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Research on Mineland Reclamation

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A presentation on the reclamation project associated with the Rosemont Copper project area developed by the University of Arizona Department of Natural Resources professor Dr. Jeff Fehmi. This …

A presentation on the reclamation project associated with the Rosemont Copper project area developed by the University of Arizona Department of Natural Resources professor Dr. Jeff Fehmi. This presentation was given to the Forest Service and their contractors during technical transfer meetings in November 2008.

Published in: Education, Technology

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  • 1. Research on Mineland Reclamation Jeffrey S. Fehmi School of Natural Resources University of Arizona 11/12/2008 J. Fehmi 1
  • 2. —  Experimental design ◦  Soil types Arkose, Gila, Glance ◦  Rainfall scenarios High, Average, Low ◦  Amendments None, Straw, Straw + Fertilizer ◦  Seed mixes 29 native species: 4 mixes—  Results and recommendationsOutline 11/12/2008 J. Fehmi 2
  • 3. Arkose GlanceSoil Types Gila 11/12/2008 J. Fehmi 3
  • 4. 11/12/2008 J. Fehmi 4
  • 5. —  Low rainfall —  Summer ◦  245 mm (9.6 in) ◦  90 days—  Average rainfall ◦  Monsoon season temperatures ◦  384 mm (15.1 in)—  High rainfall —  Between seasons ◦  60 days ◦  510 mm (20.1 in) ◦  Moderate temps ◦  No watering —  Winter ◦  90 days ◦  Cool-season temperaturesRainfall/climate scenarios 11/12/2008 J. Fehmi 5
  • 6. AverageRank (low precip. to high) Year (mm) 1 1995 228.9 2 2004 277.6 3 1989 280.3 4 1980 285.0 Low year 5 2002 292.5 6 2006 293.5 7 1996 305.9 8 1976 309.5 9 2005 311.2 10 2003 311.9 11 1986 336.4 12 1997 338.5 13 2001 344.4 1991 daily precipitation 14 1979 365.9 60 15 1991 398.4 Ave. year 16 1977 422.9 50 17 1994 423.0 Precipitation (mm) 40 18 1982 428.1 19 1985 431.7 30 20 1981 448.1 20 21 1993 449.8 22 1999 488.4 10 23 1992 500.4 0 24 2000 507.7 1/1/1991 1/15/1991 1/29/1991 2/12/1991 2/26/1991 3/12/1991 3/26/1991 4/9/1991 4/23/1991 5/7/1991 5/21/1991 6/4/1991 6/18/1991 7/2/1991 7/16/1991 7/30/1991 8/13/1991 8/27/1991 9/10/1991 9/24/1991 10/8/1991 11/5/1991 12/3/1991 10/22/1991 11/19/1991 12/17/1991 12/31/1991 25 1998 515.9 26 1987 522.2 27 1988 523.4 28 1990 532.3 High year 29 1978 569.2 30 1983 581.2 31 1984 735.5 average 411.6 11/12/2008 J. Fehmi 6
  • 7. —  None – bare soil.—  Straw – equivalent to 2 tons per acre, tackified.—  Straw+ Fertilizer – equivalent to 2 tons per acre, tackified + slow release fertilizer.Amendments 11/12/2008 J. Fehmi 7
  • 8. sideoats grama blue grama green sprangletop Common Name Scientific Name Rothrock grama whitethorn acacia* Acacia constricta sand dropseed catclaw acacia* Acacia greggii sixweeks needle grama red threeawn Aristida purpurea var. longiseta bottlebrush squirreltail desert marigold Mix 1 fourwing saltbush* Atriplex canescens big purple tansyaster desert marigold Baileya multiradiata whitethorn acacia cane beardgrass* Bothriochloa barbinodis skunkbush sumac sixweeks needle grama Bouteloua aristidoides cane beardgrass sideoats grama* Bouteloua curtipendula Arizona cottontop blue grama* Bouteloua gracilis sideoats grama Rothrock grama* Bouteloua rothrockii blue grama false mesquite Calliandra eriophylla tanglehead sixweeks needle grama Arizona cottontop Digitaria californica plains lovegrass bottlebrush squirreltail Elymus elymoides desert senna plains lovegrass* Eragrostis intermedia Mexican gold poppy Mexican gold poppy Eschscholzia californica ssp. mexicana false mesquite whitestem paperflower tanglehead* Heteropogon contortus curly mesquite Hilaria belangeri cane beardgrass orange caltrop Kallstroemia grandiflora Arizona cottontop prairie Junegrass Koeleria macrantha curly mesquite red threeawn green sprangletop* Leptochloa dubia sixweeks needle grama big purple tansyaster Machaeranthera tanacetifolia muttongrass muttongrass Poa fendleriana prairie Junegrass whitestem paperflower Psilostrophe cooperi gooseberryleaf globemallow orange caltrop skunkbush sumac* Rhus trilobata catclaw acacia desert senna Senna covesii fourwing saltbush desert globemallow Sphaeralcea ambiguagooseberryleaf globemallow Sphaeralcea grossulariifolia red threeawn sand dropseed* Sporobolus cryptandrus sand dropseed sideoats grama Rothrock gramaSeed mixes sixweeks needle grama desert senna desert marigold desert globemallow Mexican gold poppy whitethorn acacia 11/12/2008 J. Fehmi 8
