N AT U R A L LY N E W Z E A L A N DNatural health courseTraining module two:nervous and cardiovascularsystems             ...
Introduction                           In response to frequent requests from our retail clients we have developed the     ...
module twoGuidelines                                                                       GoalTHE NERVOUS SYSTEM         ...
Part one:         The nervous system         ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOgY         HOW IT WORkS         1. Functions of the nervo...
module two•   Problem solving, initiative                         Other structures within our brain•   Some emotions, coor...
connects nerves from the CNS to cardiac muscles          •   These nerves control movement, balance and               (hea...
module twoParasympathetic Nervous System:                             Cell body:• The parasympathetic nervous system acts ...
Part two:               myelin sheaths, which allow faster transmission of               nerve impulses                   ...
module two•   Avoid sugar, soft drinks and sugar-filled cordials•   To prevent low blood sugar ensure the child has    reg...
Causes         • Excess caffeine intake                                                                        High 5HTP™ ...
module two•   Chronic insomnia may lead to more serious health    problems•   Immune weakness and infections may result fr...
Treatment                                                                      • Drink at least eight glasses of purified ...
module two    associated with headaches                       Part three:••    Milk thistle supports healthy liver functio...
•   8% of plasma is plasma protein; the most common           Destruction of RBCs             plasma protein is albumin. I...
module two      - Blood clotting                                           Heart valves      - Repair of damage by fibrous...
•   Congestive heart failure occurs when the heart is             unable to pump enough blood to meet the demands         ...
module two   are especially valuable in the veins of the legs, to         centre in the brain, which monitors blood pressu...
Part four:                                                                      •   Atherosclerotic lesions accumulate eve...
module two    Lipoprotein(a))•   Liver damage or disease                                   •   Approximately 2 tablespoons...
Module 2 nervous and cardiovascular systems web
Module 2 nervous and cardiovascular systems web
Module 2 nervous and cardiovascular systems web
Module 2 nervous and cardiovascular systems web
Module 2 nervous and cardiovascular systems web
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Module 2 nervous and cardiovascular systems web

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Module 2 nervous and cardiovascular systems web

  1. 1. N AT U R A L LY N E W Z E A L A N DNatural health courseTraining module two:nervous and cardiovascularsystems nervous and cardiovascular systems 1
  2. 2. Introduction In response to frequent requests from our retail clients we have developed the Good Health Products’ Natural Health Course. The course is user friendly and informative. It will help increase your knowledge and understanding of the workings of the human body, what can go wrong and what can be done to help. It comprises four modules: Module 1 | Digestive system Module 2 | Nervous and cardiovascular systems Module 3 | Musculoskeletal, lymphatic and immune systems Module 4 | Urinary and reproductive systems The modules explain the major workings of each system, what common health problems can arise, their signs and symptoms, causes, treatment suggestions and the relevant Good Health products to recommend. For people with good knowledge it will be a great refresher, but for those who are new to the industry, it will be an exciting learning tool. Each module contains a set of questions for you to answer in your own time. The questions are directly related to the notes. No other reference books are required. Disclaimer: The information in this course provides an introduction into medical and health care issues and is not designed to replace medical recommendations or a full consultation with a health professional. We strongly recommend individuals discuss on-going or serious health issues with their health care provider. Author: Jenni Lane Jenni became interested in the natural health field as a teenager after reading Leslie Kenton’s books and she quickly learned how good it felt when she ate healthy foods and exercised regularly. This lead to further investigation on how to improve her health using natural remedies, and so the journey began. In her early twenties she traveled extensively overseas living in both London and California. Eventually she was drawn back to New Zealand to study natural medicine. Jenni obtained a Bachelor of Science from Canterbury University, majoring in Zoology, then a Bachelor of Health Science from Charles Sturt University, for which she received a Dean’s Award for academic excellence. She also received Advanced Diplomas in both Naturopathy and Herbal Medicine from South Pacific College of Natural Therapeutics in Auckland. Jenni began her role at Good Health as an in-store naturopath. She then Questions? moved into the marketing team specialising in providing technical information, research and product development, scientific validation, educational training and health advice on the 0800 Naturopathic adviceline. Call our Jenni ran a successful private naturopathic clinic in Auckland for two years Naturopathic prior to joining Good Health’s naturopathic team. advice line on 0800 44 66 342 www.goodhealth.co.nz
  3. 3. module twoGuidelines GoalTHE NERVOUS SYSTEM The goal of Module two is to begin understanding our complexPart 1. Anatomy & Physiology - How it works nervous system. We will coverAn overview of the following: everything from the intricate workings of our brain, through1. The function of the nervous system to the nerve cells and how they2. The structure and organisation of the nervous system function in our body. We will also3. The regions of the brain and what they do address common conditions that4. The function of the spinal cord affect our nervous system and how5. The organisation and function of the peripheral nervous system to treat them.6. The structure and function of nerve cells including neurons and supporting cells The second system of this module is the cardiovascular system. We willPart 2. Pathophysiology - What can go wrong look at the functions, componentsUnderstanding the signs, symptoms, causes and treatment of the and the transport vessels of ourfollowing conditions: blood and our heart - the pump that keeps our blood flowing from1. ADD / ADHD the top of our head to the tips of2. Stress, anxiety and panic attacks our toes. We will then examine what3. Insomnia can go wrong with our heart, blood4. Migraines and headaches and blood vessels and how to keep them in good health.CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMPart 3. Anatomy and Physiology - How it worksAn overview of the following:1. Functions and components of the blood2. The function of both red and white blood cells3. The structure of the heart and how the blood flows through it4. Regulation of the heart rate5. The structure and function of the main blood vessels, arteries, capillaries and veins6. What is blood pressure and what affects itPart 4. Pathophysiology - What can go wrongUnderstanding the signs, symptoms, causes and treatment of the followingconditions:1. Cardiovascular disease / high blood cholesterol2. High blood pressure3. Poor or weak circulation4. AnaemiaPart 5. The QuestionsComplete the easy to follow questions for module two nervous and cardiovascular systems 3
