Royce International
3400 S Tamiami Trl
Sarasota, FL 34239
info@royceintl.com
941-894-1228
1. Diluents Selected
 Aliphatic difunctional diluents
Neopentyl glycol diglycidyl ether (RoyOxy RAD 968)
1,4-butane-diol ...
2. Viscosity & Epoxy Equivalent Weight of Diluents used
Diluent EEW Viscosity at 25oC
RoyOxy RAD 968 137 14
RoyOxy RAD 77 ...
3. Efficiency of Diluents
(phr of diluent added to RoyOxy RAR 928 epoxy resin to obtain a viscosity of 2000 cP)
NPGDGE 19....
4. Viscosity of Mix with RoyOxy RAC 9923 and RoyOxy RAC 9924
Reactive Diluent RoyOxy RAC 9923 RoyOxy RAC 9924
Mix
Ratio ph...
5. Gel Time and Pot-life in minutes
Gel Time at 80oC Pot Life at 25oC
Diluent RAC 9923 RAC 9924 RAC 9923 RAC 9924
NPGDGE 4...
6. Tg before and after post-curing
Tg before post curing Tg after post curing
RAC 9923 RAC 9924 RAC 9923 RAC 9924
NPGDGE 9...
7. Water Absorption
Diluent RAC 9923 RAC 9924 RAC 9923 RAC 9924
NPGDGE 0.1 0.09 0.46 0.42
BDGE 0.13 0.06 0.5 0.37
HDGE 0.1...
8. Shear strength after post-curing (kgf/mm2)
Diluent RAC 9923 RAC 9924
NPGDGE 0.4844 0.4328
BDGE 0.7414 0.688
HDGE 0.565 ...
9. Tensile strength after post-curing (kgf/mm2)
Diluent RAC 9923 RAC 9924
NPGDGE 5.48 5.44
BDGE 7.55 6.62
HDGE 7.60 6.43
T...
10. Tensile elongation at break after post-curing (%)
Diluent RAC 9923 RAC 9924
NPGDGE 4.11 3.98
BDGE 4.58 4.31
HDGE 4.25 ...
11. Compressive strength after post-curing (kgf/mm2)
Diluent RAC 9923 RAC 9924
NPGDGE 11.25 10.98
BDGE 12.24 11.87
HDGE 11...
12. Impact strength after post-curing (kgf cm/cm2)
Diluent RAC 9923 RAC 9924
NPGDGE 8.8 6.5
BDGE 10.8 9.6
HDGE 9.7 8.9
TMP...
13. Electrical Properties of RAR 928 / RAD 77 / RAC 9924
Dielectric constant at 50 Hz 3.05
Dissipation Factor (tan delta) ...
14. Conclusions
 Resorcinol Diglycidyl Ether gives the highest Tg but very poor dilution
efficiency. Because of health ha...
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Slideshare royce reactive diluent powerpoint v2

  1. 1. Royce International 3400 S Tamiami Trl Sarasota, FL 34239 info@royceintl.com 941-894-1228
  2. 2. 1. Diluents Selected  Aliphatic difunctional diluents Neopentyl glycol diglycidyl ether (RoyOxy RAD 968) 1,4-butane-diol diglycidyl ether (RoyOxy RAD 77) 1,6-hexane-diol diglycidyl ether (RoyOxy RAD 968)  Aliphatic trifunctional diluent Trimethylol propane triglycidyl ether (RoyOxy RAD 948)  Aromatic difunctional diluent Resorcinol diglycidyl ether (RoyOxy RAD 981)
  3. 3. 2. Viscosity & Epoxy Equivalent Weight of Diluents used Diluent EEW Viscosity at 25oC RoyOxy RAD 968 137 14 RoyOxy RAD 77 110 13 RoyOxy RAD 986 124 16 RoyOxy RAD 948 128 230 RoyOxy RAD 981 113 165
  4. 4. 3. Efficiency of Diluents (phr of diluent added to RoyOxy RAR 928 epoxy resin to obtain a viscosity of 2000 cP) NPGDGE 19.8 BDGE 18.5 HDGE 14.3 TMPTGE 42.9 RDGE 50
