental impacts across a products life cycle. There are two ways to reduce a products energy consumption: 1. Using low energy consumption hardware, 2. Using power management software to control the energy consumption. By these methods, we expected to exceed the energy consumption requirements set by The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ENERGY STAR program [7], The U.S. Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) [7], and The European Union Code of Conduct on Efficiency for External Power Supplies [7]. 3.2.5 PC end-of-life process (included data disposal & transfer) Nowadays’ end-of-life process of PC is impacted the environment seriously, especially the improper recycle process. In our eco-PCs program, we response the 100% take back and recycle process included the proper and safe data destruction in order to build a forward- looking, defensible PC disposal strategy. On the other hand, we will develop the easy data and configuration setting transfer software to help our customer to transfer their data and Page 11 of 18
  15. 15. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment 3. New Design configuration settings easily from the old rental PC to new rental PC. Excellent perspective. Page 12 of 18
  16. 16. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment 3. New Design 3.3 Expected Environmental Goals and Corresponding Metrics Example of specific Goals Example of Metrics objective Stop disposed electronic Tons of electronic waste Reduce e-waste product to landfills, fully disposed to landfills recycle all of them. Reduce 70% of our package Tons of package Paper Box, waste by recycle all our Reduce package Plastic Bag, and Polyfoam package material to reuse waste (EPS) are disposed to landfills and/or reform as other materials. Manufacturing cost and Optimization of the process Reduce lifecycle energy of manufacturing, cost and energy of Delivery cost and energy transportation and recycling product End-of-life process cost and to reduce over 20% cost. energy Full warranty provided within Reduce cost of The hardware warranty cost, rental period, customer save ownership for our system maintenance cost over 50% of maintenance customer cost. Reduce operation All products are fulfilled the Watts of Operation mode, electric power Energy Star efficiency Sleep mode and Off mode consumption program. Density of suspended Reduce around 30% particulates in air release by suspended particulates. Reduce the vehicles Eliminate the transportation transportation Decibels (dB) of noise release route for reducing the noise by vehicles emission. Reduce the amount Tons of heavy metals Reduce 80% of heavy heavy metals for emission to the pipeline, sea, metals emission by recycling the environment river, habitat, etc. the most of them. Table 1: Expected Environmental Goals and Corresponding Metrics Page 13 of 18
  17. 17. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment 3. New Design 3.4 Product Lifecycle of our new design and their interdependence Raw Material Extraction Material Processing Other Materials Chipsets Manufacture Manufacture (eg. Metal, Plastic, etc.) Printronics Circuit Boards Manufacture PC Tower Components Accessories Assembly Assembly (eg. Monitor, Mouse, eg. CD-ROM, Hard-disk, Keyboard, etc.) Case, etc. PC Assembly Accessories Renew Distribution Re-rental Good conditional Consumption (if in good condition) components Return to Apple Computer Deassembly Parts Recycling Figure 2: Product Lifecycle of our new design Page 14 of 18
  18. 18. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment 4. Industrial Ecology 4 Industrial Ecology 4.1 Social infrastructure 4.1.1 Legalization To avoid improper recycle of computers, government should issue some law to forbid import e-waste into H.K. or export of e waste to developing countries e.g. China and India. And regulate the rule of recycling, ensure the recycle processes organized well and have benefit to environment. Like the WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) Directive in Europe [7]. This regulation can reduce the waste arising from electrical and electronic equipment; and improve the environmental performance of all those involved in the life cycle of electrical and electronic products. We have some suggestions: 1. Forbid dumping of computers, who does not return and recycle the computers, must be punished, such as penalties and fine. Nowadays, people do not care how to dispose the computer; we often dump them to landfill. If forbid these actions, people will take the responsibilities for disposing the computers. Therefore, they will recycle the computers or use our service (renting the computers) 2. Setup regulations avoid the computer recycle company improper managing the computer. Restrict the ways of recycle and require those companies to sign the contract that promise will not recycle improperly otherwise need to be charged. There are some environmental problems caused in the recycle process, even some get the certificates from the IAER (International Association of Electronics Recyclers) [7]. It’s because the improper recycle of computer and make serious e-waste problems. If regulation is set up, it can control the industry effectively. Excellent 3. Levy computer disposal tax when consumers are buying the computers. If dispose tax is imposed ,the price of computers will be increase .And people will be more willing to rent our computer instead of buy a new one .since our computers are cheaper and do not need to pay the tax , as we will recycle the computers by ourselves. 