  • 9. sideoats grama blue grama green sprangletop Common Name Scientific Name Rothrock grama whitethorn acacia* Acacia constricta sand dropseed catclaw acacia* Acacia greggii sixweeks needle grama red threeawn Aristida purpurea var. longiseta bottlebrush squirreltail desert marigold fourwing saltbush* Atriplex canescens big purple tansyaster desert marigold Baileya multiradiata whitethorn acacia cane beardgrass* Bothriochloa barbinodis skunkbush sumac sixweeks needle grama Bouteloua aristidoides cane beardgrass sideoats grama* Bouteloua curtipendula Arizona cottontop blue grama* Bouteloua gracilis sideoats grama Rothrock grama* Bouteloua rothrockii blue grama false mesquite Calliandra eriophylla tanglehead Arizona cottontop Digitaria californica sixweeks needle grama plains lovegrass Mix 2 bottlebrush squirreltail Elymus elymoides desert senna plains lovegrass* Eragrostis intermedia Mexican gold poppy Mexican gold poppy Eschscholzia californica ssp. mexicana false mesquite whitestem paperflower tanglehead* Heteropogon contortus curly mesquite Hilaria belangeri cane beardgrass orange caltrop Kallstroemia grandiflora Arizona cottontop prairie Junegrass Koeleria macrantha curly mesquite red threeawn green sprangletop* Leptochloa dubia sixweeks needle grama big purple tansyaster Machaeranthera tanacetifolia muttongrass muttongrass Poa fendleriana prairie Junegrass whitestem paperflower Psilostrophe cooperi gooseberryleaf globemallow orange caltrop skunkbush sumac* Rhus trilobata catclaw acacia desert senna Senna covesii fourwing saltbush desert globemallow Sphaeralcea ambiguagooseberryleaf globemallow Sphaeralcea grossulariifolia red threeawn sand dropseed* Sporobolus cryptandrus sand dropseed sideoats grama Rothrock gramaSeed mixes sixweeks needle grama desert senna desert marigold desert globemallow Mexican gold poppy whitethorn acacia 11/12/2008 J. Fehmi 9
  • 10. sideoats grama blue grama green sprangletop Common Name Scientific Name Rothrock grama whitethorn acacia* Acacia constricta sand dropseed catclaw acacia* Acacia greggii sixweeks needle grama red threeawn Aristida purpurea var. longiseta bottlebrush squirreltail desert marigold fourwing saltbush* Atriplex canescens big purple tansyaster desert marigold Baileya multiradiata whitethorn acacia cane beardgrass* Bothriochloa barbinodis skunkbush sumac sixweeks needle grama Bouteloua aristidoides cane beardgrass sideoats grama* Bouteloua curtipendula Arizona cottontop blue grama* Bouteloua gracilis sideoats grama Rothrock grama* Bouteloua rothrockii blue grama false mesquite Calliandra eriophylla tanglehead sixweeks needle grama Arizona cottontop Digitaria californica plains lovegrass bottlebrush squirreltail Elymus elymoides desert senna plains lovegrass* Eragrostis intermedia Mexican gold poppy Mexican gold poppy Eschscholzia californica ssp. mexicana false mesquite whitestem paperflower tanglehead* Heteropogon contortus curly mesquite Hilaria belangeri cane beardgrass orange caltrop Kallstroemia grandiflora Arizona cottontop prairie Junegrass Koeleria macrantha curly mesquite red threeawn green sprangletop* Leptochloa dubia sixweeks needle grama big purple tansyaster Machaeranthera tanacetifolia muttongrass Poa fendleriana muttongrass prairie Junegrass Mix 3 whitestem paperflower Psilostrophe cooperi gooseberryleaf globemallow orange caltrop skunkbush sumac* Rhus trilobata catclaw acacia desert senna Senna covesii fourwing saltbush desert globemallow Sphaeralcea ambiguagooseberryleaf globemallow Sphaeralcea grossulariifolia red threeawn sand dropseed* Sporobolus cryptandrus sand dropseed sideoats grama Rothrock gramaSeed mixes sixweeks needle grama desert senna desert marigold desert globemallow Mexican gold poppy whitethorn acacia 11/12/2008 J. Fehmi 10