  4. 4. Part one: The nervous system ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOgY HOW IT WORkS 1. Functions of the nervous system • To provide control and communication between all body systems • Involved in all individual behaviours; including every thought, action and emotion • Processes information from all sensory perception and transmits it to the appropriate body systems • Works in union with the endocrine (hormonal) system to provide integration throughout the entire body 2. Structure of the nervous system Diagram 1: The main regions of the brain Cerebrum • The largest part of the brain, accounting for about 83% of the total brain mass • Composed of 2 distinct hemispheres. It has a convoluted appearance with many fissures (grooves), giving the brain a wrinkled look. (See diagram 2) • Main regions of the cerebrum include: - Frontal lobe - Occipital lobe - Parietal lobe - Temporal lobe - Right Hemisphere Cells of the Nervous System - Left Hemisphere • Nerve tissue is made up of two types of cells: - Corpus callosum a. Neurons – the cells that conduct nerve transmission b. Supporting cells – comprised of glial cells in the CNS and Schwann cells in the PNS; these cells assist the function of neurons CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) The central nervous system is comprised of: • The brain • The spinal cord 3. The brain The brain is comprised of three main areas: (see diagram 1) Diagram 2: Regions of the Cerebrum • Cerebrum - this is the largest and most advanced part of the brain. It controls all conscious behaviours. • Cerebellum – we are not consciously aware of Functions of the regions within the workings of the cerebellum but it is known to the Cerebrum: streamline our movements Frontal lobe: • Brain Stem – controls unconscious actions such as • Behaviour, thought, intellect, judgement breathing, heart rate and blood pressure4 www.goodhealth.co.nz
  5. 5. module two• Problem solving, initiative Other structures within our brain• Some emotions, coordination of movements • The limbic system is composed of the thalamus and• Eye movements, sense of smell, muscle movements hypothalamus. These structures work together to• Libido, skilled movements modulate our emotions. • The reticular formation is a network of nerves thatOccipital lobe: run through the brain stem and thalamus and filter• Vision incoming sensory impulses to prevent brain overload,• Reading enabling us to sleep • A theory exists that in children with ADD or ADHDParietal lobe: this mechanism is less efficient therefore their brains• Sense of touch are bombarded with sensory information, which in• Response to internal stimuli turn affects their behaviour• Sensory comprehension (understanding what we see, hear, feel etc.) Protection of the Central Nervous System (CNS)• Some language and reading functions • The nervous system tissue is very delicate and• Some visual functions can be damaged easily by head injuries, alcohol, pesticides and toxins (more reason to eat organicTemporal lobe: food), or a lack of oxygen• Auditory memories, some hearing, visual memories • Antioxidants are nutrients that help protect brain cells• Music, fear, some language, some speech • The brain and spinal cord are enclosed within strong• Some behaviour and emotions, sense of identity bony structures that provide rigid protection. The or self skull protects the brain and the spine protects the spinal cord.Right hemisphere: • Further protection for the brain is provided by the• Controls the left side of the body cushioning effect of the cerebrospinal fluid (special• Temporal and spatial relationships fluid found around the brain and spinal cord) and• Analysis of non-verbal information tough connective tissue membranes - the meninges• Communicating emotion • The blood-brain barrier prevents toxins, fluctuating hormones, amino acids or chemical ions that mayLeft hemisphere: be present in the blood from entering the brain• Controls the right side of the body• Produces and understands language 4. Spinal cord • The spinal cord extends down from the base of theCorpus callosum: skull through the spine to the upper lumbar regions• Provides communication between the left and right (lower back) side of our brain • It is a thick, white band of nervous tissue that provides a two-way conduction pathway betweenCerebellum the brain and the rest of the body• Accounts for approximately 11% of the total brain • Many spinal reflexes can independently activate mass complex motor activities such as those performed• We have no actual awareness of the workings of the when walking or dancing cerebellum as it functions subconsciously • Large spinal nerve roots called horns exit the spinal• Processes information from the motor region of the cord to form the peripheral nervous system frontal lobe and brain stem to make movements smoother, more coordinated and precise 5. Peripheral nervous system (PNS)• Facilitates balance and posture • The PNS provides a valuable link between the outside world and the brain. It consists of all nerveBrain stem tissue outside the CNS.• Comprised of the Medulla and the Pons • The PNS is divided into the• Controls essential involuntary functions such as a. Somatic nervous systems breathing, heart rate and blood pressure b. Autonomic nervous systems• Provides a pathway between the brain and the spinal • The Somatic nervous system is made up of nerves cord that connect skeletal muscles. They initiate voluntary• Provides additional motor and sensory pathways to movement (motor) and sensory perception. the face and body • The Autonomic nervous system is involuntary and nervous and cardiovascular systems 5
  6. 6. connects nerves from the CNS to cardiac muscles • These nerves control movement, balance and (heart), smooth muscles (surrounding arteries and posture organs), and glands • Nerve supply to the head goes via the cranial nerves, not via the spinal cord a. Somatic Nervous System • The cranial nerves allow movement of the eyes, • The somatic nervous system is comprised of two tongue and facial muscles; enabling us to see, hear, types of nerves - sensory and motor eat and make facial expressions i) Sensory nerves carry information to the brain ii) Motor nerves carry information away from the brain b. Autonomic Nervous System • Most nerve bundles are made from a combination of • Consists of two divisions: sensory and motor nerves. They exit and enter the a. Sympathetic spinal cord in the form of spinal nerves. b. Parasympathetic (See diagram 3) • These two divisions have opposing effects and • Large groups of nerves form a plexus. The brachial provide the nerve supply of both cardiac and smooth plexus exits between the bones of the cervical (neck) muscles, including the internal organs spine and supply nerves to the arms and hands. • These two systems complement each other to help • The lumbar plexus exits between the bones of the the body maintain balance lumbar spine (lower back) including the nerves to • The sympathetic nerves activate our body during the legs and feet. The largest nerve in the body is severe circumstances such as fear, danger, anger, the sciatic. exercise and stress • Injury to the lower back commonly causes sciatica - • The parasympathetic nerves reverse the effects of pain in the sciatic nerve, which runs down the back the sympathetic system so the body’s responses of the leg return to normal • The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions are controlled by the hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine • Understanding these systems highlights how we digest food more efficiently when we are relaxed and how stress can affect our health Sympathetic Nervous System Stimulation of this system is often referred to as the ‘fight or flight’ response. This prepares the body for an emergency and enables us to respond physically, see clearly and think decisively. It does this by: • Stimulating the adrenal glands to produce the stress hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline • Increasing perspiration Diagram 3: The spinal nerves exiting the spine • Dilating the pupils • The Sensory system has specialised receptors for • Causing the hair follicle muscles to erect producing receiving stimuli from outside the body. This can be ‘goose bumps’ in the form of heat, light (eyes), taste (chemicals on • Increasing the rate and force of the heartbeat the tongue), touch or pain • Inhibiting urination • Over-stimulation of any receptor can cause pain • Dilating bronchioles within the lungs to increase • Proprioreceptors respond to stimuli within the body oxygen intake - They are located in skeletal muscles, tendons, • Decreasing the activity and blood flow of the joints, ligaments and the tissue covering our muscles digestive tract and bones • Redirecting blood flow to the skeletal muscles, heart, - These receptors monitor the body’s movements by brain and lungs measuring the degree of stretch in the muscles • Stimulating the liver to release glucose for increased • Motor nerves are involved in movement energy levels • They receive information from the brain and spinal • Constricting most blood vessels and increasing cord to send to the skeletal muscles blood pressure6 www.goodhealth.co.nz
  7. 7. module twoParasympathetic Nervous System: Cell body:• The parasympathetic nervous system acts to return • The cell body is usually spherical in shape and the body to its normal balanced state contains the cell organelles and nucleus (containing• This system is most active during non-stressful the genetic material) periods and is known as the ‘resting and digesting’ • The main metabolic activities of a nerve cell take division place within the cell body• The parasympathetic nervous system is designed to • Most neurons have their cell body within the brain or conserve energy, promote digestion and stimulate spinal cord (CNS) where they are protected by the the elimination of faeces and urine bones of the skull or spineIt does this by: Axon:• Increasing gut motility, digestive secretions and • Each neuron has a single axon that may be very relaxing sphincters short or very long. For example, the axon that• Constricting the pupils activates the muscle in the big toe originates from• Improving close-up visual acuity the cell body in the lumbar area of the spinal cord.• Decreasing heart rate, therefore promoting a slow • A long axon such as the one described, is known as and steady heart beat a nerve fibre• Relaxing the urethral sphincter to promote urination • The axons are the functional (working) structures• Constricting the bronchioles within the lungs involved in nerve conduction. Axons carry information away from the cell body6. Nerve tissue structureNerve tissue is highly complex and densely compacted. Dendrites:It is comprised of two main types of cells: • Dendrites are generally multi-branched extensions of• Neurons – cells that transmit electrical signals the cell body. Their function is to receive information• Supporting cells – smaller cells that surround the and conduct it to the cell body. delicate neurons • They can also communicate with dendrites and axons of other cellsNeurons a. Neurons, or nerve cells, are the highly specialised Supporting cells units that conduct electrical messages via nerve • These cells enable the neurons to function efficiently. impulses They segregate and insulate the neurons to avoid b. They also have other distinctive characteristics: interference from other nerve impulses. - Longevity - providing they receive adequate nutrition, neurons can live for over 100 years a) Neuroglia (glial cells): - They are unable to divide once they are mature, • This is the collective term for all supporting cells therefore once destroyed they cannot be replaced within the CNS - Neurons have a very high metabolic rate, and • Neuroglia are smaller than neurons and outnumber therefore need a continuous supply of oxygen them by 9:1. They make up approximately half the and glucose brain. - They are generally quite large and complex cells • Some functions of glial cells: (See diagram 4) - Glial cells act as immune presenting cellsNeurons are comprised of a cell - Rebalance electrical ion levels surroundingbody, an axon and dendrite the neurons - Help clean up any damaged nerve cells or invading micro-organisms - Help circulate cerebrospinal fluid - Provide an insulating barrier around axons to aid electrical transmission. This barrier is known as the myelin sheath. b) Satellite and Schwann cells • These are the supporting cells of the PNS • They have similar functions to the glial cells of Diagram 4: The neuron the CNS • The Schwann cells surround the nerve fibres to form nervous and cardiovascular systems 7
  8. 8. Part two: myelin sheaths, which allow faster transmission of nerve impulses The nervous system • Inflammation of the Schwann cells occurs in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and causes disruptions in nerve transmission WHAT CAN gO WRONg Nerve connections and transmission • Electrical and chemical signals are used by neurons 1. Attention deficit disorder (ADD) & to communicate and transfer information around the Attention deficit and hyperactivity body disorder (ADHD) • Each neuron can make as many as 10 000 contacts with other neurons • That makes 1015 (10 with 15 zeros) nerve-to-nerve Signs and symptoms connections (doesn’t that make you feel brainy!) • Inattention and/or poor concentration • Easily distracted or easily bored • Impulsive behaviour The synapse • Overactive or restless behaviour • The synapse is the junction between neurons or • Failure to finish tasks between a neuron and a gland; a neuron and an • Poor listening skills organ; or a neuron and a muscle that is being acted • Abrupt shifts of activity upon or influenced • Emotional and behaviour swings • These synapses act as exchanges for ions or • Poor organizational skills neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) between cells • Learning difficulties • Disorders of memory and thinking • Affects approximately 5% of children • 50-60% of children will outgrow their symptoms by the time they reach their 20’s or they will be better able to deal with the disorder • Each child or adult will have his or her own set of unique symptoms Causes • Brain injury • Essential fatty acid deficiency • Heavy metal toxicity e.g. lead, mercury, cadmium, copper or aluminium • Food or food additive sensitivities and allergies • Environmental toxins Diagram 5: The synapse • High carbohydrate or low protein diet • Thyroid disorders • When a nerve impulse reaches the axon terminal, • Blood sugar fluctuations (Ca2+) calcium ions enter the cells and promote • Frequent ear infections or otitis media neurotransmitter release. Neurotransmitters • Exposure to alcohol or drugs in utero then travel across the synapse and bind to the • Impaired inhibitory mechanisms in the brain postsynaptic membrane receptors allowing the • Over-active limbic system in the brain creating opening of the ion channel. This is short-lived heightened vigilance and increased emotional because the neurotransmitter is destroyed or outbursts recycled and the channel closes. (See Diagram 5) • Neurotransmitters can be classed as excitatory, Treatment inhibitory or both • Refer to a naturopath for testing of food allergies and • Nerves use synapses to communicate with muscles, heavy metal toxicity causing them to relax or contract • Common allergens include wheat, dairy products, • Alternatively, nerves communicate with organs, chocolate, oranges, eggs, peanuts and sugar. influencing them to secrete hormones or other Keep these foods to a minimum as well as neurotransmitters processed foods, artificial colouring, flavouring and preservatives.8 www.goodhealth.co.nz