4.1.2 Marketing and promotion Without promotion, people will not know the issue and benefits of the legalization. Therefore government and NGOs should promote the issue, e.g. Advisements, holding activities .so that people can understand the meaning of the action and do more this environmental issue. Page 15 of 18
  19. 19. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment 4. Industrial Ecology 4.1.3 Education and training Government should educate the students and employees to care about our environment and nature. So they will do something more benefit to environment. 4.1.4 Subsidy Government should give subsidy to companies, like us, that promote environmental friendly technology business. Since this kind of business require large amount of money and have high risk. If subsidy is given to those companies, more businessmen will do these investments. Therefore demand and supply of these businesses will increase and less environmental impact will be produced. Should the government supply all this infrastructure or can you work with other companies as well? 4.2 Physical infrastructure 4.2.1 Resource extraction • Pipeline facilities, Fuel port, (transport the petroleum for plastic) • Electricity station (for generating electricity and supply for the extraction process) • Vehicles, road, transport system (for transporting the extracted material eg. Copper, iron, mercury, lead, gold, aluminum) • Land fill site (for dispose the waste) • Pollution control system and measuring apparatus (for monitoring the environmental impact caused) 4.2.2 Material processing &parts manufacture • Electricity station (for generating electricity to supply electricity for processing) • Vehicles, road, transport system (for transporting the modified material eg. Purified copper, plastic, steel and products eg. Monitor, keyboard, mouse) • Land fill site (for dispose the waste) • Pollution control system and measuring apparatus (for monitoring the environmental impact caused) • Recycle system (for recycling the unused material) 4.2.3 Produce assembly and distribution • Electricity station (for generating electricity to supply electricity for processing) Page 16 of 18
  20. 20. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment 4. Industrial Ecology • Vehicles, road, transport system (for transporting the packed products) • Logistic system (for transporting the product to the destination effectively) • Land fill site (for dispose the waste) • Pollution control and measure apparatus (for monitoring the environmental impact caused) • Recycle system (for recycling the unused material) 4.2.4 Consumption • Business opportunity, education system (for encouraging people to use computer to do their works) • Electricity station (for generating electricity to support the energy consumption of computer) • Vehicles, road, transport system (for transporting the computer to recycle) • Internet network (for connecting the computers to internet) • Recycle system (for recycling the computer) 4.2.5 Material collection: • Electricity station (for generating electricity to supply electricity for collecting material) • Vehicles, road, transport system (for transporting waste to recycle) 4.2.6 Recycling • Electricity station (for generating electricity to supply electricity for recycling process) • Vehicles, road, transport system (for transporting waste and recycled material) • Recycle site (for providing space for recycling process) ♦ Our return for deassembly to rerental reuse and recycle process should perform in a centralized place that should be followed official recycling restrictions and monitored by government/NGOs. ♦ For example, the EcoPark [7, 7] in Hong Kong is just like an industrial park exclusively for waste recycling and environmental industry. ♦ EcoPark is a key element that aims to promote the local recycling industry and jump-start a circular economy to provide a sustainable solution to our waste problems. By encouraging and promoting the reuse, recovery and recycling of our waste resources and return them to the consumption loop, the EcoPark will help realize the full potential of the local recycling industry and alleviate the heavy reliance on the export of recyclable materials recovered from Hong Kong. By building more EcoPark, larger amount of waste can be recycled and returned back to the product cycle. ♦ It is because there is only one EcoPark in Hong Kong which is built in Tuen Mun in 2005, so it is not enough area for process all the waste for recycling. If more EcoParks are built, more returned computer of our company can be recycled and save the resource. Page 17 of 18