  • 11. sideoats grama blue grama green sprangletop Common Name Scientific Name Rothrock grama whitethorn acacia* Acacia constricta sand dropseed catclaw acacia* Acacia greggii sixweeks needle grama red threeawn Aristida purpurea var. longiseta bottlebrush squirreltail desert marigold fourwing saltbush* Atriplex canescens big purple tansyaster desert marigold Baileya multiradiata whitethorn acacia cane beardgrass* Bothriochloa barbinodis skunkbush sumac sixweeks needle grama Bouteloua aristidoides cane beardgrass sideoats grama* Bouteloua curtipendula Arizona cottontop blue grama* Bouteloua gracilis sideoats grama Rothrock grama* Bouteloua rothrockii blue grama false mesquite Calliandra eriophylla tanglehead sixweeks needle grama Arizona cottontop Digitaria californica plains lovegrass bottlebrush squirreltail Elymus elymoides desert senna plains lovegrass* Eragrostis intermedia Mexican gold poppy Mexican gold poppy Eschscholzia californica ssp. mexicana false mesquite whitestem paperflower tanglehead* Heteropogon contortus curly mesquite Hilaria belangeri cane beardgrass orange caltrop Kallstroemia grandiflora Arizona cottontop prairie Junegrass Koeleria macrantha curly mesquite red threeawn green sprangletop* Leptochloa dubia sixweeks needle grama big purple tansyaster Machaeranthera tanacetifolia muttongrass muttongrass Poa fendleriana prairie Junegrass whitestem paperflower Psilostrophe cooperi gooseberryleaf globemallow orange caltrop skunkbush sumac* Rhus trilobata catclaw acacia desert senna Senna covesii fourwing saltbush desert globemallow Sphaeralcea ambiguagooseberryleaf globemallow Sphaeralcea grossulariifolia red threeawn sand dropseed* Sporobolus cryptandrus sand dropseed sideoats grama Rothrock grama Mix 4Seed mixes sixweeks needle grama desert senna desert marigold desert globemallow Mexican gold poppy whitethorn acacia 11/12/2008 J. Fehmi 11
  • 12. —  Functional groups ◦  WSPG - Warm-season Perennial Grasses ◦  CSPG - Cool-season Perennial Grasses ◦  AG - Annual Grasses ◦  PF - Perennial Forbs ◦  AF - Annual Forbs ◦  SH - ShrubsSpecies 11/12/2008 J. Fehmi 12
  • 13. —  All native species—  All expected to occur or currently occur on the site—  Derivedfrom the NRCS Ecological Site Descriptions for the area—  All commercially availableSpecies 11/12/2008 J. Fehmi 13
  • 14. —  3 soil types X 3 rainfall scenarios X 3 amendments X 4 seed mixes = 108 treatment combinations—  108 X 4 replications = 432 potsReplication 11/12/2008 J. Fehmi 14
  • 15. Results 11/12/2008 J. Fehmi 15
  • 16. Green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia) WSPGRed threeawn (Aristida purpurea) WSPGBlue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) WSPGArizona cottontop (Digitaria californica) WSPGCurly mesquite (Hilaria belangeri) WSPGPlains lovegrass (Eragrostis intermedia) WSPGBottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides) CSPGDesert marigold (Baileya multiradiata) PFMexican gold poppy (Eschscholzia californica AFFalse mesquite (Calliandra eriophylla) SHRecommended species mix 11/12/2008 J. Fehmi 16
  • 17. Tanglehead (Heteropogon contortus) WSPGSideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) WSPGSand dropseed (Sporobolus cryptandrus) WSPGCane beardgrass (Bothriochloa barbinodis) WSPGDesert senna (Senna covesii) PFAlternate species 11/12/2008 J. Fehmi 17
  • 18. Soil   Type   Grand   Arkose   Gila   Glance   Total   High   100   100   92   97   Rainfall Ave   92   100   92   94  simulation   Low   100   83   75   86   Grand Total   97   94   86   93   Table A1-1. Leptochloa dubia percent occurrence by pot.Species analysis 11/12/2008 J. Fehmi 18
  • 19. Soil Type   Grand   Arkose   Gila   Glance   Total   High   0   17   33   17   Rainfall Ave   0   33   25   19  simulation   Low   0   17   25   14   Grand Total   0   22   28   17   Table A1-17. Acacia greggii percent occurrence by pot.Species not recommended 11/12/2008 J. Fehmi 19
  • 20. •  Production ◦  How much aboveground biomass was produced?—  Species richness ◦  How many species grew?—  Functional group richness ◦  How many functional groups occurred?—  Shannon’s diversity index ◦  How even was the abundance of species?Soils, Rainfalls, Amendments 11/12/2008 J. Fehmi 20
  • 21. 1,800Aboveground dry weight (Kg/ha) 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 - Arkose Gila Glance Low RF Average RF High RFSoils and rainfall 11/12/2008 J. Fehmi 21
  • 22. 1,800Aboveground dry weight (kg/ 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 ha) 600 400 200 - None Straw Straw & Fert. Low RF Average RF High RFAmendments and rainfall 11/12/2008 J. Fehmi 22
  • 23. —  Thereare species sufficient to establish a rich productive native plant community on these materials.—  Some establishment occurs even in low rainfall.—  Soils vary in productivity, Arkose supports limited richness and productivity.—  Straw aided community productivity.Conclusions 11/12/2008 J. Fehmi 23