Chinese General Hospital College of Nursing ROUSSEL FRANCES C. GAJETE RN, RGN
At the end of the related learning experience, the student will be able to develop management competencies in planning, organizing, directing and controlling by organizing a seminar that concerns themes or topic in general education subject in nursing care management
After the seminar organization, the level IV students will be able to:
Apply the concepts of leadership & management in seminar organization
Develop formal and informal communication skills & attitudes achieving the learning objectives as developed from group dynamics & synergy
Conducts seminar following its sequential steps
Identify the significance & types of seminar organization
Analyze the cognitive, motor and attitudinal needs of prospective participants
Develop seminar objectives that would enhance participant’s understanding regarding seminar topics
Provide a climate setting that is conducive to learning among seminar participants
Determine the outcome of seminar objective
Team building activity 20%
Seminar output 10%
Peer Evaluation 10%
Table of Contents
Goals and Objectives of the Seminar
Roles and Responsibilities of the Committee
Schedule Plan (Gannt Chart)
Daily Activities (Budget Proposal, Identifying Needs of the Participant, Identifying the subject matter, Formulation of Pre-test, Formulation of Goals and Objectives, etc.)
a team of advanced students/ professional walking in association under the guidance of a teacher/ adviser. It is a place to discover new ideas, to relook an old idea or to develop insight (lecture, discussion, return demonstration) in connections among ideas.
A group of people who have identified tasks and work together to achieve a specific purpose
Saving customers and making new one
Reducing staffing concerns
Entry-level of threshold seminar
To enable the newly hired individual be rapidly assimilated into the nursing care system
To ensure the newcomer is a safe practitioner before allowing her to be self-directed in carrying out her task or assigned role
To improve recruitment (OJT) To facilitate role transition for the young graduate
To decrease demands upon the head nurse, to provide task skill training
Upgrading or advanced seminars
Career mobility program
To improve workers morale and motivation by eliminating dead-end jobs & to decrease demands upon the head nurse , to provide skill training
In service education
It requires full commitment & support
The activities must focus on problems that can be solved
It must meet both organizational & employee needs
The pattern & arrangement of seminar opportunities must complement& implement the philosophy of the organization
It must be developed thru systematic & orderly process
It must employ delivery systems that are select based on effectiveness, available technology, and cost effectiveness prior to full-scale implementation
It must include sound principles of adult learning
It must provide many opportunities for participants to apply & practice acquired knowledge & skills
A committee is a staff team which meets the purpose of affecting an integration of ideas leading to a meeting of minds, concerning a solution for some problems
Advantages Disadvantages Harmony may be developed among executives The time required for deliberation & the difficulty of reaching agreement may often result in indecision The viewpoint of young executives are broadened The cost of committee action may be discouraging. The differences in opinions may result in indecision Continuity of functions may be provided
Seminar needs will arise from the identification of deficiency in a routine inspection or survey or result from a special survey method to determine whether any needs exist
Critical incident techniques
Speculate on likely future issues that will have a significant impact on the participants
Macro-environment- Major trends & events outside the specific environment in which the organization operates
Social environment -Public health status of market, health impacts of generalized social behaviors such as poor diet, STD, substance & alcohol abuse,demographics
Technological environment -Advances in pharmaceuticals, genetics, high-tech equipment as well as knowledge base, skills and talents of the workforce pools (eg health informatics, telehealth)
Competitive environment- Defining and assessing the strengths and weaknesses of the organization and individuals; assessing the strategic alliances seminar organizers
Regulatory environment -Recent or expected changes in the myriad of regulations that directly affect the organization
Economic environment- Economic indicators specific to the market in which the org operates (assessment of growth, strength, impact on managed care arrangements)
Statements that describe the changes in behaviour or performance that can be the DESIRED OUTCOMES of participants and instructor activities & interaction
General statements of intent which give the approach to the problem without the definition
E.g. The seminar aims to impart additional knowledge and trends in the care and management of clients with COPD
Specific and precise statements of intent with clear cut measure of terminal behaviour
E.g. At the end of the seminar, the participant will be able to:
1. Provide an overview of COPD, its etiology and clinical course
2. Discuss the pathophysiology of COPD
3. Identify the epidemiology of COPD in the Philippines
Within the objective setting, there are general principles to follow. For an objective to have some degree of realism, it will include:
Precise statements of terminal behaviour required
A statement of condition, under which the performance is to be achieved
A description of standards to attain E.g. At the end of the seminar, the participant will be able to:
1. Provide an overview of COPD, its etiology and clinical course
2. Discuss the pathophysiology of COPD
3. Identify the epidemiology of COPD in the Philippines
4. Discuss the updated spirometric classification of COPD
The main reason for providing the training program is to change the performance of the participants in order to solve a problem
The seminar organizer should avoid having the learning program add additional problems
The participant must know the objectives of the program & the criteria for being the learning group
Participants need the opportunity to make the psychological adjustment
A check should be made to assure what is actually available and that they are physically on-site (e.g. chairs, table, auditorium)
A liaison person must be clearly identified
Develop a checklist of items
Organizers must know how the equipment works (e.g. laptop, projector, sound system)
Make sure a “back-up” equipment is available
Check all equipments to verify that it is returned to the proper storage or rental facility.
