Ketogenic diets

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Ketogenic diets

  1. 1. Ketogenic Diets A role that low-carbohydrate diets play in weight loss and the body BY: Rozalia Kieliszkiewicz
  2. 2. OUTLINE Review on Metabolic Pathways •Fed State •Fasting State •Starved State Carbohydrates •Pathways •Food Nutrition/ Fuel Ketogenic Diets •Atkins Diet •South beach diet •Paleo •Wonder slim Ketosis •Weight Loss •Dehydration •Lean weight Loss •Fat loss Potential Side Effects
  3. 3. Review: Metabolic Pathways FED STATE: Carbohydrates
  4. 4. Review: Metabolic Pathways FED STATE: Fats
  5. 5. Review: Metabolic Pathways FED STATE: Proteins
  6. 6. Review: Metabolic Pathways FASTING STATE • • • • • Carbohydrates, Protein, Fats are all metabolized by Acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA creates the energy molecule ATP in the Krebs Cycle. Fasting begins 2-4 hours after a meal. Blood sugar declines, insulin declines. Glucagon is released, Liver glycogen is released through glugenolysis. • Triglycerides flow out the fat cells through lipolysis. • Fatty Acids are the main fuel for overnight fast. • Liver creates Ketone Bodies; fuel for kidneys and muscles
  7. 7. Review: Metabolic Pathways STARVED STATE • Liver begins the process called gluconeogenesis • Liver breaks down Lactate, Glycerol, and Amino Acids • Liver creates Ketone Bodies through Ketosis. • Muscles burns fatty acids, decrease the use of Ketones • Ketone bodies are oxidized as fuel • Liver decreases rate of Gluconeogenesis
  8. 8. Metabolic Pathways: Ketogenic Diets • Less glucose available , liver creates ketones. • No hunger, and you burn fat for fuel. • Muscle loss is minimal • Blood Lipids improve • Improvement in triglycerides to HDL • Triglyceride/HDL ratio: 1.0
  9. 9. Types of Ketogenic Diets 1) SKD (Standard Ketogenic Diet) • Atkins Diet • South Beach. • Ketogenic Paleo • Wonder Slim Diet **These diets all include the eating of “NET CARBS” ?
  10. 10. Net Carbs? Total # of carbohydrates - Fiber + Sugar alcohols = Total Daily Carbohydrates Consumed
  11. 11. Atkins Diet • • • • Protein Fiber Low Sugar Vitamins and Minerals • Good Carbs • Good Fats • Activity
  12. 12. Atkins Diet • • • • • • Restriction of Carbohydrates Ketosis = Body burns its own fat for fuel Energy from Ketones Less hungry = Less eating Breath odor and Constipation Result? = Weight loss
  13. 13. Atkins Diet Focuses on Four Phases: PHASE 1: • All meat, Fish, Fawl, Shellfish and Cheese • Vegetables: 12 to 15 grams of net carbs • Salad dressings: 2tbsp • Fats and Oils • NO ALCOHOL PHASE 2: • Adding 5 daily net carbs per week • Dairy: cottage cheese, cream, mozzarella, ricotta cheese. • Nuts and Seeds • Fruits
  14. 14. Atkins Diet PHASE 3: PHASE 4: • Slowing down your weight loss • 10 daily net carbs per week • Starchy Vegetables • Legumes • Fruits and Grains. • • • • Life Time Maintenance Hunger pangs Increasing Fat Intake Increase in weight gain.
  15. 15. Atkins Diet Is it safe? • • • • • • • Promote heart disease? Potential loss of bone Problems on the liver and kidneys Body needs 150g of carbohydrates/ day NO studies prove that Atkins is the *miracle diet* Not Carbs, Not protein, Not fat = Weight loss Calorie Restriction = Weight loss
  16. 16. South Beach Diet • Friendly Version of Atkins Diet • Carbohydrates are included... BUT... NO potatoes, fruit, bread, cereal, rice, pasta, beets, carrots and corn; for the first two weeks. • NO saturated fats, but promotes healthy fats • No carbohydrate counting per gram • Focuses on normal portions and snacking throughout the day
  17. 17. South Beach Diet BREAKFAST Mid-Morning Snack LUNCH Smoked Salmon Scramble Nut Butter and Celery Scallops Afternoon Snack DINNER Late Night Snack Garbanzos Beans Pork-Pepper Salad Vanilla Ricotta Crème
  18. 18. South Beach Diet Focuses on Three phases: PHASE 1: PHASE 2: • Eliminate cravings, rapid • Variety of Food: Fruits, weight loss, 14 days whole grain, some vegetables. • Stabilize your blood sugar • Steady weight loss • Nutrient dense food PHASE 3: • Eat all foods in moderation •Maintain your Goal weight • Keep your weight off for good.
