The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 1
Graz Univ...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 2
Initial S...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 3
Consumer ...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
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Consumer ...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 5
Usability...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 6
Usability...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 7
aisle411
...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 8
Tasks
Tas...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 9
Tasks
Tas...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 10
Tasks
Ta...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 11
Tasks
Ta...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 12
Tasks
Ta...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 13
Tasks
Ta...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 14
Data Col...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 15
Particip...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 16
Results
...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 17
Results
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The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 18
“The app...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 19
System U...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 20
Conclusi...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 21
Core Fun...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 22
Conclusi...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 23
Position...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 24
Icons
“I...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 25
Conclusi...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 26
Graz Uni...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 27
Mobile M...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 28
Remote U...
The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 29
Referenc...
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Koitz_gbc2013

  1. 1. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 1 Graz University of Technology Institute of Business Economics and Industrial Sociology Head of Institute O. Univ.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. techn. Ulrich Bauer !   www.bwl.tugraz.at The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment Roxane Koitz Iris Uitz Global Business Conference Summer 2013 Opatija, Croatia
  2. 2. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 2 Initial Situation Swiss Retailer •  Mobile Applications •  Shopping Lists •  Nearest Store •  Customer Loyalty Program •  Location Based Services (LBS) Location Based Services •  User’s Location •  Types:1 •  Information-directory Services •  Tracking and Navigation Services •  Emergency Services •  Location Based Advertising •  GPS, WiFi/ Bluetooth, Inertial System 1 Dhar, S.; Varshney, U. (2011)
  3. 3. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 3 Consumer Technology Acceptance Model2 2  BRUNER  II,  G.C.;  KUMAR,  A.  (2005),  S.554.  
  4. 4. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 4 Consumer Technology Acceptance Model2 2  BRUNER  II,  G.C.;  KUMAR,  A.  (2005),  S.554.  
  5. 5. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 5 Usability Testing “A process that employs people as testing participants who are representative of the target audience to evaluate the degree to which a product meets specific usability criteria.” 3 •  Task List •  10 to 12 Participants •  Preference / Performance Data •  Usability Issues •  Criticality = Problem Severity + Frequency of Occurrence •  Automated Remote Usability Test 3 RUBIN,  J.;  CHISNELL,  D.;  SPOOL,  J.  (2008),  S.21.   Ranking   Problem  Severity Frequency  of  Occurrence 4 Task  failure   ≥90% 3 Serious  problem 51–89% 2 Minor  hindrance 11–50% 1 No  problem <=  10%
  6. 6. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 6 Usability Testing “A process that employs people as testing participants who are representative of the target audience to evaluate the degree to which a product meets specific usability criteria.” 3 •  Task List •  10 to 12 Participants •  Preference / Performance Data •  Usability Issues •  Criticality = Problem Severity + Frequency of Occurrence •  Automated Remote Usability Test4 3 RUBIN,  J.;  CHISNELL,  D.;  SPOOL,  J.  (2008),  S.21.   Ranking   Problem  Severity Frequency  of  Occurrence 4 Task  failure   ≥90% 3 Serious  problem 51–89% 2 Minor  hindrance 11–50% 1 No  problem <=  10% 4 FIDAS,  C.  et  al.  (2007),  S.154f.  