Check the program site to make sure that the participants have not left anything behind
Activity must be carefully organized so as not to interfere with the climate. It must be handled as a normal occurrence without undue activity
Consists of activities that communicate an attitude conducive to effective learning
Formal openings to be used should be planned beforehand. It must be appropriate for the audience.
Informal openings are usually done before the learning program starts
(E.g. “Good afternoon, the program is about to start. Kindly turn off all your mobile phones and gadgets or put them in a silent mode. No eating and drinking is allowed while the program is going on..”)
When the learning program starts, the organizer should provide essential information
(E.g. “Welcome to our seminar entitled ‘A New Breath of Life: Updates on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease’. I am your host, Eileen Cruz…”)
In some situations, it is appropriate to start immediately with just one lesson. In others, some activities precede the seminar (E.g. pre-test, ice breaker, performances, learning exercises) . Some organizations have a standard opening, while others provide a guideline.
Specific, not flexible
E.g. use of powerpoint presentations and video clips
(+) flexibility, (+) interaction between speaker and participant
DOMAINS OF LEARNING
WRITING LEARNING OBJECTIVES
CLASSIFICATION OF OBJECTIVES
Instructor-centered objectives- can be stated in the form of activities that the instructor is to perform
To demonstrate the operation of a modern machine
To discuss the need for identifying gaps in the work history of a job applicant prior to employment interview
To develop in the trainee an appreciation of the need for teamwork
Demonstrate the proper method of inserting hypodermic syringe
Subject matter centered objectives- objectives can also be stated in the form of topics, concepts, principles or other elements of the content to be taught in a seminar program
Nomenclature (classification, organization)
Starting and warm-up procedures
Trainee-Activity Centered Objectives- stated in terms of what the participant will be doing during the training period
To learn to operate an IV infusion pump
To learn company cost-monitoring
To learn to adapt procedures & routine related to the needs of the employee
To learn the principles of magnetism
Trainee- Performance-Centered Objectives- stated in terms of what the participant should be able to do upon completion of the seminar or at any point during the seminar including how well he or she is able to perform
At the end of the seminar, the participant will be able to discuss the current approach in COPD management based on Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines
A. Assessment and monitoring of disease
B. Reduction of risk factors
C. Management of stable COPD
D. Management of the exacerbations of COPD
Over-all Goals: The implementation of FOUR mula ONE for Health is directed towards
achieving the following end goals, in consonance with the health system
goals identified by the World Health Organization, the Millennium Development Goals, and the Medium Term Philippine Development Plan:
etter health outcomes; * More responsive health system; and * More equitable healthcare financing.
General Objective: FOUR mula ONE for Health is aimed at achieving critical reforms with speed , precision and effective coordination directed at improving the quality , efficiency , effectiveness and equity of the Philippine health system in a manner that is felt and appreciated by Filipinos, especially the poor.