  9. 9. module two• Avoid sugar, soft drinks and sugar-filled cordials• To prevent low blood sugar ensure the child has regular protein filled meals Revitalise™• Ensure the child eats plenty of fresh organic • A combination of vitamin C, Magnesium and vegetables to improve nutrition Zinc to support nutrient levels and behaviour in• Eat wholegrains such as brown rice, oats and children millet because they are low glycaemic index (slowly • Zinc and Magnesium are the two most absorbed) carbohydrates and full of nutrients important minerals for children with• Studies have shown a low allergy diet and additional behavioural problems nutritional supplements reduce ADD and ADHD behaviour Spirulina• Some children respond to osteopathic treatment • A natural source of nutrients to boost• For children over two years of age add relaxing children’s nutrition essential oils to their bath – e.g. try adding Lavender, • Easy to add to shakes to increase ‘greens’ in Chamomile or Lemon balm. Try herbal teas such the diet as Chamomile, Lemon balm, Skullcap, Nettle or • Contains B vitamins, iron and zinc in the body – Oat straw. Cool and add fruit juice to improve the nutrients known to support ADD and ADHD taste. Use at night to aid sleep or to calm down an overactive child. Deep sleep™ • A natural source of 5HTP to support brain levels of serotonin • Low levels of serotonin is linked to symptoms Good Health supplements of ADD or ADHD • We only recommend this product for use in EFA brain food™ /Children’s omega +™ children over 12 years of age due to the lack (previously known as ADD™) of research of use in younger children • This formula contains both omega 3 and omega 6 essential fatty acids (EFA) from High 5HTP™ fish and Evening primrose oil (EPO). These • Provides a high dose of plant derived 5HTP essential fats are the building blocks of the per capsule to support serotonin production nervous system and support normal growth and functioning including cell communication Colostrum and cell membrane function. • Promotes healthy digestion and absorption of • Available in both liquid (peppermint flavoured) nutrients and capsules • Supports healing of the digestive tract in cases of food allergies and behavioural problems • Phosphatidylserine from lecithin is an important lipid found in high concentrations in the brain. It supports brain and nerve function, including memory, concentration, attention 2. Stress, anxiety and panic attacks and behaviour. Signs and symptoms • Vitamin E acts as an antioxidant in our • Raised pulse rate and increased blood pressure body by helping to protect cells and cell • Palpitations membranes • Inability to get enough air or tightness in the chest • Vitamin E also aids EFA metabolism • Sighing • Dizziness Flaxomega™ or Omega 3 fish oil • Sweating Health guard™ • Dry mouth • These are other Good Health products that • Hyperventilation provide omega 3 essential fatty acids • Weakness and fatigue • Flax oil can be added to smoothies or • Headaches mayonnaise • Mood swings • Older children and adults can swallow Omega • Reduced concentration 3 fish oil Health guard™ capsules • Muscle tension • Sleep disturbances • Immune weakness causing frequent infections nervous and cardiovascular systems 9
  10. 10. Causes • Excess caffeine intake High 5HTP™ • High blood lactic acid levels • Provides a high dose of plant derived 5HTP • Decreased carbon dioxide levels in the blood per capsule to support serotonin production • Stress and overwork • Serotonin plays an important role in the • Social, relationship or lifestyle pressures modulation of mood, sleep, appetite and • Shock or trauma stress resistance • Disease states and/or pain • 5HTP supports mental wellbeing • Adrenal exhaustion • Magnesium and/or calcium deficiency B stress free™ • B vitamins support the nervous system, • Low tryptophan levels in the body adrenal and brain function • Food allergies • B5 and Vitamin C support the production of • Modern life in general! adrenal (stress) hormones to help the body deal with stressful situations Treatment • The herbs Passionflower and Valerian support • Avoid all caffeine-based drinks such as tea, coffee relaxation and coke • Panax ginseng and Liquorice are adrenal • Avoid alcohol, sugary and processed foods tonics, to support stressed out adrenal glands • Check for heavy metal poisoning • The minerals Calcium, Magnesium, Selenium, • Drink soda water if hyperventilation and panic Manganese, Potassium and Zinc are required attacks occur because it increases carbon dioxide for healthy adrenal function levels in the blood • Maintain a healthy diet - plenty of lean protein, fruit EFA brain food™ / Children’s omega +™ and vegetables (previously known as ADD™) • EFA’s are important for healthy brain and • Learn relaxation and breathing techniques to reduce nervous system function stress • Studies show fish oil supports the nervous • Have a regular exercise program system in times of anxiety, low moods and • Take time out to rest and relax on weekends and supports memory and concentration schedule regular holidays to recharge • Drink relaxing herbal teas such as Chamomile, Additional Supplements Passionflower or Lemon Balm Flaxomega™ Flaxseed oil, Omega 3 fish oil • Eat foods high in potassium to nourish the nervous Health guard™ system such as banana, avocado, lima beans and potato Support Products Femzone™ • Contains nutrients to support the body in times of hormonal fluctuations such as PMS – Good Health supplements including symptoms such as irritability, anxiety, tearfulness as well as cramps and cravings Deep sleep™ • Contains 5HTP, a natural precursor to the Spirulina brain neurotransmitter serotonin our ‘feel • A complete green food to boost energy and good hormone’ in the body. Managing nutrient levels serotonin levels supports the body in times of stress, anxiety and nervous tension. • The herbs Passionflower, Jamaican dogwood 3. Insomnia and Californian poppy support the body in Signs and symptoms times of stress, anxiety, nervous tension and • This is not a disorder but a symptom of other sleeping problems problems that may need addressing • Vitamin B6 supports the conversion of 5HTP • Insomnia can range from the occasional sleepless to serotonin night to chronic sleeplessness • Magnesium is useful as a muscle relaxant and • There are two main types: anti-stress nutrient a. sleep onset – difficulty falling asleep b. sleep maintenance – frequent or early wakening10 www.goodhealth.co.nz
