I. CASHEW NUT SHELL LIQUID (cnsl)• Key ingredient in the manufacture of Phenalkamines• The industrial applications of the shell oil are based upon its polymerization to a rubber-like material under the influence of acids, and on the formation of a wide range of condensation products with aldehydes. The latter are generally hard, infusible and extremely resistant to the action of chemicals such as acids and alkalis. The cashew shell liquid is now used in the manufacture of brake liners, paints, varnishes, lacquers and insulators.
II. Structure of phenalkamine OH CH2-NH-CH2-CH2-NH-CH2-CH2-NH2 H27C15
III. Typical Properties OF PHENALKAMINES RA 951 RA 950 (K 541) (K 540) Appearance Reddish brown Reddish brown viscous liquid liquid Color (Gardner) 17 17 Density (lbs/gal) 8.23 8.27 Solids content (1 hr @ 1050C) >95% >96% Viscosity @ 250C (cPs) 35000 2500 Amine value (mg KOH/g) 320 520 Active hydrogen equivalent weight 130 81 Flash Point 630C 1070C Recommended PHR* 65 - 75 35 - 45 Gel Time @ 250C * (100 g) (minutes) 35-85 30-55 Thin Film Cure Time* @ 750F (hours) 9-14 9-11 @ 420F (hours) 17-22 19-22* with liquid epoxy resin of EEW 190
IV. ADVANTAGES OF PHENALKAMINES• Solvent-free / VOC compliant• Long pot-life• Fast-drying for quick recoat• Cure below 400F (50C)• Cure in all seasons under damp/humid conditions• Good adhesion to most surfaces (RA 950 to plastics)• Low toxicity• No induction period• Non-critical mixing ratios• Compatible with coal tar and with most solvents• Outstanding resistance to water, even sea water• USDA acceptance• RA 951 DOT non-corrosive
V. CURING OF EPOXY RESINS AT 270C Curing of Epoxy Resin with various Hardeners at 27 Degrees Centigrade 100 Polyamide 80 Amidoamine 60 Reactive Amine 40 DETA Hardener K 540 20 Hardener K 541 0 24 48 72 96 Hours
VI. CURING OF EPOXY RESINS AT 40C Curing of Epoxy Resin with various hardeners at 4 Degrees Centigrade 100 80 Polyamide 60 Amidoamine 40 Reactive Amine 20 DETA Hardener K 540 0 Hardener K 541 24 48 72 96 Hours
VII. WATER RESISTANTCE OF PHENALKAMINE CURED SYSTEMS Water Absorption of Phenalkamines Vs. other Hardeners 2.40 2.20 2.00 1.80 1.60 RA-950 % Weight 1.40 1.20 RA-951LV Change 1.00 0.80 POLYAMIDE 0.60 0.40 CYCLOALIPHATIC 0.20 0.00 MANNICH BASE 25 65 Immersion Temperature (Degrees Centigrade)
VIII. LIMITATIONS OF PHENALKAMINES• Dark color• Shelf life of 6 months• Slight tendency to blush• Moderate chemical resistance• Poor solvent resistance
IX. Applications of Phenalkamines• Marine Paints• Industrial Maintenance Protective Coatings• Tank and Pipe Linings• Coatings for Potable water Applications• Primers for Concrete
X. STRUCTURE OF CARDANOL GLYCIDYL ETHER (RA-913) O-CH2-CH-CH2 O C15H27
XI. TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF RA-913Appearance : Clear brown liquidColor (Gardner) : Max. 13Viscosity at 250C : 50 cPsEpoxide equivalent weight : 455 – 555Specific Gravity at 250C : 0.98Volatile Matter (1200C / 1 h) : Max. 2Flash Point : >2000CStorage Stability : 6 months
XII. ADVANTAGES OF RA-913• Viscosity Reduction: A 50% reduction in viscosity is obtained with a 10% addition of RA 913.• Very low volatility• Increased Flexibility: Improved Impact and Thermal Shock Resistance with little effect on Hardness.• Compatibility: Compatible with usual epoxy resin and hardener systems and with low cost hydrocarbon solvents.• Increased pot-life: Extends pot-life without increasing total cure time.• Electrical Properties: Does not affect electrical properties of epoxy resin system with addition up to 15 phr.• Dimensional stability: Reduces internal stress and improves flexural modulus which results in a great improvement in the dimensional stability of a cured product.
XIII. VOLATILITY OF REACTIVE DILUENTS Volatile Contents of Diluents 30 27 Percent Volatile 24 BGE 21 18 Epoxide 7 15 CGE 12 BDGE 9 6 RR-913 3 0 100 30 20 10 Percent Diluent in Lapox B-13
XIV. LIMITATIONS OF RA-913• Dark color• Shelf life of 6 months• Slight tendency to blush• Moderate chemical resistance• Poor solvent resistance