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Approaches and methods in EFL
 

Approaches and methods in EFL

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Language Theories and Language Learning Theories have a common purpose: the former seeks to explain how language works, and the latter attempts to state how additional languages are learned. Both ...

Language Theories and Language Learning Theories have a common purpose: the former seeks to explain how language works, and the latter attempts to state how additional languages are learned. Both theories provide implicit or explicit knowledge about how languages should be taught and practiced in the classroom. These theoretical positions and beliefs, best known as approach, explain the nature of language and the nature of language learning. SLA has been influenced by linguistic and psychological theories, essentially three: Structural, Cognitive and Sociocultural. These approaches, in turn, have been translated into a method - a generalized set of classroom specifications for accomplishing linguistic objectives, focusing on the goals of the teaching/learning process, learner roles, teacher roles and role of instructional materials. I consider five important language teaching methods that have made great contributions to SLA and best suit my teaching: The Grammar Translation Method, The Direct Method, The Audio-Lingual Method, The Communicative Language Teaching and The Experiential Learning Model. Methods can be defined as instructional systems that are applied in the classroom through techniques which are specific types of exercises, tasks, or activities used in class for the purpose of reaching pedagogical goals.

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    Approaches and methods in EFL Approaches and methods in EFL Presentation Transcript

    • SPECIALIZATION IN ENGLISHLANGUAGE AND TEACHING AS AFOREIGN LANGUAGEUniversidad Pedagógica NacionalBy: Deisy Beatriz Rosario Sánchez
    • APPROACHES TO ELTUNIT 3. LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODOLOGIES
    • INDEX The differences between approach, method and technique The Grammar Translation Method The Direct Method or Natural Approach The Audio-lingual Method The Experiential Learning Model Bibliography
    • The differences between approach, method and technique Approach Method (plan) Technique (procedure) A generalized set ofTheoretical positions and classroom specifications beliefs about the nature for accomplishing of language, the nature Specific types of of language learning linguistic objectives exercises, tasks, or (psycholinguistic and focusing on the: activities used in class cognitive processes Goals of the for the purpose of involved) and the teaching/learning applicability of both to reaching pedagogical Learner roles pedagogical settings goals. Teacher roles(successful use of these Role of instructional processes). materials. Why How What
    • The Grammar Translation MethodThe purpose of learning a foreign language is to be able to read literature writtenin the target language.Approach Theory of language: Structuralism Theory of language learning: Classical languagePrinciples of  Detailed analysis of the grammar rules to understandthe GTM and manipulate the morphology and syntax of the foreign language.  L1 is maintained as the reference system in the acquisition of the second language.  Reading and writing are the primary skills to be developed.
    • The Grammar Translation MethodThe purpose of learning a foreign language is to be able to read literature writtenin the target language.Principles of  Vocabulary selection is based on the reading texts used,the GTM and words are taught through bilingual word lists, dictionary study and memorization.  The sentence is the basic unit of teaching and language practice.  Accuracy is emphasized.  Grammar is taught deductively in an organized and systematic way.
    • The Grammar Translation MethodThe purpose of learning a foreign language is to be able to read literature writtenin the target language.Principles of  Students are taught to translate from one language tothe GTM another.  Having the students get the correct answers is considered very important.  Students should be conscious of the grammatical rules of the target language.Techniques  Translation of a literary passage.  Reading comprehension questions (questions and answers in English):
    • The Grammar Translation MethodThe purpose of learning a foreign language is to be able to read literature writtenin the target language.Techniques 1. To ask for information contained within the reading passage. 2. To make inferences based on the understanding of the text. 3. To relate the passage to students’ own experience.  Antonyms/synonyms.  Cognates.  Deductive application of rules.
    • The Grammar Translation MethodThe purpose of learning a foreign language is to be able to read literature writtenin the target language.Techniques  Fill-in-the-blanks.  Memorization.  Use words in sentences.  Composition.Role of the The authority in the classroom.teacherRole of students Passive receiver of instruction.
    • The Direct Method or Natural ApproachThe purpose of learning a foreign language is that students learn how tocommunicate by learning to think in the target language.Approach Theory of language: Communicative Theory of language learning: Creative Construction Theory (Stephen Krashen’s Theory)Principles of  Classroom instruction is conducted in the targetthe DM language.  Grammar is taught inductively (never explicit grammar rule given).  Concrete vocabulary is taught through objects (realia or pictures) and demonstration; abstract vocabulary is taught by association of ideas.