  11. 11. module two• Chronic insomnia may lead to more serious health problems• Immune weakness and infections may result from Good Health supplements the reduced healing and rejuvenation caused by the lack of sleep Deep sleep™• Decreased well being and vitality • Contains 5HTP, a naturally sourced precursor• Increased feelings of irritability and a reduced ability to serotonin, the brain neurotransmitter, that to cope with everyday stresses helps support healthy sleeping patterns,• Reduced concentration and memory relaxation and mental wellbeing• Reduced energy levels • 5HTP supports REM, rapid eye movement, the deepest of our sleep cycles for aCauses restorative sleep• Stress and anxiety • The herbs California Poppy, Passionflower and• Depression Jamaican Dogwood support the body in times• Pain of stress, anxiety and sleeping problems• Emotional problems• Environmental noise Deep sleep night cap™• Shift work • A delicious malt and butterscotch drink mixed• Drugs and alcohol with hot milk• Some medications • The herbs Chamomile, Passionflower and• Caffeine products Californian Poppy support the body in times• Hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar) or food allergies of anxiety and stress as well as supporting• Emotional arousal relaxation and sleep• Temperature variations• Nutritional deficiencies High 5HTP™• Heavy metal poisoning • Provides a high dose of plant derived 5HTP• Sleep apnoea per capsule to support serotonin production• Hormonal imbalances • Serotonin plays an important role in the modulation of mood, sleep, appetite andTreatment stress resistance• Avoid all stimulants including – coffee, tea, chocolate, • 5HTP supports mental wellbeing caffeine containing fizzy drinks, alcohol and recreational drugs. Alcohol reduces REM sleep and Omega 3 fish oil Health guard™ or disrupts serotonin levels, reducing the quality of Flaxomega™ Flaxseed oil sleep. • Essential fatty acids are important for optimal• Avoid excessive exercise or activity before bed brain function and formation of ‘endogenous – reading before sleep may help sleep inducing lipids’• Eat a small snack before bed to maintain blood • Supports healthy brain chemicals sugar levels throughout the night. Try cheese and crackers or a banana. Revitalise™• Learn relaxation or meditation techniques • Vitamin C and Magnesium are two nutrients• Exercise at least three times per week crucial to healthy nervous system function• Get regular massages to reduce muscle tension• Consider counselling if emotional issues are Men’s or Women’s multi plus™ or B preventing sleep stress free™• Have a regular bedtime and stick to it – between • Provides B vitamins that are essential to the 9pm and 10.30pm. Get up at the same time every healthy functioning of the nervous system morning, between 6am and 7.30am. • Vitamins B6 and B3 enhance the conversion• Get plenty of sunlight and fresh air of tryptophan to serotonin• Use essential oils such as Lavender, Chamomile, Marjoram, Mandarin, Rose, Neroli or Valerian. Add 2-3 drops to the bath or in a burner in the bedroom Mg lax™ • A rich source of Magnesium, the most before going to bed. important mineral for relaxation and stress• Make sure the mattress and bed are comfortable reduction and the sheets are clean and fresh nervous and cardiovascular systems 11
  12. 12. Treatment • Drink at least eight glasses of purified water per day Body cleanse™ • Refer to a naturopath for allergy tests • Regular liver and bowel cleansing helps • Reduce refined processed foods (sugar, white flour, maintain good elimination of toxins and waste food additives etc.) products to enhance health and well-being, • Eat small regular meals to maintain blood sugar including sleep levels • See an osteopath for spinal analysis Femone™ • Reduce stress and anxiety • Supports the body in times of hormonal • Support any presenting infections with Viralex® changes which may affect sleeping patterns • Avoid coffee, alcohol and recreational drugs • Cold packs to the forehead and the back of the neck 4. Migraines and headaches may alleviate the pain Signs and symptoms • Get regular exercise or practise deep breathing techniques to increase circulation to the brain Headaches • Lavender and Peppermint oils on the temples may • Dull pain, pressure, band-like squeezing or pressing reduce the pain of headaches and migraines pain Migraine • A more intense throbbing, pounding, rhythmic or pulsating type of pain Good Health supplements • May be preceded by vague mood changes, cravings, yawning or visual disturbances (auras) High 5HTP™ • The pain may last from a few hours to several days • Provides a high dose of plant derived 5HTP and can be debilitating per capsule to support serotonin production • Nausea and vomiting can accompany the pain • Low levels of serotonin have been linked to an • Light sensitivity may occur causing the person to increase in incidence, frequency, intensity and want to lie down in a dark room duration of migraines • After the pain has subsided there may be feelings of malaise, tiredness or a washed out feeling Deep sleep™ • More women than men suffer from migraines (ratio of 3:1) • Migraine sufferers have been found to have low levels of serotonin, contributing to a Causes reduced pain threshold. 5HTP in Deep sleep™ • Food and/or drug sensitivities (e.g. the pill) naturally helps support serotonin levels. • Post-alcohol consumption or lack of sleep • The herbs Californian poppy, Jamaican • Genetic predisposition dogwood and Passionflower support the body • Low blood sugar in times of stress, anxiety, and mental tension • Caffeine, nicotine or drug withdrawal • High blood pressure Omega 3 fish oil Health guard™ or • Infections and/or inflammation Flaxomega™ Flaxseed oil • Dehydration • Essential fatty acids (EFAs) support healthy • Constipation brain chemicals and blood vessel health • Metabolic mineral imbalances or deficiencies • Fever Glucozone™ • Stress or muscle tension • A comprehensive formula to support optimal • Spinal misalignments blood sugar regulation and insulin balance • Head injuries or brain tumours • Helps to balance blood sugar; low blood • Emotions, glare, eyestrain, noise or changes in the sugar has been linked to migraines weather or barometric pressure • Hormonal fluctuations Body cleanse™ • Sinus or teeth problems • A comprehensive body detox program to • Foods such as – cheese, chocolate, bananas, citrus, support liver and bowel function and the coffee, tea, cola, milk, beer, pizza and preserved overall elimination of toxins meats may trigger headaches or migraines • Poor liver function and toxin accumulation is • Liver sluggishness12 www.goodhealth.co.nz
  13. 13. module two associated with headaches Part three:•• Milk thistle supports healthy liver function The blood purifiers Red clover, Burdock The cardiovascular and Yellow dock support all the channels of elimination to support detoxification systemMg lax™ ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOgY• Magnesium deficiency has been shown to be HOW IT WORkS a contributing factor in migraines The Cardiovascular System is divided into three• Magnesium supports blood vessel stability components:• Magnesium deficiency is very common, 1. Blood especially in people who are stressed. Stress 2. Heart depletes magnesium, and low magnesium 3. Blood vessels levels exaggerate the stress response. 