  7. 7. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 7 aisle411 •  Goal: •  Remote Usability Test of LBS-App aisle4115 •  Participants: •  Pilot Study •  28 Smartphone User(Android, iOS) •  Within the US •  Test Environment: •  Walgreens Stores •  Data Collection: •  Online Survey 5 aisle411.com
  8. 8. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 8 Tasks Task  ID   Task  1   Download  the  applica[on  to  your  smartphone   Task  2   Create  a  new  shopping  list  (Aspirin,  Water,  Sugar,  *)   Task  3   Find  a  Walgreens  near  you   Task  4   Navigate  to  Aspirin  („Check-­‐in“,  Show  Map,  Tick  off  Aspirin)   Task  5   Scan  the  Barcode  
  9. 9. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 9 Tasks Task  ID   Task  1   Download  the  applica[on  to  your  smartphone   Task  2   Create  a  new  shopping  list  (Aspirin,  Water,  Sugar,  *)   Task  3   Find  a  Walgreens  near  you   Task  4   Navigate  to  Aspirin  („Check-­‐in“,  Show  Map,  Tick  off  Aspirin)   Task  5   Scan  the  Barcode  
  10. 10. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 10 Tasks Task  ID   Task  1   Download  the  applica[on  to  your  smartphone   Task  2   Create  a  new  shopping  list  (Aspirin,  Water,  Sugar,  *)   Task  3   Find  a  Walgreens  near  you   Task  4   Navigate  to  Aspirin  („Check-­‐in“,  Show  Map,  Tick  off  Aspirin)   Task  5   Scan  the  Barcode  
  11. 11. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 11 Tasks Task  ID   Task  1   Download  the  applica[on  to  your  smartphone   Task  2   Create  a  new  shopping  list  (Aspirin,  Water,  Sugar,  *)   Task  3   Find  a  Walgreens  near  you   Task  4   Navigate  to  Aspirin  („Check-­‐in“,  Show  Map,  Tick  off  Aspirin)   Task  5   Scan  the  Barcode  
  12. 12. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 12 Tasks Task  ID   Task  1   Download  the  applica[on  to  your  smartphone   Task  2   Create  a  new  shopping  list  (Aspirin,  Water,  Sugar,  *)   Task  3   Find  a  Walgreens  near  you   Task  4   Navigate  to  Aspirin  („Check-­‐in“,  Show  Map,  Tick  off  Aspirin)   Task  5   Scan  the  Barcode  
  13. 13. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 13 Tasks Task  ID   Task  1   Download  the  applica[on  to  your  smartphone   Task  2   Create  a  new  shopping  list  (Aspirin,  Water,  Sugar,  *)   Task  3   Find  a  Walgreens  near  you   Task  4   Navigate  to  Aspirin  („Check-­‐in“,  Show  Map,  Tick  off  Aspirin)   Task  5   Scan  the  Barcode  
  14. 14. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 14 Data Collection Online Survey: •  General •  Age •  Education •  Gender •  … •  Tasks •  Completion •  Comprehensibility •  Errors •  Comments und •  Task Specific Questions •  System Usability Scale (SUS)  6 •  Complexity •  Consistency •  …   6 Brooke, J. (1996)
  15. 15. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 15 Participants 0   1   2   3   4   5   6   No  schooling   completed,  or  less   than  1  year     High  school  graduate   (or  equivalent)     Some  college  (1-­‐4   years,  no  degree)     Bachelor's  degree     Master's  degree     Doctorate  degree     ParAcipants   female   male   n  =  28   0   2   4   6   8   10   12   15-­‐19   20-­‐24   25-­‐29   30-­‐34   35-­‐39   40-­‐44   Age  (in  Years)   n  =  28  
  16. 16. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 16 Results 100%   100%   96%   96%   93%   4%   4%   7%   0%   20%   40%   60%   80%   100%   Task  1   (Download)   Task  2   (Shopping  List)   Task  3   (Walgreens  Store)   Task  4   (Naviga[on  Aspirin)   Task  5   (Barcode)   Task  CompleAon   Completed   Not  Completed   n  =  28   ID DescripAon CriAcality T5.1 Barcodescanner  icon  unclear. 6 T2.1 Crea[on  of  shopping  list  confusing. 5 T4.1 Aspirin  Loca[on  incorrect. 5 T2.3 Buions  are  not  responding. 4 T3.1 Store  Loca[on  incorrect. 4 T4.2 Several  loca[ons  for  same  product. 3 T2.2 Brands  not  included  in  database.   3
  17. 17. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 17 Results 100%   100%   96%   96%   93%   4%   4%   7%   0%   20%   40%   60%   80%   100%   Task  1   (Download)   Task  2   (Shopping  List)   Task  3   (Walgreens  Store)   Task  4   (Naviga[on  Aspirin)   Task  5   (Barcode)   Task  CompleAon   Completed   Not  Completed   n  =  28   ID DescripAon CriAcality T5.1 Barcodescanner  icon  unclear. 6 T2.1 Crea[on  of  shopping  list  confusing. 5 T4.1 Aspirin  Loca[on  incorrect. 5 T2.3 Buions  are  not  responding. 4 T3.1 Store  Loca[on  incorrect. 4 T4.2 Several  loca[ons  for  same  product. 3 T2.2 Brands  not  included  in  database.   3
  18. 18. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 18 “The app aisle411 was intuitive concerning…“ 0%   10%   20%   30%   40%   50%   60%   70%   Strongly  Agree  -­‐  1   2   3   4   Strongly  Disagree  -­‐  5   Task  2   Task  3   Task  4   Task  5  
  19. 19. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 19 System Usability Scale 2,22   4,64   1,90   4,64   2,17   1,94   3,96   4,23   2,02   4,31   I think I would like to use this app frequently. I found the app unnecessarily complex. I thought the app was easy to use. I think that I would need the support of a technical person to be able to use this app. I found the various functions in this app were well integrated. I would imagine that most people would learn to use this app very quickly. I thought there was too much inconsistency in this app. I found the app very difficult to use. I felt very confident using the app. I needed to learn a lot of things before I could get going with this app. 1   2   3   4   5   Strongly  Agree   Strongly  Disagree  
  20. 20. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 20 Conclusion LBS Retail Easy enough “Honestly it is easier for me to ask someone where items are.”