    • The Direct Method or Natural ApproachThe purpose of learning a foreign language is that students learn how tocommunicate by learning to think in the target language.Principles of  Speaking and listening skills are taught.the DM  Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized.  Reading and writing in the target language should be taught from the beginning of language instruction and it must be developed through practice with speaking.  Language is primarily spoken.
    • The Direct Method or Natural ApproachThe purpose of learning a foreign language is that students learn how tocommunicate by learning to think in the target language.Principles of  Students should learn to think in the target language asthe DM soon as possible by knowing how to ask questions and answer them.  Vocabulary is acquired more naturally using it in complete sentences.  Self-correction facilitates language learning.  Students should learn to think in the target language as soon as possible by knowing how to ask questions and answer them.
    • The Direct Method or Natural ApproachThe purpose of learning a foreign language is that students learn how tocommunicate by learning to think in the target language.Principles of  Vocabulary is acquired more naturally using it inthe DM complete sentences.  Self-correction facilitates language learning.  Students should learn to think in the target language as soon as possible by knowing how to ask questions and answer them.  Vocabulary is acquired more naturally using it in complete sentences.
    • The Direct Method or Natural ApproachThe purpose of learning a foreign language is that students learn how tocommunicate by learning to think in the target language.Principles of  Vocabulary is acquired more naturally using it inthe DM complete sentences.  Self-correction facilitates language learning.  Lessons should contain some conversational activity for students to use language in real contexts.  Students should be encouraged to speak as much as possible.
    • The Direct Method or Natural ApproachThe purpose of learning a foreign language is that students learn how tocommunicate by learning to think in the target language.Principles of  The syllabus is based on situations or topics.the DM  Learning another language involves learning how speakers of that language live.Techniques  Reading aloud.  Question and answer exercise.  Getting students to self-correct.  Conversation practice.
    • The Direct Method or Natural ApproachThe purpose of learning a foreign language is that students learn how tocommunicate by learning to think in the target language.Techniques  Fill-in-the-blank exercise (no explicit grammar rule applied).  Dictation.  Map drawing.  Paragraph writing.Role of the  Direct the class activities.teacher  Primary source of comprehensible input.
    • The Direct Method or Natural ApproachThe purpose of learning a foreign language is that students learn how tocommunicate by learning to think in the target language.Role of  Processor of comprehensible input in the targetstudents language.  Create a friendly and an interesting classroom atmosphere for learning.
    • The Audio-lingual MethodThe objective of learning a foreign language is that students be able to use thetarget language communicatively.Approach Theory of language: Structuralism Theory of language learning: BehaviorismPrinciples of  Language forms occur most naturally within a context.the ALM  The habits of students’ native language are thought to interfere with students’ attempt to master the target language.  A contrastive analysis between the students’ native language and the target language will reveal where a teacher should expect the most interference.
    • The Audio-lingual MethodThe objective of learning a foreign language is that students be able to use thetarget language communicatively.Principles of  Foreign language learning is basically a process ofthe ALM mechanical habit formation.  It is important to prevent learners from making errors (errors lead to bad formation of habits). When they occur they should be immediately corrected by the teacher.  The purpose of the language learning is to learn how to use the language to communicate.  Particular parts of speech occupy particular slots in sentences.
    • The Audio-lingual MethodThe objective of learning a foreign language is that students be able to use thetarget language communicatively.Principles of  Positive reinforcement helps the students to developthe ALM correct habits.  Students should learn to respond to verbal and non- verbal stimuli.  Pattern practice helps students to form habits which enable the students to use the patterns.  Students should overlearn (learn to answer automatically without stopping to think).
    • The Audio-lingual MethodThe objective of learning a foreign language is that students be able to use thetarget language communicatively.Principles of  The major objective of language teaching should be forthe ALM students to acquire the structural patterns; then vocabulary.  The learning of a foreign language should be the same as the acquisition of the native language.  The rules necessary to use the target language will be figured out or induced from examples.