1. BloodGinkgo max™ • Blood is the river of life and acts as the supreme• Ginkgo supports circulation and oxygenation carrier of the sustenance each of our cells need. to the brain as well as healthy blood vessel Since antiquity it has had a magical appeal as the function ‘essence’ of life. • Blood is the vehicle of the cardiovascular systemB stress free™, Women’s or Men’s multi • The arteries carry oxygenated blood away from theplus™ heart to the organs• B complex vitamins support the nervous • The capillaries carry the blood to the tissues and system and the nutritional status of the body cells and then back to the veins to maintain optimal health • Veins carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart to• Vitamin B6 supports serotonin conversion in start the process again the brain • Blood is a specialised type of connective tissue and is made up of different componentsOpti CoQ10™• Co Q10 has been found to help this condition The functions of blood by normalising energy production in the cells • Distribution of: - OxygenJoint zone™ - Nutrients from the digestive system• It has been found that migraine sufferers - Waste products to elimination organs taking glucosamine for their arthritis have a - Hormones to their target organs reduced incidence of migraines • Regulation of: - Body temperature: by diverting blood to the skinFemzone™ surface (reducing body heat) or keeping it to the core• Supports the body in times of pre-menstrual of the body (increasing body temperature) hormonal headaches - pH: blood components can act as buffers to prevent dramatic changes in acidity or alkalinityFemone™ • Protection from:• Supports the body in times of menopausal - Blood loss: due to clotting factors headaches - Infection: due to antibodies, complement proteins and white blood cells, to defend our body Components of blood • There are 2 main components of blood: - Plasma, the non-living fluid matrix - Red and white blood cells Plasma • 90% of plasma is water nervous and cardiovascular systems 13
  14. 14. • 8% of plasma is plasma protein; the most common Destruction of RBCs plasma protein is albumin. It creates an important • After 100 – 120 days the RBCs become rigid, fragile osmotic gradient (keeping water in the blood stream) and their haemoglobin begins to deteriorate and acts as a buffer. • They are destroyed in the spleen and the iron is • Other components include nutrients, hormones, stored for future use waste products, antibodies, clotting factors and • The heme group is broken down into bilirubin that is electrolytes released into the blood to be picked up by the liver and excreted through bile into the faeces Red Blood Cells (RBCs) • These small flat disc-like cells have the important White Blood Cells (WBCs) function of transporting the gases, oxygen and • These account for only 1% of the total blood volume carbon dioxide around the body • They form part of the immune or defence system • Red blood cells are full of haemoglobin, which is the • They are able to leave the blood stream and enter key oxygen and carbon dioxide carrying component tissues as needed of blood • We have five different types of WBCs: Neutrophils, • As oxygen deficient blood flows through the lungs, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils and oxygen diffuses from the air sacs into the blood and Basophils (Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas) red blood cells to bind with iron in haemoglobin and form oxyhaemoglobin. This gives blood its bright red Neutrophils colour. • Are the most numerous of the WBCs in the blood • In the tissues the opposite occurs, oxygen detaches and are involved with killing bacteria and fungi from the iron to diffuse into the cells and tissues. The molecule is now called deoxyhaemoglobin and the Lymphocytes blood becomes a dark red colour. • Are the second most numerous WBCs and, as their • Carbon dioxide is carried around the body by the name suggests, are also found in lymphatic tissue globin component of the haemoglobin and is carried to the lungs to be excreted via breathing Types of lymphocytes • T lymphocytes act upon viral and cancer infected Production of Red Blood Cells cells • RBCs are formed within the red bone marrow of • B lymphocytes produce antibodies to fight infectious some of the large or flat bones micro-organisms • To maintain healthy levels of RBCs, 2 million are produced per second in healthy people! • The hormone erythropoietin stimulates the Monocytes production of RBCs • These differentiate into specialised cells called • Men generally have higher numbers of RBCs than macrophages that are capable of engulfing bacteria women as testosterone enhances erythropoietin and viruses. They also activate lymphocytes to production. Premenopausal women lose RBCs mount an immune response. through menstruation. Eosinophils Nutrients required for healthy RBCs production • Their most important role is fighting parasitic infections such as flatworms, tapeworms and flukes Iron • They are also involved in allergic reactions • Iron forms part of the haemoglobin molecule where oxygen binds • 65% of the body’s iron is found in haemoglobin, Basophils while the rest is stored in our liver, spleen or • These are the rarest WBCs in the blood stream and in protein-iron complexes such as ferritin or are involved in inflammatory responses hemosiderin • Low iron levels cause a decrease in the size and Haemostasis (Blood stopping) number of RBCs • This is the process that occurs to prevent all our Vitamins blood leaking from our body if a breach of a blood • Vitamins B6 and B12 are essential for the DNA and vessel occurs RNA involved in maturation and cell division of RBCs • It is a complex and well controlled process involving: • Low levels of these B vitamins produce large, weak - Vascular spasm RBCs with a shortened life span - Platelet plug formation14 www.goodhealth.co.nz
  15. 15. module two - Blood clotting Heart valves - Repair of damage by fibrous tissue • The atrioventricular valves (bicuspid and tricuspid) prevent the backflow of blood into the atria when the2. The heart ventricles are contracting• The heart beats approx. 90 000 times per day and • The pulmonary and aortic semilunar valves prevent we barely notice it back flow into the ventricles when they are relaxing• It is located behind the ribs and is about the size of a clenched fist. It is surrounded by a special sac called Blood flow to the heart the pericardium. • The heart muscle itself receives blood from the• The heart functions as two separate pumps coronary arteries, which branch off the aorta• The right side pumps blood to the lungs for • These are the arteries that, when blocked, cause oxygenation (pulmonary circulation) angina or if severely blocked, heart attacks due to• The left side pumps blood to the whole body the obstruction of blood flow to the heart muscle (systemic circulation) • Blood is delivered to the heart during the relaxation phase • Venous blood from the heart is collected by the cardiac veins Heart muscle cells • These cells are full of mitochondria (the energy organelles within the cells) so have high requirements for oxygen • The heart cells unlike other cells rely almost entirely on aerobic metabolism, so they cannot function optimally in low oxygen states. But, unlike nervous system cells, heart muscle cells can use fatty acids as a fuel as well as glucose. • Heart cells work together as a unit to beat in a rhythmic and uniform way • The heartbeat is controlled by specialised pacemaker cells, which are stimulated by the vagus nerve from the brain Diagram 6: The ventricles and valves of the heart Regulation of heart rate • The heart can pump 5 litres of blood per minute!Pulmonary circulation • That’s a person’s entire blood volume through the• Deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation heart every minute enters the right atrium of the heart (see diagram 6)• The blood then enters the right ventricle through the The heart rate can vary due to many factors: tricuspid valve and is pumped into the lungs via the • Activation of the sympathetic nervous system due pulmonary arteries to receive oxygen to emotional or physical stress such as fear, anxiety,• This system is low pressure to allow the gradual excitement or exercise increases the heart rate, due diffusion of gases in the lungs to the hormone adrenalin • The heart is also affected by mineral concentrationsSystemic circulation in the blood. Changes in the concentrations• The oxygenated blood from the lungs enters the left of calcium, sodium, potassium or magnesium atrium via the pulmonary veins, and then enters the can affect heart muscle contractions and cause left ventricle to be pumped to the body via the large arrhythmia - an abnormal heart beat rhythm. Very artery called the aorta high blood levels of sodium or very low levels of• The left side of the heart contains a larger muscular potassium can be life threatening. wall in order to pump the blood around the body • Other factors influencing heart rate include age, sex, to ensure the all parts of the body receive sufficient exercise and body temperature blood supply • Tachycardia is the term for an abnormally fast heart• This is a high pressure system rate • Bradycardia is the term for an abnormally slow heart rate nervous and cardiovascular systems 15
