PART A – TODOROV’S THEORY This is a sheet we done in class where we looked at the disruptions/ conflicts and resolutions in different genres.
Todorov suggested there are 5 stages ofnarrative:1.Equilibrium2.Disequlibrium3.recognition of Disequilibrium4.Attempt to repair disequilibrium5.New EquilibriumThe next slides will show how Todorov’stheory applies to the film ‘The HungerGames’
PART B: EQUILIBRIUM• Equilibrium is shown in the beginning of the hunger games in the scene where Katniss and Gale are out hunting and relaxing in the forest.
PART B: DISEQUILIBRIUM• Disequilibrium is shown in the scene where the reaping in taking place.• This is because in this scene Katniss’s sister is picked to go into the hunger games but Katniss volunteers to take her sisters place and Peeta is also picked to enter the Hunger Games.
RECOGNITION OF DISEQUILIBRIUM• Recognition of disequilibrium can be found in the scene where the people taking part in the hunger games are taken into the training room,• It can also be found when Haymitch begins to mentor Katniss and Peeta.• This is because in these scenes both Peeta and Katniss have accepted that they are going into the Hunger games.
ATTEMPT TO REPAIR DISEQUILIBRIUMThe attempt to repair the disequilibrium can be found in the scenes where Katniss is fighting for her life in the hunger games.It can also be found when Katniss and Peeta meet up again and realise that they can win and go home together.
NEW EQUILIBRIUM• The new equilibrium can be found when Katniss and Peeta survive and win the hunger games.• This is because they have returned to their old lives, however they are not the same as before.
Example of a binaryopposite. Levi –Strauss believed the world is described as binary opposites and this is the same in movies as we always have a villain and a hero. The next slides will show how this can be a applied to a variety of genres.
DRAMA:Film Opposite 1 Opposite 2 ExplanationBatman They are opposites because: • Batman is good he is the hero • The Joker is evil he is the villain • Batman is trying to save Gotham The Joker is the evil • The Joker is Batman is the hero, villain from the destroying it his identity is a batman movie secret.
HORROR:Film Opposite 1 Opposite 2 ExplanationTexas They are oppositesChainsaw because:Massacre • The man is evil and he is trying to kill innocent people • The woman is innocent and she is trying to survive. This woman is the This character is evil as victim trying to he goes around killing hide away from innocent people the evil guy
ACTION:Film Opposite 1 Opposite 2 ExplanationMission They are opposites because:impossible • Ethan is working to stop the evil forces • The other man is a terrorist • Ethan is trying to The man (Ethan) is an protect the people American agent This man is a terrorist, who • The other man has working against want power and money in the power to kill terrorist and evil forces exchange for the safety of thousands if he to protect his country the people doesn’t get what he wants.
BARTHES THEORYBarthes theory is similar to Todorov’s. Barthe says that the audiencesexperiences of narrative involves anticipation and experience.Barthe identified this by codes:•Enigma code•Action code•Semantic code•Symbolic code•Cultural code.
BARTHES - ENIGMA CODE Barthes enigma code states that narratives set up puzzles to be solved by the audience. These puzzles intrigue and draw in the audience.For example this scene from the film Sawraises questions from the audience like..Who is the person on the floor?What happened to them?Who are all the people in the room?
BARTHES - ACTION CODE These are codes of behaviours or actions that lead the audience to expect certain consequences.Thriller/ Mystery RomanceAction: villain holding a knife standing Action: couple have broken up but stillbehind teenage girl. miss each otherAssumption: The girl is going to die Assumption: the couple will get back together.
BARTHES - SEMANTIC CODEThese are the connotative meanings of characters, locations, objects etc.
BARTHES - SYMBOLIC CODEThese are symbolic features which signify oppositions. This example is from the film Harry Potter and the deathly hallows part 2. The dark costume and evil facial expression connotes that this group of people are the villains in this film.These features signify opposition with thecharacters on the next page as it shows thatthey are one the ‘bad’ side. This character in particular shows the symbolic features of the ‘villains’ within films as she is deranged and her costume is also dark and sinister.
BARTHES – SYMBOLIC CODE These are symbolic features which signify oppositions. This example is from the film Harry Potter and the deathly hallows part 2. In this scene from the film the statues are brought to life to defend Hogwarts. The fact that they are defending the school shows that the are on the ‘good’ side.In this scene a force field is created to protectHogwarts from the ‘dark side’. As we can seethe shield protecting the school is a whitecolour which signifies peace, good and purity. This image shows the symbolic features of the heroes as all the characters are illuminated in a bright white light.
