The triangle is an isosceles triangle.
This man is stupid.
Every changing being is imperfect.
Simple apprehension => concept or mental
word : judgment=> mental statement*
* Representations formed in by the mind
Things to consider in making
1. All ideas involved are to be understood
2. Each ideas is to be contrasted/compared
with the other ideas.
3. Ideas compared are to be judged as to
whether in agreement or in agreement.
4. Judgment is expressed as propositions.
5. Judgment is based on inferences.
Logical Truth and Falsity of
A judgment is true when real relationship
of two ideas/realities being compared is
established or in agreement
And false if relationship is not established
and not in agreement
Convince Me Why!
Is death penalty justified?
Is the Philippines a progressive
Should divorce be allowed in the
Process with which one advances from
premises to conclusion to prove something
Proposition (Cohen) –assertions that are
either true or false and stated in
declarative form; written or spoken
expression of the mental statement
e.g. This is a dog. The animal is not a cat.
Argument, Premise and Conclusion
1. Argument- group of propositions of which
one follows the others to provide support on
ground for the truth of that one
2. Premise- a proposition or inference in an
3. Conclusion- an affirmed argument
Examples of Premise and
1. No one was present when life first appeared
on earth. Therefore, any statement about
life’s origin should be considered a myth.
2. Since all humans come from a small number
of African ancestors, believing in different
races is ridiculous.
3. Cigarette selling should stop. After
all, cigarette is the leading cause of death.
Arguments are acts of reasoning
In reasoning, the known truths are related to
new truth(premise) to form
conclusions(resulting to truth)
Two Principle of Reasoning
Principle of Non-Contradiction
an object cannot be true and false at the same
e.g. The chalk is white and non-white.
You are beautiful and ugly.
Principle of Excluded Middle
every predicate can either be truly
affirmed or truly denied of every subject