  21. 21. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment 4. Industrial Ecology • Pollution control and measure apparatus (for monitoring the environmental impact caused) This recycling infrastructure is something you will need to work on in your final project. Page 18 of 18
  22. 22. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment 5. Incentive Provided by Value 5 Incentive Provided by Value In the business world, everything done should have its own value. Nothing will be excluded. Clearly, the main value for doing business is to get profit. All the transactions in the product cycle are linked by getting money from the previous stage. Also the companies will pay for the next transactions. 5.1 Materials Obtainment In PCs product cycle, from printronics circuit board manufacturing to deassembly, the stages will be processed by our company. According to Figure 2, we can discover that there are two way for the material processing companies to get the stuff. One is from raw material extraction companies, the other one is from the recycle companies. Our goal is to produce an environmental friendly product. That means we expect material processing companies will get the stuff from recycle companies. How can we make this happen? We can mention in the contract that the material processing companies should obtain let say half of the stuff from recycle companies. Besides, we should also monitor material processing companies by regular site visiting and products’ quality checking to make sure that the material we purchased is environmental friendly. By these contracts, we value the parts recycling. Yes, but how does the social infrastructure you established help to create value for you and the recycler in recovering these materials? 5.2 Use recycle materials Besides, we will also purchase the parts of the stuff from the recycle companies to produce the printronics circuit board. We will try to balance the cost of production and the use of recycle stuff. In recent years, the concept environment protection has been rising. More people will to pay more for an environmental friendly product. Is this true? The benefit for us to use the recycle stuff is that can show we bear the social responsibility in protecting our planet. This can raise our company’s reputation. 5.3 Cooperation with material suppliers Chipset plays a very important part in the printronics circuit board manufacturing, accessories assembling and PC tower assembling. These processes use a lot of chipsets. If we can make the chipsets be recyclable or be easier to deassembly, the use of raw material in producing chipsets can reduced a lot. We can make these happen by have an advance design of the Page 19 of 18
  23. 23. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment 5. Incentive Provided by Value chipsets. As the chipsets is not in our progress of manufacturing, we should cooperate with the chipsets manufacturing companies. We can involve in the design of the chipsets or invite them take part in printronics circuit board designing. Having a cooperative relationship, the compatibility of our printronics circuit boards and the chipsets will be improved. This may improve the performance of the PC. As a result the competitive power of our PCs will rise. Good. 5.4 The Use of Returned PCs Beside from recycle, we can also reuse the components which were deassembly by our company. Why we need the customers return their used PCs? We are familiar with our products. 5.4.1 Components in Good Conditions We know the components in every part very well. Therefore, we can deassembly the PCs in the most effective way. Besides, we can also reuse the parts which deassembly from the old PCs if they are in good conditions. We guarantee the reuse of the used components does not affect the quality of our products. This can give confidence to our customers to rent our PCs. Good. 5.4.2 Re- rental Before deassembly the PCs, we will check whether they are in good conditions. If it is the case we can re-rent the PCs to the other customers immediately. This can meet the need of customers who want their PCs to be the most updated ones. On the other hand, for the PCs that are not the most updated, we can rent them in a relatively low price to attract the customers who do not have the need in powerful PCs. These can make our PCs have a long lasting value before they are deassembled. Excellent idea. 5.4.3 Accessories Renew Another way we reuse the returned PCs is renew the accessories. After receive the PCs back, we will check the condition of the PCs. Some accessories are functioning well, but their appearance may seem to be old and in bad conditions. Some accessories may not in perfect conditions, but they can be repaired in an easy way. By changing their case or repairing the accessories which are in bad conditions, they can entry the accessory assembly stage again. This can reduce the cost of the transportation cost in material logistic and purchase new material. As this is an intra-company process, the cost of renew will not be too high. Page 20 of 18