  19. 19. South Beach Diet Is it safe? • Rich in vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and lean Protein • Induction Phase 1: Lots of water loss. • This can cause electrolyte in balance • Recommended to work closely with a dietician or doctor.
  20. 20. Paleo Diet • The Cavemen Diet. • Lower risk of cardiovascular disease, blood pressure, help with weight loss, reduce acne, promote optimal health and performance. • Foods that can be hunted. • Meat, Fish, shellfish, eggs, tree nuts, vegetables, roots, fruits and berries • NO dairy, grains, sugar, legumes, potatoes, processed oils
  21. 21. Paleo Diet • • • • • • • Avoid Dairy Food High in Unsaturated and Saturated Fats High in protein Low in Carbohydrates (varies in net carbs) No grains or Legumes Limit fruit intake. Focused on Natural food
  22. 22. Paleo Diet SAMPLE MEAL PLAN Breakfast Scramble 3 slices bacon 1 egg 1 cup chopped kale 1/4 of an onion 1/2 avocado 2 tsp bacon grease to fry it up in Lunch (Coconut Curry Salmon) 3 oz baked salmon 1 tsp curry paste 1/3 cup canned coconut milk 2 tbsp coconut butter/manna melted on top 1 cup mushrooms 1 cup cabbage Dinner (Steak and Carrots) 3 oz eye of round steak with some fat left on it 1 large carrot sliced up, sautéed 2 tbsp beef tallow to cook it all in and/or drizzle over 1/2 avocado Calories: 1,570 Carbs: 13% = 49 grams (much of which is fiber, so the net would be lower) Fat: 74% = 129 grams Protein: 15% = 60 grams
  23. 23. Paleo Diet Is it safe? • Nutrition experts support eating whole foods and no process foods... BUT • Nutrition experts still support eating Legumes, dairy and Whole grains as a well balanced diet.
  24. 24. Wonder Slim Diet plan • • • • • • Woman Meal plan: 1000-1200 calories daily Men Meal Plan: 1500-1700 Calories daily Eat 7 wonder slim meals and snacks daily Every 2-3 hours One Lean green meal Average weight loss: 2-4 pounds a week.
  25. 25. Wonder Slim Diet Plan Protein Blend, Sugar, Soy protein nuggets, Tapioca Starch, Cocoa, Cream, Polydextrose, Palm Oil, Corn Syrup, Whey protein, Maltitol Syrup, Fructose, Olgofructose, water, High oleic sunflower oil, Milk, Soy, Lecithin, Natural Flavor, Salt, Calcium Carbonate, Whey butter fat, Caramel Color, Sucralose, Maltodextrin • • • • • • Very high in sugar Processed Food Low Fat High in Dairy High in protein High quantities of whey protein. • Appetizing? ...
  26. 26. KETOGENIC DIETS 2)CKD (Cyclical Ketogenic Diet) • Loads and Unloads carbs • CYCLE 1: Low carb for 2-3 days; load up on carbs for 1-2 days, Repeat • CYCLE 2: Load up on carbs until 2pm, No carbs the rest of the day, Repeat
  27. 27. KETOGENIC DIETS 3) TKD (Targeted Ketogenic Diet) • Targets specific times of the day when carbohydrates can be consumed • Carbohydrates are ingested in time of exercise • Does not spike insulin levels • No fat storage.