    • The Audio-lingual MethodThe objective of learning a foreign language is that students be able to use thetarget language communicatively.Principles of  The major challenge of foreign language teaching isthe ALM getting students to overcome the habits of their native language (a comparison between the native and the target language will tell the teacher in what areas her students will probably experience difficulty).  Speaking is more basic to language than the written form.  The natural order of skill acquisition is: listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
    • The Audio-lingual MethodThe objective of learning a foreign language is that students be able to use thetarget language communicatively.Techniques  Dialog memorization.  Backward build-up (expansion) drill.  Repetition drill.  Chain drill.  Single-slot substitution drill.  Multiple-slot substitution drill.
    • The Audio-lingual MethodThe objective of learning a foreign language is that students be able to use thetarget language communicatively.Techniques  Transformation drill.  Question-and-answer drill.  Use of minimal pairs.  Complete the dialog.  Grammar game.Role of the  Model of the target language.teacher
    • The Audio-lingual MethodThe objective of learning a foreign language is that students be able to use thetarget language communicatively.Role of students  Imitators.
    • The Communicative Language TeachingThe goal is to enable students to communicate in the target languageappropriately within a specific social context (communicative competence).Approach Theory of language: Communicative Approach and Functional Approach (eclectic theoretical base). Theory of language learning: A Skill Learning Model of Learning (cognitive and behavioral aspects).Principles of  Language is a system for the expression of meaning.the CLT  The primary function of language is for interaction (pairs, trios, small groups, and whole group) and communication.
    • The Communicative Language TeachingThe goal is to enable students to communicate in the target languageappropriately within a specific social context (communicative competence).Principles of  The structure of language reflects its functional andthe CLT communicative uses.  Whenever possible, authentic language should be introduced (language as it is used in real contexts).  Being able to figure out the speaker’s or writer’s intentions is part of being communicatively competent.  The target language is a vehicle for classroom communication, nor just the object of study.  One function can have many different linguistic forms.
    • The Communicative Language TeachingThe goal is to enable students to communicate in the target languageappropriately within a specific social context (communicative competence).Principles of  The focus of the course is on real language use, athe CLT variety of linguistic forms are presented together.  The emphasis is on the process of communication rather than just mastery of language forms.  Students should work with language at the discourse level. They must learn about cohesion and coherence.  Students use the language through communicative activities such as games, role-plays, and problem solving-tasks.
    • The Communicative Language TeachingThe goal is to enable students to communicate in the target languageappropriately within a specific social context (communicative competence).Principles of  Truly communicative activities have three features inthe CLT common: information gap, choice and feedback.  Students should be given an opportunity to express their ideas and opinions.  Errors are tolerated and seen as a natural outcome of the development of communication skills.  Communicative interaction encourages cooperative relationships among students. It gives students the opportunity to work on negotiating meaning.
    • The Communicative Language TeachingThe goal is to enable students to communicate in the target languageappropriately within a specific social context (communicative competence).Principles of  The social context of the communicative event isthe CLT essential in giving meaning to the utterances.  Learning to use language forms appropriately is an important part of communicative competence.  In communicating, a speaker has a choice not only about what to say, but also how to say.  The grammar and the vocabulary that the students learn follow from the function, situational context, and the roles of the interlocutors.
    • The Communicative Language TeachingThe goal is to enable students to communicate in the target languageappropriately within a specific social context (communicative competence).Principles of  Learners need knowledge of forms, meanings andthe CLT functions.  Fluency and accuracy.  Students work on the four skills from the beginning.Techniques  Authentic materials, scrambled sentences, language games, picture strip story and role play.Role of the  Establish situations to promote communication.teacher  Facilitator in setting up communicative activities.
    • The Communicative Language TeachingThe goal is to enable students to communicate in the target languageappropriately within a specific social context (communicative competence).Role of students  Communicator, Cooperative, Collaborating and Active participant of their own learning process.
    • The Experiential Learning ModelLearning takes place when knowledge is created through the transformation ofexperience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping experience andtransforming it.Approach Theory of language: Constructivism and Sociocultural principles. Theory of language learning: Cognitive.Principles of  Significant learning takes place when the subject matterthe ELM is relevant to the personal interests of the student.  Learning which is threatening to the self (e.g., new attitudes or perspectives) is more easily assimilated when external threats are at a minimum.
    • The Experiential Learning ModelLearning takes place when knowledge is created through the transformation ofexperience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping experience andtransforming it.Principles of  Learning proceeds faster when the threat to the self isthe ELM low.  Self-initiated learning is the most lasting and pervasive.  Experiential Learning (EL) addresses the needs and wants of the learner.  Effective experiential learning will affect the learner’s cognitive structures (action theories), attitudes, values, perceptions and behavioral patterns.
