New Media Week 2Film aesthetics and narrative: the role of new mediaThe seminar tasks handout relating to this lecture also has quotes
The effects of new media on film aesthetics includes:• SHORT film narratives for distribution online, on phones, etc (existed in primitive cinema)• SPECTACLE (e.g. digital effects; 3D)• SMALLSCREEN formats -viral videos, mobiles• CINEMA affects game aesthetics /GAMES affect the look and narrative of films
Cloverfield: combines spectacle and ‘shaky-cam’ home video aesthetic Viral marketing, fake sites
Short • Critics seek new theories ofNarratives narrativeSee primitive cinema e.g. • YouTube and viral – veryThe Great Train Robbery short narratives; mass(Porter, 1903) downloaded12 mins • Shorts form part ofRescued by Rover transmedia storytelling(Hepworthcompany, GB, 1905) 6 mins
Will Brooker (2003)• ‘televisual overflow’ – lifestyle experience created by producers around a text• On watching shows online:• OVERFLOW- viewer may be distracted by all the other windows• INTERFLOW: some windows are related to the cult viewing e.g simulated sites related to the show, and fan forums. Deepen viewer’s engagement.
The Society of the Spectacle• Guy Debord 1967• A Marxist reading of culture that views spectacle as a commodity
Commodificationin MarxismCommodities aregoods to be soldfor profitunder capitalism
KEY IDEAS from • SPECTACLE sells goodsDebord’s book: • SPECTACLE is what we are sold for leisure • SPECTACLE justifies the capitalist system
In all of its particular manifestations – news, propaganda, advertising, entertainment – the spectacle represents the dominant model of life.…The spectacle serves as a total justification of the conditions and goals of the existingThe Society of systemthe Spectacle: (Debord 1994:13)
The Society of the –Global tendency toward theSpectacle banal in modern spectacles but many spectacles for consumers (see p.38). –Stars create images for us to identify with as PURE SPECTACLE, to compensate for the lack of diverse and productive things for us to do
• Early cinema -fairground attractionSPECTACLE in early • Late 1890s Kinetoscope in arcades:cinema: looped film shortsRecord of a Sneeze (Edison, 1894)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2wnOpDWSbyw • 1894-5 Cinématographe (Lumière brothers) • The Gay Shoe Clerk http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =4CAxIHvASAg
‘The Cinema of Attractions: EarlyTom Gunning, Cinema, Its Spectator, and the Avant-Garde’’Early cinema shortswere like fairgroundattractionsAND foregroundedthe spectator.
Primitive orearly cinema:The fourth wallconvention (straight onangle) little cameramovement or editing,lack of close-ups Melies: trick films, fairy tales, scifi
The cinema of • ‘directly solicits spectatorattractions attention, by inciting a visual curiosity, and supplying pleasure through an exciting spectacle - a unique event, whether fictional or documentary, that is of interest in itself’ • (Gunning 1990: 58)
The cinema of attractions in later fantasy and •‘ action films AND THE AVANT-GARDE
Clearly is somesense recentspectacle cinemahas reaffirmed itsroots in stimulusand carnivalrides, in what mightbe called theSpielberg-Lucas-Coppola cinema ofeffects (Gunning1986,61).
YouTube - attractions. ‘”Attraction is the whole aim of uploading clips”(Theresa Rizzo) Rizzo suggests that clips of animals, remediated clips creating political satire, and Bollywood movies given nonsense subtitles on Youtube function as ‘attractions’
• Cat mom hugs baby kitten • http://www.youtube.com/Charlie Bit My Finger watch?v=Vw4KVoEVcr0Justin Bieber throwsup on stage • Cat in box • http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=qrg08BP3xLA&fea ture=relmfu
• Too Cutehttp://animal.discovery.com/tv/too-cute-kittens/ • (Animal Planet satellite TV channel) • Remediates YouTube
• Depiction of computers in Tron (1982)• Cyberspace in The Lawnmower Man (1992)• Liquid creature for The Abyss• CGI Dinosaurs for Jurassic Park (1993)• ‘Bullet time’ for The Matrix (1999)• Selective digital colour in Pleasantville (1998) and Sin City (2005)
• http://www.massivesoftware.MASSIVE com/autonomous agent driven animation – developed at Weta for Lord ofthe Rings to simulate armies
Digital 3D remediates earlier 3D formatsFilms are relaunched in 3D (remediation)3D games
Geoff King (2000) early key work Argues that spectacle functions as part of the narrative of the Hollywood blockbuster, not as a rival to it Available as an e-book via the library Catalogue
Different kinds of spectaclein Jurassic Park for King:Long takes convince us of the realismof the CGI dinosaurFast editing and explosions in actionsequences
• Michelle Pierson suggestsDebate: that the dinosaurs in Jurassic Park are bracketed off from the narrative • King finds the dinosaurs forward the narrative, and create emotion through encounters with characters (see chapter 2)
argues that CGI MODIFIES FILMMichael Allen: LANGUAGE OR GRAMMAR • Use of 360 degree shots eg Gladiator arena • CGI shots often bracketed by live-action shots which give us a reference point
Ron Burnett (2011)• THE FUTURE OF 3D STEREOSCOPIC CINEMA• The ‘presence’ of 3D images, their force… comes from a combination of increased intensity produced through a heightened sense that the illusory space of 2D has finally been cracked. This is aided by sound augmented by the use of special effects…..• special effects are an important component of the story .Take the recent 3D production of Alice in Wonderland … Alice’s imaginary is the site for all sorts of special effects from physical size to animal intelligence…. The depth of the effects, their strength comes from opening up a space for viewing that allows the special effects to at times overwhelm the mise-en-scène and become the story.
