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  1. 1. The Defeat of the AxisP. 746-755<br />Ross Byers<br />
  2. 2. The Liberation of France<br />Strategic Bombing – (American/British)<br />Bombed industrial installations and other factories to limit production and transportation<br />Feb. 1945 – raid on Dresden; destroyed ¾ of city and killed 135,000 people<br />Forced the Luftwaffe (the German air force) to relocate into Germany itself<br />D-Day<br />3 million troops, one of the greatest array of naval vessels and armaments ever assembled<br />June 6, 1944 – General Dwight D. Eisenhower sent forces into action<br />Landing came at 60 miles of the Cotentin Peninsula<br />After 1 week, the superior manpower and equipment of the Allied forces prevailed<br />On August 25, free French forces arrived in Paris<br />German retaliation in the Ardennes Forest – Battle of the Bulge<br />Soviet forces sweeping westward into central Europe and the Balkans<br />
  3. 3. Continued<br />Allied advance halted at Rhine River<br />German retaliation in the Ardennes Forest – Battle of the Bulge<br />Soviet forces sweeping westward into central Europe and the Balkans<br />Omar Bradley’s First Army pushing into Germany<br />Captured city of Cologne, found a bridge to bring Allied forces across river<br />April 30 – with Soviet forces near, Hitler killed himself<br />May 8, 1945 – remaining forces surrendered, referred to as V-E Day<br />
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  6. 6. The Pacific Offensive<br />Gen. Joseph W. Stillwell<br />In 1942, forced out of Burma by Japanese<br />Led Chinese, American, and Indian troops back through Burma 1 year later<br />Constructed Burma Road<br />Battle of Leyte Gulf<br />June 1944 – American armada struck Mariana Islands<br />Captured Tinian, Guam, and Saipan<br />In Sep., American forces landed on the western Carolines<br />Oct. 20 – Gen. MacArthur’s troops landed on Leyte Island in the Philippines<br />Japanese used entire fleet against Allied invaders in 3 encounters<br />Collectively are considered Battle of Leyte Gulf<br />Feb. 1945 – American forces seize Iwo Jima<br />20,000 Marine casualties<br />
  7. 7. Continued<br />Okinawa<br />370 miles S. of Japan<br />Kamikaze planes sent into US ships<br />3,500 sacrificed<br />50,000 US casualties before capture of island in June 1945<br />100,000 Japanese died<br />Firebombing of Tokyo in March<br />Am. Bombers dropped napalm on city, 80,000 dead<br />Japanese will to resist decreasing<br />Emperor Hirohito appointed someone to sue for peace<br />
  8. 8. Manhattan Project<br />Race to develop atomic bomb<br />Nazi scientists<br />Albert Einstein and theory of relativity<br />Matter could be converted into energy<br />Uranium used in the bombs<br />Discovered to be radioactive in 1930s by Enrico Fermi in Italy<br />1940 – scientists at Columbia University began chain-reaction experiments<br />Dec. 1942 - Fermi achieved first controlled fission chain reaction<br />Army took control of research<br />Appointed Gen. Leslie Groves to reorganize the project<br />Dubbed “Manhattan Project,” $2 billion invested<br />Los Alamos, NM lab constructed the actual bomb<br />
  9. 9. Continued<br />July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, NM <br />Trinity bomb (plutonium fueled)<br />Truman’s ultimatum<br />Surrender by Aug. 3 or face complete devastation<br />“unconditional surrender” needed, no compromises<br />Controversy<br />attack unnecessary OR prevented further US casualties/costs?<br />Hiroshima/Nagasaki<br />Aug. 6, 1945 – Enola Gay (B-29 bomber) dropped bomb on Hiroshima<br />Killed 80,000, more with fallout<br />2 days later, Soviet Union declared war on Japan<br />1 day after that, US dropped another bomb on Nagasaki<br />