BARTHES SYMBOLIC CODE Another Example from The Lord of the Rings.Gandalf representsgood, which theaudience can tell From this picture thebecause of the colour of audience can tell that thishis clothes (white) and character is the ‘villain’his relaxed and calm because of his darkdemeanour clothes, angry facial expression and evil disfigured face.
BARTHES - CULTURAL CODE Outside knowledge we share to bring understanding of the meaning in a text. This often happens through references to popular culture and historical events.The cultural code can be applied to thefilm the Kings Speech because it isbased on historical events. The Kings Speech is a British historical drama film about King George VI ( played by Colin firth) who, to cope with a stammer, sees Lionel Logue.
PROPP’S THEORYPropp developed a theory about the seven types of characters in traditionalclassic fairy tales. He called this the ‘ seven spheres of action’ which are :1. Hero2. Villain3. Dispatcher4. Donor5. helper6. Heroine7. False heroThe next slides will identify these characters in the film The hunger games.
PROPP – HEROThe hero is usually:●On a quest/ search●Traditionally male however today more female heroes are beingseen like Katniss from The Hunger Games
PROPP – VILLIANThe villain :●Opposes the hero●Causes destruction●And often poses a threat to the safety of the heroine.●The ultimate villain from the hunger games would be thepresident of Capitol as he is the person that created thehunger games.However there is another villain in the movie and this●would be Cato as he poses a threat to the safety of bothKatniss and Peeta.
PROPP - DISPATCHERThe dispatcher usually :●Starts the hero on their way.●Is the father of the heroine.●In the case of The Hunger Games Cinna is thedispatcher as he helps Katniss and prepares her forthe hunger games.
PROPP - DONORThe Donor usually:• Helps the hero by giving them a tool/gift (which could also be advice) to help them on their journey• The donor in the Hunger games is Haymitch as he helps to prepare Katniss for the hunger games by giving her advice on what to do.
PROPP - HELPER• As the name suggests the helper assists the hero in restoring normality/ equilibrium• Rue is the helper in the Hunger Games as she helps Katniss when she is hurt and takes care of her.
PROPP - HEROINE• The Heroine is usually female – but not always – and is a more passive and vulnerable character. The heroine often falls in love with hero• In the Hunger Games Peeta is the heroine as he falls in love with Katniss and needed rescuing from the Katniss.
PROPP – FALSE HERO The false hero is initially on the side of the hero but then turns against or deceives him/her Tempts hero away from quest. There is no false hero in The Hunger Games, so an example of a false hero from another movie would be Victor from the Underworld movie.Victor is the false hero because:•He lied to Selene (the hero) by telling her thatthe lycans had killed her family when it hadbeen him.•He tried to kill Selene and the man the sheloved.
DIEGESISThe diegesis is the internal world created by the story that the characters themselves experience and encounter.An example of this is the film Avatar as the characters are in their own world
NARRATIVE RANGE –Unrestricted narration:An unrestricted narration is one which has no limit to the information that is presented ( there is nothing hidden from the audience).An example of this is the documentary March of the Penguins.
NARRATIVE RANGE -Restricted narration:Restricted narration only offers a restricted amount of information and this may be to create enigmas. Restricted narration is usually used in thrillers. An example of restricted narration in films is the film Texas Chainsaw Massacre as the villain is wearing a mask which means he is hiding his identity and the audience is unable to see who he is.
MODULAR NARRATIVES: ALLAN CAMERONAllan Cameron identified four types of modular narratives which are:• Forking path• Episodic• Anachronic• Split screenAs I am doing the green level I will explain the forking path, episodic andanachronic narrative.l
FORKING PATHSForking paths juxtapose alternate version of a story, showing the possible outcomes that might result from small changes in a single even of group of events.An example of this is in the movie Sliding Doors, where the story alternates between the character catching the train and finding her boyfriend in bed with another woman, and the character missing the train and not finding out about her boyfriend.To understand this narrative better, the trailer for this filmexplains how this forking path narrative is used.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QsQuNu4NBmQ&safe=active
ANACHRONICThis narrative involves flash-backs and flash-forwards, these narratives also often repeat scenes directly or via a different perspective.An example of an anachronic film is the film 4-3-2-1 as in this film the same day is shown four times but in the perspectives of four different people.
EPISODIC Episodic narratives can be organised as an abstract series or an anthology. • Abstract series – which is structured so that all the series go in order. • Anthology narrative – consists of a series of shorter tales which appear to be disconnected but share a random similarity. Episodic structure can also be described as narratives that have many heroes with many goals. An example of this is the film Crash which is an anthology narrative.The film crash is episodic because: It features many characters that aim for their own goals The characters – and their goals- are intertwined with each other ( for example the shop owner and the locksmith ) Each character has their own story which doesnt appear to be connected but is.