  16. 16. • Congestive heart failure occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the demands of the body. This leads to a backflow of blood and consequent oedema (fluid) in the body or lungs. • Atherosclerosis is the insidious build up and damage that occurs to blood vessels with age. If they become too blocked or damaged a heart attack or stroke can occur. 3. Blood vessels There are 3 main types of blood vessels: • Arteries • Capillaries • Veins • Arteries are the large vessels that carry blood from the heart. These then branch into smaller arterioles and finally the very small capillaries. • Blood then drains into venules, small veins and then Diagram 7: The layers of the Blood Vessels large veins to be transported back to the heart • This collection of blood vessels carries the blood around the body and if laid out would cover approx. Arteries 100 000km! • Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart • Consist of strong, elastic walls to cope with the The Structure of Blood Vessels pressure of blood coming directly from the heart They consist of three layers (tunics) surrounding a central • The ample amounts of elastin enable the arteries space (lumen). (See diagram 7) to withstand this pressure and prevent pressure • Tunica intima fluctuations. Thus the blood flows smoothly, • Tunica media although the blood is pulsated into the vessels by • Tunica adventitia the pumping action of the heart. (The exception is capillaries, which only contain the • As the arteries branch and form arterioles the tunica intima) amount of elastin decreases and the amount of muscle in the tunica media increases and becomes more reactive to vasoconstriction and vasodilation Tunica intima • Is the inner most layer and consists of flat cells to provide a slick surface for the blood to flow over Capillaries • These are the finest and smallest vessels containing only the tunica intima layer Tunica media • They allow gas exchange in cells and tissues due to • Contains layers of circularly arranged smooth muscle their thin structure and elastin • Capillaries do not work independently but form • The smooth muscle is controlled by the autonomic dense networks called capillary beds that make up nervous system and can cause vasoconstriction - a the body’s microcirculation narrowing of the lumen of the vessel, or vasodilation - a widening of the lumen • These small changes in blood vessel diameter Veins influence blood flow and blood pressure • Veins contain all 3 tunics but their walls are thinner • This is the largest layer due to the bulk of the smooth and the lumens are larger than the corresponding muscle arteries due to a relatively lower blood pressure • Veins contain much less smooth muscle and elastin in the tunica media Tunica adventitia • Veins act as blood reservoirs and can hold as • Is the outer most layer and consists of loose much as 65% of our total blood volume in collagen fibres to protect the vessel and anchor it to capacitance vessels surrounding tissue • To prevent the backflow of blood, veins contain • Nerve fibres, lymphatic vessels and sometimes-tiny valves formed from folds in the tunica intima. They blood vessels can infiltrate this layer in arteries16 www.goodhealth.co.nz
  17. 17. module two are especially valuable in the veins of the legs, to centre in the brain, which monitors blood pressure help counteract the downward pull of gravity. • The vasomotor centre detects changes then dilates• Respiratory and muscular pumps aid venous return or constricts the blood vessels, or alters heart rate to to the heart restore balance• The respiratory pump occurs due to pressure changes within the abdomen during breathing. The Hormonal and chemical control muscular pump occurs due to skeletal contractions Hormones that increase blood pressure by promoting “milking” the blood back to the heart. vasoconstriction: a. AdrenalinBlood pressure (BP) b. Noradrenalin• Blood pressure is the force per unit area exerted on c. Anti-diuretic hormone the wall of a blood vessel by flowing blood d. Angiotensin II• It is measured in mmHg (millilitres of mercury)• The systolic (top) reading measures the heart during Chemicals that decrease BP by promoting vasodilation: an active beat a. Atrial natriuretic peptide• The diastolic (bottom) is the reading during relaxation b. Nitric oxide (between beats) c. Alcohol• 120 systolic and 80 diastolic is considered normal at rest (120/80) mmHg Long-term control of Blood Pressure• Blood always flows from high-pressure zones to • The kidneys have a direct effect on the regulation of low-pressure zones, enabling the body to maintain blood pressure by monitoring blood volume perfusion to all tissue and allow blood to flow back • When the blood pressure rises, our kidneys can to the heart excrete excess fluid by increasing urine output• The maintenance of our blood pressure is very • When the blood pressure falls the kidneys retain fluid important to ensure our organs have adequate blood and thus increase the blood volume supply to function correctly • Falling blood pressure stimulates the kidneys to release a hormone called renin, which triggersThree factors that influence blood pressure the formation of angiotensin II to stimulate1. Cardiac output – the amount of blood pumped in vasoconstriction. Additionally, aldosterone is one minute released promoting the retention of salt and water.2. Peripheral resistance – a measure of the amount of friction encountered by blood as it flows through Blood pressure tends to rise as we age the blood vessels. Small changes in blood vessel diameter can have dramatic effects on blood Ideally the blood pressure should be below: pressure. Systolic - 130 mmHg3. Blood volume – the amount of blood within the Diastolic - 85 mmHg circulatory system Anything above may indicate hypertension or high blood pressure.Blood pressure = cardiac output X peripheral resistance Low blood pressure is considered normal in healthyThus, during exercise the heart increases cardiac output individuals but can be a sign of poor nutrition (anaemia,and increases blood pressure. If stress causes the blood low protein levels in the blood), disease, circulatoryvessels to contract and increase peripheral resistance, shock or extreme blood loss.blood pressure increases. These are just a couple ofexamples of how blood pressure changes temporarily.What controls the blood pressure?The Brain• Neural controls regulate blood pressure by monitoring changes in specialised receptors• Baroreceptors (stretch receptors) pick up changes in blood vessel extension• Chemoreceptors monitor the oxygen or pH of the blood• These receptors send information to the vasomotor nervous and cardiovascular systems 17