  28. 28. Ketones • If carbohydrate intake is (50 -100g) or less, insulin production drops • Decreasing breakdown of fats • Release of large amounts of fatty acids to provide energy • Fatty acids are oxidized = formation of ketones • Ketones accumulate in the blood = Ketosis
  29. 29. KETOSIS • • • • Suppresses Hunger = Lower Caloric Intake Breakdown of muscles, heart, other organs. Protein is depleted after 50 to 70 days of fasting Fatty acids are broken down in a process called ketogenesis • Initial weight loss = Water • Headaches, bad breath, dizziness, fatigue, nausea, dehydration, loss of lean body mass, Electrolyte imbalances • Coma and death
  30. 30. Weight Loss • Healthy weight loss is one pound per week • Ketogenic diets weight loss is about 4 to 6 pounds in the first week • Not due to switching the body to burning fat stores • Due to diet *Induced dieresis* Three ways to reduce body weight: 1) Dehydration 2)Lean Weight loss 3)Fat Loss
  31. 31. Weight Loss Dehydration • Utilized by some athletes to *Make weight* • Should be in a good state of hydration • Maintained for only a few hours • Loss is 3 to 4% body weight Restricted Carbohydrates = Dehydration • Two metabolic Processes occur In which reduce total body water content: 1)Mobilization of Glycogen 2)Formation of Ketone Bodies
  32. 32. Weight Loss Dehydration: Mobilization of Glycogen • Stores in liver and muscle • Each gram of glycogen is mobilized with approximately 2 grams of water • Liver stores up to 100 g • Muscle stores up to 400 g • Result: weight loss of 2.2lbs (primarily water)
  33. 33. Weight Loss Dehydration: Formation of Ketone Bodies • Generation of ketone bodies from catabolism of dietary and stored fat. • Ketone bodies are filtered by the kidney • Increase in distal sodium and renal sodium, which leads to water loss
  34. 34. Weight Loss Lean Loss • Reduction in Caloric Intake • Wrong proportion of Macronutrients • Not exercising properly • Breakdown of muscle tissue, bone and connective tissue can also reduce in size • Bone Reap sorption • Decrease Risk of Osteoporosis.
  35. 35. Weight Loss Lean Loss
  36. 36. Weight Loss Lean Loss • Only article supporting ketogenic diets as a healthy weight loss. • Beneficial in treatment of drug resistant childhood epilepsy, and other neurological disorders. • Author of the Atkins Diet.
  37. 37. Weight Loss Fat Loss • Preferred manner to decrease body weight • Increase Lean Body Mass (LBM) or muscle mass • The greater the LBM, the more efficient the metabolism
  38. 38. Potential Side Effects • • • • • • • • • • Micronutrient Deficiency Subclinical Metabolic Acidosis Increased Blood Urea Nitrogen Urine Acidification Hyperuricosuria Hypercalciura Increased Urine Lithogenicity Impaired Cognitive function Increased Free Fatty Acids Increased LDLs
  39. 39. Sources • • • • • • • • • • 1.Byrd-Bredbenner,Carol.Wardlaw'sperspectivesinnutrition.eighted.McGrawHillScienceEngineering,2008.153-187.Print. 2.Byrd-Bredbenner,Carol.Wardlaw'sperspectivesinnutrition.eighted.McGrawHillScienceEngineering,2008.294-295.Print. 3.FoodandNutritionBoard.DietaryReferenceIntakesforenergy,carbohydrate,fiber,fat,fattyacids, cholesterol,protein,andaminoacids.Washington,DC:NationalAcademyPress;2002. 4.Byrd-Bredbenner,Carol.Wardlaw'sperspectivesinnutrition.eighted.McGrawHillScienceEngineering,2008.pg.G5”carbohydrate”.Print. 5.R.,Thomas,RogerW.Essentialsofstrengthtrainingandconditioning.3rded.HumanKineticsPublis hers,2008.220-233.Print. 6.Hatfield,FrederickC.PHD,MSS.ISSAFitness:TheCompleteGuide.8thed.ISSA,2010.519535.Print. 7."ComplicationsoftheKetogenicDiet."39.7(2005):74448.Web.8Jul2011.<http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com>. 8.VanItallieT,NufertT.Ketones:Metabolism’suglyduckling.NutritionReview.2003;61:327. 9.Denke,MargoA.,MD."MetabolicEffectsofHigh-Protein,LowCarbohydrateDiets."AmericanJournalofCardiology.88.July1(2001):59-61.Print. 10.KolanowskiJ.Onthemechanismsoffastingnatriuresisandofcarbohydrateinducedsodiumretention.DiabetesMetab1977;3:131–143

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