  24. 24. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment 6. Conclusion 6 Conclusion Our natural resource iss are limited, we should put all our effort to reduce the demand of resource as the aim to protect our environment. As e-waste is a rapid growing environmental problem we had, so our group design an effective method to decrease the e-waste produce and impact that will cause in the life cycle of computer. In order to recycle the computer effectively, renting service is provided and consumer require giving deposit, after the renting period, we designed the New Design of Business Model (Personal Computer Rental Scheme), which has two major aspects (Personal Computer Rental Scheme (PCRS) and New Design of PC Production (eco-PC)). This method can greatly reduce the amount of resource in mining or extraction and also can reduce e-waste produce. In other words, it can reduce the environmental impact caused in each stage of the life cycle. Therefore we do think that our design can benefit to our society and environment. Beside the environmental benefits can be got by using our new design, the new design can also benefit to our business. Nowadays, people demand with environmental product, therefore our new designed computers have market and we get have a large amount of profit .moreover, since our business is environmental friendly, our public reputation can be increase .and our grading in the Dow Jones sustainability group index (DJSGI) [7] will be higher and then our business prediction by public will be higher. So people will invest more in our company and our company will grow continuously. In other words, the new design we proposed has positive effects to our company development and definitely the new design can bring tangible and intangible benefits to our company. Dear Mac Maniacs, An excellent business concept backed up, by a very good conception of product design, and several supporting initiatives. Grade: A Page 21 of 18
  25. 25. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment 7. Reference 7 Reference 1. http://www.ciwmb.ca.gov/Electronics/WhatisEwaste/ (Electronic Product Management – What Is E-Waste?) 2. http://www.apple.com/environment/ (Apple and the Globe Environment) 3. http://www.apple.com/environment/resources/specs.html (Apple Product Environmental Specifications) 4. http://www.greenpeace.org/seasia/en/footer/search?q=e-waste (Greenpeace SEAsia – e-waste problem) 5. http://www.alternet.org/story/24045/ (E-Waste and iWoes) 6. http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/waste/weee_index.htm (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) 7. http://www.energystar.gov/ (The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ENERGY STAR program) 8. http://www.eere.energy.gov/femp/ (The U.S. Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)) 9. http://energyefficiency.jrc.cec.eu.int/html/standby_initiative.htm (The European Union Code of Conduct on Efficiency for External Power Supplies) 10. http://www.svtc.org/cleancc/pubs/sayno.htm (Background Document on Hazards and Waste from Computers) 11. http://www.computertakeback.com/ (Computer TakeBack Campaign) 12. http://news.gov.hk/en/category/environment/050530/html/050530en0400 2.htm (Tuen Mun EcoPark) Page 22 of 18
  26. 26. SOSC 217 Environment and Business (Spring 2006) Report for Stage1: Design for Environment 7. Reference 13. http://www.epd.gov.hk/eia/register/report/eiareport/eia_1042005/executiv e_summary/html/EcoPark%20ExSum%20(Chi%20&%20Eng)%20v7.htm (Environmental Impact Assessment for Development of an EcoPark in Tuen Mun Area 38) 14. http://www.iaer.org/ (International Association of Electronics Recyclers, Inc. (IAER)) 15. http://www.sustainability-index.com/ (Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes) 16. http://www.mohr-i.nl/mawiki/E_2dwaste_99 (e-wastes) 17. http://www3.news.gov.hk/ISD/ebulletin/en/category/environment/040430/ html/040430en04004.htm (Importer summonsed for illegal e-waste) 18. http://www.podcastingnews.com/archives/2005/06/apple_announces_1.ht ml (Apple Announces Free iPod Recycling Program) Page 23 of 18

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