Specific Objectives: Four mula One for Health will strive, within the medium term, to: * Secure more, better and sustained financing for health; * Assure the quality and affordability of health goods and services; * Ensure access to and availability of essential and basic health packages; and * Improve performance of the health system
Participants should be notified as to who to contact if there are any problems, especially if the speaker cannot show up
It is important to select an individual with a high level of nursing knowledge and skill to discuss any clinical nursing subject. The speaker’s personal power determines his/her credibility as a change agent or a role model
Direct role modeling occurs when a clinical specialist or nurse clinician allows a participant to observe her performance of highly skilled nursing activity and to ask questions about purpose, method and result of intervention
Indirect role modeling occurs when the specialist or clinician analyze a patient problem for a participant and guides the participant in handling the problem herself
Lecture or expository
Learning module or learning package
Role playing or simulation
Content must be determined before visual aids can be selected/ developed
While visual aids may be helpful, other methods may be used such as demos, role play, handouts
Motivation of the participant is the most powerful of all the principles
Logical organization of course materialis crucial to understanding and retention of significant facts and principles
Repetition of content improves acquisition and retention of information
Prompt feedback is needed to confirm correct responses and remedy errors
Formative evaluation allows organizer to determine whether appropriate learning is taking place (e.g. recitation)
Summative evaluation takes place at the end (e.g. Post-test)
As part of the pre-course work, pre-test may be conducted prior to the discussion
A good post test should be as close to the expected learning or performance possible
Is historical data is important, the organizer is advised to present this either as an appendix (in the souvenir program or booklet) or as a separate document
Statistics should be presented in clear terms with accompanying definitions as required
End result of the learning should be stated clearly
Analysis must also contain recommendations for improvement
Sequence and time allocations
Materials, equipments and facilities
System validation (Strengths & areas to be commended)
System modification (Weaknesses & areas for improvement)
System quality control (standards vs. practice)
TYPE OF TEST ADVANTAGES LIMITATIONS Paper & Pencil Test Easy & quick scoring Objectivity is ensured Can be given to large group May be self administered Cannot validly measure all types of behavior Difficult & time consuming to construct Restrictive in terms of trainee response Oral Objective Test Easy to administer Allows testee to qualify & clarify answer Offers the examiner an opportunity to clarify questions Difficult to construct Administered to one trainee at a time May turn out to be less objective than desired
TYPE OF TEST ADVANTAGES LIMITATIONS Essay Test Easy to construct Gives opportunity to evaluate effectiveness in writing Gives trainee an opportunity to SELECT, ORGANIZE AND INTEGRATE facts Low content validity due to limited subject-matter sampling allowed by the test Low reliability because of the small number of test items Scoring is subjective Time consuming to administer and score
Has face validity in that they cover in a realistic way a job duty or task Job-relevant Usually highly reliable Covers only a part or sample of a job Requires more time to administer per item than most other types of test Administered individually Often requires tools, sets of equipments & materials which adds to the problems & expense of administration Difficult to design
Examiner should study directions for administration to make certain he/she knows purpose of test, materials needed and problems that may be encountered
Train the assistant test administrators
Assign testees of their seats/ work stations
Explain the purpose of test
Distribute test materials
Read aloud the directions from the manual
Start test. Check to ensure that directions are being followed correctly
Observe time limits (whole test & parts of the test)
Collect test materials as quickly as possible after time is up
Report any unusual conditions surrounding the test to those who score and analyze
An identified activity should denote the culmination of the learning experience. The impression should be conveyed that the next step is the anticipated change
The form of recognition must be consistent with the organization and observable to those who need to know
Other written forms of document may be used such as a letter from a high level official or other written notice that the participant has successfully completed the program
Those who still look for performance change should be involved in the closing ceremony
Shows how the group functions, communicates, sets and achieves objectives.
Both task-oriented behavior and maintenance-oriented behavior are necessary for adequate group development
TASK ROLES MAINTENANCE ROLES DYSFUNCTIONAL ROLES
Think out and sell your decisions to the group
Personally involve group mates
Maximize member freedom while keeping control
Identify sincerity of group mates
Give deserved credit
Hold members accountable for assigned work
Build respect and loyalty from group members
Cultivate optimal working relationship by implementing the Golden Rule
Recognize each member as an individual
Work to strengthen weak members
Emphasize team spirit
Managers must relate to the group in a way that fosters:
Both individual and group needs
Encourages interaction while minimizing conflict
Negative Attitudes are most commonly caused by:
2. Lack of information/ training
3. Unclear performance expectations
4. Stereotyping without adequate data
Failure to test new strategy before full implementation
Failure to develop and propose radical strategies
Assuming that there is just one right strategy for each goal
The Personnel Evaluation Standards was published in 1988,
The Program Evaluation Standards (2nd edition) was published in 1994, and
The Student Evaluations Standards was published in 2003.
The standards provide guidelines for assessing,designing,developing implementing, and improving the identified form of evaluation.