FILMS AND THEIR • Games use filmic strategies, LINKS TO GAMES in some cases first person • Cut-scenes use filmicKing, Geoff and Tanya strategies for exposition,Krzywinska (eds.) characters’ goals, and toScreenplay:Cinema/Videogames/Inter reward players visually andfaces, 2002 emotionally at the end.
• Brooker, Will, ‘Camera-Eye,Films and games CG-Eye: Videogames and the ‘Cinematic’. Cinema Journal 48,3,2009.
Other essays in Sacha A. Howells on history andScreenplay: use of cut-scenes Geoff King, ‘Die Hard/Try Harder: Narrative, Spectacle and Beyond: From Hollywood to Videogame’ • Argues that games extend the ‘impact-aesthetic’ form of spectacle (felt by viewer - pulse racing etc)
Margit Grieb, ‘Run Lara Run’Run Lola Runreferencesgames, reflects onthem and uses theirconventions
Different versions of theheroine’s questBoth characters onlysurvive if they follow the‘rules’ (law and order)People help or hinder Lola.Berlin as virtual environmentCompares it with Tomb Raider
Games and culture journal• Range of more recent academic essays on topics e.g.• Silent Hill as art• Video games and escapism• Avatars• Audiences• The Sims/convergence etc.
Bibliography• Allen, Michael, ‘The Impact of Digital Technologies on Film Aesthetics’ in Harries, Dan (ed) The New Media Book, London: BFI, 2002. 109-.• Burnett, Ron (2011) The future of 3D stereoscopic cinema. Critical Approaches to Culture + Media A Weblog by Ron Burnett. 1 July.• Cubitt, Sean, ‘Digital Filming and Special Effects’ in Harries, Dan (ed) The New Media Book, London: BFI, 2002. 17-• Debord, Guy (1994) ‘The Commodity as Spectacle’ in The Society of the Spectacle. New York: Zone Books, 2004, pp. 25-34 .• Grieb, Margit, ‘Run Lara Run’. King, Geoff and Tanya Krzywinska (eds.) Screenplay: Cinema/Videogames/Interfaces, London and New York: Wallflower Press/Columbia University Press, 2002 Howells, Sacha A. , ‘Watching a Game, Playing a Movie: When Media Collide’ . King, Geoff and Tanya Krzywinska (eds.) Screenplay: Cinema/Videogames/Interfaces, London and New York: Wallflower Press/Columbia University Press, 2002
• King, Geoff, ‘Die Hard/Try Harder: Narrative, Spectacle and Beyond: From Hollywood to Videogame’ King, Geoff and Tanya Krzywinska (eds.) Screenplay: Cinema/Videogames/Interfaces, London and New York: Wallflower Press/Columbia University Press, 2002• King, Geoff and Tanya Krzywinska (eds.) Screenplay: Cinema/Videogames/Interfaces, London and New York: Wallflower Press/Columbia University Press, 2002• Rizzo Teresa ‘YouTube: the New Cinema of• Attractions’ Scan: Journal of Media Arts Culture• http://scan.net.au/scan/journal/display.php?journal_id=109• Wolf, Mark J. P.and Bernard Perron eds. The Video Game Theory Reader, London: Routledge, 2003.