  18. 18. Part four: • Atherosclerotic lesions accumulate even more cholesterol oxides and calcium crystal deposits The cardiovascular that further reduce the elasticity of the artery. This can increase blood pressure due to the decreased system flexibility of the blood vessels. • Fibrous plaques can cause stagnation of blood in our blood vessels that can lead to blood clots. Clots WHAT CAN gO WRONg can then block the artery, resulting in a heart attack (blocked coronary artery) or stroke (blocked artery to Cardiovascular disease (CVD) (Arteriosclerosis – the brain). hardening of the arteries) • As well as damaging the internal blood vessel, the • Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes red and white blood cells and platelets can also of death in New Zealand become damaged. These damaged platelets can • Fatty streaks, the precursors to cardiovascular trigger small blood clots. disease, develop slowly and can be seen in • HDL is considered beneficial because it is involved in children’s blood vessels by the age of 10 carrying cholesterol away from the arteries towards • Atherosclerosis is the most common type of the liver where it is broken down and removed or arteriosclerosis. It is a condition whereby the recycled arteries accumulate cholesterol oxides and become thickened and narrowed. Arteriosclerosis is a condition that progresses very slowly • The vessels that supply blood to the heart (the and is a combination of oxidative and inflammatory coronary arteries) are often affected and total damage. Prevention and treatment involves antioxidant occlusion (blockage) can result in a heart attack nutrients and anti-inflammatory agents. • When the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain, become blocked a stroke can result Conditions associated with The development of atherosclerosis arteriosclerosis • Cholesterol and fats are carried in the body by specialised fat-carrying proteins called lipoproteins 1. High blood cholesterol & triglycerides • There are two main classes of lipoprotein: - LDL low-density lipoprotein (commonly called ‘bad’ Signs and symptoms cholesterol) • Fatty deposits in the sclera (white) of the eye or - HDL high-density lipoprotein (commonly called under the skin around the eye ‘good’ cholesterol) • Extremely high fat levels in the blood may cause liver • LDL is the major carrier of cholesterol within our or spleen enlargement that can lead to abdominal body. It delivers cholesterol to cells that need it. In pain abnormal conditions cholesterol is also deposited in • Blood tests are the best indication the smooth muscle fibres of our arteries. • Sometimes these conditions are asymptomatic • LDL’s are very susceptible to damage by oxidation • The New Zealand guidelines for healthy cholesterol/ (the process by which a molecule is chemically triglyceride levels are: changed). Damaged cells are detected by the body’s - Total cholesterol less than or equal to 5.0mmol immune system and destroyed by macrophages - HDL cholesterol greater than 1.0mmol (White blood cells that engulf unwanted material) - LDL cholesterol less than 2.5mmol • Unfortunately, not all the damaged LDL’s are - Triglycerides less than 2.0mmol destroyed and these can accumulate within our artery walls Causes • White blood cells called monocytes also gather and • A diet high in saturated, oxidised or hydrogenated cause further oxidative damage fats, cholesterol containing foods and processed • This process eventually damages the inside of the carbohydrates such as white flour and sugar arterial wall and promotes the formation of foam • Genetic factors - some people are predisposed cells; cells that contain harmful oxidised cholesterol to high LDL cholesterol, e.g. familial molecules hypercholesteraemia, where the LDL receptors are • These foam cells join up to form fatty streaks that deficient or defective (1 in 500 people) produce a fibrous protein called collagen. Collagen • Elevated Lipoprotein(a), a particularly damaging creates a fibrous plaque which can narrow the lumen lipoprotein (vitamin C deficiency may increase of the artery and decrease blood flow.18 www.goodhealth.co.nz
  19. 19. module two Lipoprotein(a))• Liver damage or disease • Approximately 2 tablespoons of flax oil are• Smoking equivalent to 2 capsules of fish oil• Low thyroid function• High homocysteine levels – these cause an Opti CoQ10™ increase in LDL oxidation. (Homocysteine levels • CoQ10 supports healthy cholesterol levels may be decreased by B6, B12 and folic acid • The statin drugs, administrated by Doctors supplementation) to reduce cholesterol e.g. Lipex, also reduce• Low levels of vitamin C may increase the levels of CoQ10 accumulation of cholesterol in the liver • This possibly contributes to reduced heart• Low levels of antioxidants, especially vitamin E muscle function and reduced antioxidant• Poorly controlled diabetes levels in the body• Stress • CoQ10 is a fat-soluble antioxidant that is important for energy production within theTreatment body• A diet low in saturated fats and processed • Opti CoQ10™ is blended with fish oil to carbohydrates, especially sugars support absorption and provide beneficial• Use olive oil or avocado oil for cooking and flax oil for essential fatty acids dressings. Use no processed fats such as margarine or fried oils that may oxidise. Revitalise™• Increase dietary fibre to help cholesterol removal via • Vitamin C, Bioflavonoids and Magnesium are the bowel. Oat bran and rice bran are good fibre essential nutrients for cardiovascular health sources.• Eat more fish and less red meat• Avoid tea, coffee and smoking Flaxofibre™, Flaxomucil™ or Flaxoslim™ • These products are bulk-forming laxatives• Drink 2 litres of pure water daily that are comprised of soluble fibres. These• Eat lots of fresh vegetables and berries such as products support blood lipid levels by binding cherries, blueberries and raspberries for their to bile acids and supporting cholesterol antioxidant content (anthocyanidins) excretion via the bowel.• Reduce alcohol intake as it increases triglyceride levels and impairs liver function• Check homocysteine and blood sugar levels regularly Body cleanse™• Do a regular Body cleanse™ detox for optimal liver • Optimal liver function is important for function cholesterol metabolism• Undertake regular aerobic exercise • Milk thistle provides support for optimal liver• Keep within a healthy weight range detoxification as well has having antioxidant• Increase dietary intake of garlic and onions effects to support the body from free radical• Vegetarians have far lower rates of heart disease; damage therefore diets based on more fruit, vegetables and • The fibre in Multi fibre™ capsules supports plant-based proteins are associated with a healthier cholesterol excretion via the bowel cardiovascular system Glucozone™ • A comprehensive formula to support optimal blood sugar regulation and insulin balance Good Health supplements • This formula also provides support for healthy cardiovascular function and optimal cholesterol levels Omega 3 fish oil Health guard™, Super omega 3 Health guard™ fish oil Vitis™ • Fish oil supports overall cardiovascular health • Vitis™ is made from an extract of grape and function seeds and contains the potent antioxidant compounds proanthocyanidins, to scavenge Flaxomega™ Flaxseed oil free radicals • Flax oil has a similar effect to fish oil because • Increases the effectiveness of other our body can convert flax oil into EPA + DHA antioxidants such as vitamin C nervous and cardiovascular systems 19

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