Each of the standards has been placed in one of four fundamental categories to promote evaluations that are proper, useful, feasible, and accurate. (propriety, utility, feasibility and accuracy standards)
The propriety standards require that evaluations be conducted legally, ethically, and with due regard for the welfare of evaluatees and clients involved in.
The utility standards are intended to guide evaluations so that they will be informative, timely, and influential.
3. The feasibility standards call for evaluation systems that are as easy to implement as possible, efficient in their use of time and resources, adequately funded , and viable from a number of other standpoints.
The accuracy standards require that the obtained information be technically accurate and that conclusions be linked logically to the data.
The utility standards are intended to ensure that an evaluation will serve the information needs of intended users.
The feasibility standards are intended to ensure that an evaluation will be realistic, prudent, diplomatic, and frugal.
The propriety standards are intended to ensure that an evaluation will be conducted legally, ethically , and with due regard for the welfare of those involved in the evaluation, as well as those affected by its results.
The accuracy standards are intended to ensure that an evaluation will reveal and convey technically adequate information about the features that determine worth or merit of the program being evaluated.
The Propriety standards help ensure that student evaluations are conducted lawfully, ethically, and with regard to the rights of students and other persons affected by student evaluation.
The Utility standards promote the design and implementation of informative, timely, and useful student evaluations.
The Feasibility standards help ensure that student evaluations are practical; viable; cost-effective; and culturally, socially, and politically appropriate.
The Accuracy standards help ensure that student evaluations will provide sound, accurate, and credible information about student learning and performance.
The ability of the students to assess their clinical performance and competencies and identify both strengths and areas for improvement.
It is the continuous process of determining personal growth and progress, which can be raised or lowered by the behavior of a close other (a person that is psychologically close).
Abraham Tesser created the self-evaluation maintenance theory in 1988. The self-evaluation maintenance model assumes two things: that a person will try to maintain or increase their own self-evaluation, and self-evaluation is influenced by relationships with others
Self-evaluation is a potentially powerful technique because of its impact on student performance through enhanced self-efficacy and increased intrinsic motivation.
Evidence about the positive effect of self-evaluation on student performance is particularly convincing for difficult tasks (Maehr & Stallings, 1972; Arter et al., 1994), especially in academically oriented schools (Hughes et al., 1985) and among high need pupils (Henry, 1994).
Perhaps just as important, students like to evaluate their work.
When students evaluate their performance positively,
self-evaluations encourage students to set higher goals (1) and commit more personal resources or effort (2) to them. The combination of goals (1) and effort (2) equals achievement ( 3).
A student's achievement results in self-judgment (4), ("Were my goals met?“)
The result of the self-judgment is self-reaction (5), or a student responding to the judgment with the question, "How do I feel about that?"
Goals, effort, achievement, self-judgment, and self-reaction all can combine to impact self-confidence (6) in a positive way.
Self-evaluation is really the combination of the self-judgment and self-reaction components of the model, and if we can teach students to do this better we can contribute to an upward cycle of better learning.
the practice of keeping a diary or journal that explores thoughts and feelings surrounding the events of one’s life.
1 . How much time and effort did you put into this? 2. What do you think your strengths and weaknesses were in this assignment? 3. How could you improve your assignment? 4. What are the most valuable things you learned from this assignment?
Statements that are based on personal experience or personal knowledge.
Over-all Committee Chairperson
Asst. Over-all Committee Chairperson
Comm on Program & Invitation
Comm on Registration, Reception, Refreshments/ Ways & Means
Comm on Physical Arrangement & Technical Matters
Comm on Finance and Awards
Comm on Documentation & Evaluation
^ Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation. (1988). The Personnel Evaluation Standards: How to Assess Systems for Evaluating Educators. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
^ Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation. (1994). The Program Evaluation Standards, 2nd Edition. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
^ Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation. (2003). The Student Evaluation Standards: How to Improve Evaluations of Students. Newbury Park, CA: Corwin Press.
^ Tesser, A. (1988). Toward a self-evaluation maintenance model of social behavior. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, Vol 21, (pp. 181-227). New York: Academic Press.
^ Bradshaw, M. (2007). Innovative teaching strategies in Nursing and related health professions. Sudbury, Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
^ Gaberson, K. (2007). Clinical Teaching Strategies in Nursing. New York, New York:Springer Publishing Company