  5. 5. 4. Viscosity of Mix with RoyOxy RAC 9923 and RoyOxy RAC 9924 Reactive Diluent RoyOxy RAC 9923 RoyOxy RAC 9924 Mix Ratio phr Viscosity Mix Ratio phr Viscosity RAR 928 epoxy / NPGDGE 30.1 2038 27.2 1812 RAR 928 epoxy / BDGE 32.6 1223 29.4 996 RAR 928 epoxy/ HDGE 31.3 1857 28.3 1449 RAR 928 epoxy / TMPTGE 34.1 2491 30.8 1857 RoyOxy RAR 928 epoxy / RDGE 36.5 2165 33 1882 RoyOxy RAR 928 29 5689 27 4587
  6. 6. 5. Gel Time and Pot-life in minutes Gel Time at 80oC Pot Life at 25oC Diluent RAC 9923 RAC 9924 RAC 9923 RAC 9924 NPGDGE 48 11 178 39 BDGE 43 9 127 33 HDGE 43 8 113 27 TMPTGE 29 8 110 29 RDGE 22 6 76 22 B-11 31 9 156 37
  7. 7. 6. Tg before and after post-curing Tg before post curing Tg after post curing RAC 9923 RAC 9924 RAC 9923 RAC 9924 NPGDGE 97 108 120.5 122 BDGE 100.5 107.5 118 134 HDGE 113.2 118.6 121.2 124.8 TMPTGE 105.5 111.8 132 135.9 RDGE 106.7 121.2 132.3 138 B-11 121.3 131.3 134.1 141.4 Tg after Gel time +24 hrs at RT, (°C) Tg after Gel time +24 hrs at RT+100°C/3h +140°C/2h (°C)
  8. 8. 7. Water Absorption Diluent RAC 9923 RAC 9924 RAC 9923 RAC 9924 NPGDGE 0.1 0.09 0.46 0.42 BDGE 0.13 0.06 0.5 0.37 HDGE 0.1 0.07 0.32 0.33 TMPTGE 0.13 0.08 0.52 0.37 RDGE 0.08 0.04 0.3 0.2 RAR 928 0.1 0.06 0.05 0.03 Water absorption after 24 hrs at RT % w/w Water absorption after 100°c /2h % w/w
  9. 9. 8. Shear strength after post-curing (kgf/mm2) Diluent RAC 9923 RAC 9924 NPGDGE 0.4844 0.4328 BDGE 0.7414 0.688 HDGE 0.565 0.5612 TMPTGE 0.5895 0.5736 RDGE 0.555 0.5575 RAR 928 0.6117 0.6015
  10. 10. 9. Tensile strength after post-curing (kgf/mm2) Diluent RAC 9923 RAC 9924 NPGDGE 5.48 5.44 BDGE 7.55 6.62 HDGE 7.60 6.43 TMPTGE 6.99 5.87 RDGE 8.59 7.74 RAR 928 7.56 7.3
  11. 11. 10. Tensile elongation at break after post-curing (%) Diluent RAC 9923 RAC 9924 NPGDGE 4.11 3.98 BDGE 4.58 4.31 HDGE 4.25 4.01 TMPTGE 4.65 4.57 RDGE 4.98 4.85 RAR 928 4.8 4.78
  12. 12. 11. Compressive strength after post-curing (kgf/mm2) Diluent RAC 9923 RAC 9924 NPGDGE 11.25 10.98 BDGE 12.24 11.87 HDGE 11.95 11.52 TMPTGE 12.78 12.25 RDGE 13.02 12.65 RAR 928 14.22 13.52
  13. 13. 12. Impact strength after post-curing (kgf cm/cm2) Diluent RAC 9923 RAC 9924 NPGDGE 8.8 6.5 BDGE 10.8 9.6 HDGE 9.7 8.9 TMPTGE 9.0 7.0 RDGE 11.4 11.0 RAR 928 10.7 7.8
  14. 14. 13. Electrical Properties of RAR 928 / RAD 77 / RAC 9924 Dielectric constant at 50 Hz 3.05 Dissipation Factor (tan delta) at 50 Hz 0.005 Dielectric strength 18 kV/mm
  15. 15. 14. Conclusions  Resorcinol Diglycidyl Ether gives the highest Tg but very poor dilution efficiency. Because of health hazards, it is ruled out.  Trimethylol propane triglycidyl ether gives next best Tg. Good mechanical properties as well. If high dilution ratio (~40 phr diluent) is acceptable, it can be recommended.  1,4-butane-diol diglycidyl ether is the best difunctional aliphatic diluent with good efficiency, moderately high Tg (134oC) and best overall mechanical properties. Hence it is ideal for filament winding, pultrusion, casting and encapsulation.

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