  21. 21. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 21 Core Functionalities: Shopping List “Creating a shopping list and then adding items was confusing. … ” “I was not really sure on how you check things off the list that functionality did not really work out for me.”     Conclusion LBS Retail
  22. 22. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 22 Conclusion LBS Retail Core Functionalities: Navigation “You were not really navigating through the store there was no blue dot saying "you are here". So I really didn't know where I was.”
  23. 23. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 23 Position of Items “Aspirin was not at the shown location.” “It would have been nice to have it tell us how high/low on the shelves it was (e.g., 3rd shelf from the top).” Conclusion LBS Retail
  24. 24. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 24 Icons “Icon does not look like a barcode scanner” “Had trouble finding the function to scan an item at first.” Conclusion LBS Retail
  25. 25. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 25 Conclusion LBS Retail Easy enough Core  Functionalities Comprehensive •  Shopping List •  Navigation Position of Items Icons
  26. 26. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 26 Graz University of Technology Institute of Business Economics and Industrial Sociology Head of Institute O. Univ.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. techn. Ulrich Bauer !   www.bwl.tugraz.at Thank You The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment
  27. 27. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 27 Mobile Marketing “A whole generation of consumers is online and moving to mobile – that is how they receive their information, that’s how they get their product information, that’s where they get their offers.”7 - Bruce Pryor, vice president of marketing Zavers Location Based Advertising:8 •  Pull Advertising •  Push Advertising •  Applications:9 •  Location Triggered Notifications •  Location Branded Application •  Check-in Based Contests and Games 7    GOLDMAN,  S.  (2010),  S.470.   8  UNNI,  R.;  HARMON,  R.  (2007),  S.30.   9  MOBILE  MARKETING  ASSOCIATION  (2011),  S.6.    
  28. 28. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 28 Remote Usability Testing Moderated  Remote  UT     Automated  Remote  UT      FIDAS,  C.  et  al.  (2007),  S.154f.  
  29. 29. The Factor Usability on Location Based Services in the Retail Environment GBC, Opatija 03.10.2013 Roxane Koitz 29 References aisle411. Available: http://aisle411.com/. [2012, 9/6]. Brooke, J. (1996). "SUS: a "quick and dirty" usability scale". In P. W. Jordan, B. Thomas, B. A. Weerdmeester, & A. L. McClelland. Usability Evaluation in Industry. London: Taylor and Francis. Bruner II, G.C. & Kumar, A. 2005, "Explaining consumer acceptance of handheld Internet devices", Journal of Business Research, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 553-558. Dhar, S. & Varshney, U. 2011, "Challenges and business models for mobile location-based services and advertising", Commun.ACM, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 121-128. Fidas, C., Katsanos, C., Papachristos, E., Tselios, N. & Avouris , N. 2007, "Remote Usability Evaluation Methods and Tools: A Survey", 11th Panhellenic Conference in InformaticsPatras, Greece, 18-20 May, 2007, pp. 151. Goldman, S. 2010, "Transformers", Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 469-473. Mobile Marketing Association. Available: http://www.mmaglobal.com/. [2012, 12/13]. Rubin, J., Chisnell, D. & Spool, J. 2008, Handbook of Usability Testing: Howto Plan, Design, and Conduct Effective Tests, Wiley. Unni, R. & Harmon, R. 2007, "Perceived effectiveness of push vs. pull mobile location-based advertising,", Journal of Interactive Advertising, vol. 7, pp. 1-24.

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