    • The Experiential Learning ModelLearning takes place when knowledge is created through the transformation ofexperience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping experience andtransforming it.Principles of  People believe more in knowledge discoveredthe ELM themselves than in knowledge presented by others.  Learning is more effective when it is an active rather than a passive process.  The more supportive, accepting and caring the social environment, the freer we are to experiment with new behaviors, attitudes, actions and thoughts.
    • The Experiential Learning ModelLearning takes place when knowledge is created through the transformation ofexperience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping experience andtransforming it.Principles of  Intention represents the purposefulness that enablesthe ELM experience to become knowledge and, as such, is deeper than the goals, objectives, and activities that define the experience.  In Preparedness and Planning: Participants must ensure that they enter the experience with sufficient foundation to support a successful experience.  Authenticity: The experience must have a real world context and/or be useful and meaningful in reference to an applied setting or situation.
    • The Experiential Learning ModelLearning takes place when knowledge is created through the transformation ofexperience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping experience andtransforming it.Principles of  Reflection is the element that transforms simplethe ELM experience to a learning experience. For knowledge to be discovered and internalized the learner must test assumptions and hypotheses about the outcomes of decisions and actions taken, then weigh the outcomes against past learning and future implications.  Throughout the experiential learning process, the learner is actively engaged in posing questions, investigating, experimenting, being curious, solving problems, assuming responsibility, being creative, and constructing meaning.
    • The Experiential Learning ModelLearning takes place when knowledge is created through the transformation ofexperience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping experience andtransforming it.Principles of  Learners are engaged intellectually, emotionally, socially,the ELM soulfully and/or physically. This involvement produces a perception that the learning task is authentic.Role of the  Facilitator: setting suitable experiences, posingteacher problems, setting boundaries, supporting learners, insuring physical and emotional safety, and facilitating the learning process.  The educator recognizes and encourages spontaneous opportunities for learning.
    • The Experiential Learning ModelLearning takes place when knowledge is created through the transformation ofexperience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping experience andtransforming it.Role of the  The design of the learning experience includes theteacher possibility to learn from natural consequences, mistakes and successes.  Experienced language user.Role of students  Active constructor of knowledge.  Willing to be actively involved in the experience: self- initiative and attention to learn.  User of analytical skills to conceptualize the experience.
    • The Experiential Learning ModelLearning takes place when knowledge is created through the transformation ofexperience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping experience andtransforming it.Role of students  Abler to reflect on the experience.  Possessor of decision making and problem solving skills to use new ideas gained from the experience.
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY Standards of practice. Eight principles of good practice for all Experiential Learning Activities. Retrieved from http://www.colostate- pueblo.edu/careercenter/Documents/NSEE%20Standards%20of %20Practice.pdf Specialization in English Language Learning and Teaching as a foreign language, UPN, (2012). Abstract Conceptualization: Seven Functions of Language Learners. Retrieved from http://campusvirtual.upn.mx/eaile/mod/book/view.php?id=447&c hapterid=387 Specialization in English Language Learning and Teaching as a foreign language, UPN, (2012). Abstract Conceptualization. Taxonomy of Learning Domains. Retrieved from http://campusvirtual.upn.mx/eaile/mod/book/view.php?id=447&c hapterid=388
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY Specialization in English Language Learning and Teaching as a foreign language, UPN. (2012). Abstract Conceptualization. Task-Based Approach. Retrieved from http://campusvirtual.upn.mx/eaile/mod/book/view.php?id=447&c hapterid=389 Specialization in English Language Learning and Teaching as a foreign language, UPN, (2012). Abstract Conceptualization. Task-Based Approach. Retrieved from http://campusvirtual.upn.mx/eaile/mod/book/view.php?id=447&c hapterid=389 Smith, M. K. (2001). David A. Kolb on experiential learning. Retrieved October 17, 2008, from: http://www.infed.org/biblio/b- explrn.htm Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_styles
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (1997). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. A description and analysis. Cambridge University Press. Programas de Estudio. (2006). The notion of learning. Lengua Extranjera, Inglés. Educación Básica. Secundaria. p. 10. Programas de Estudio. (2006). The notion of learning. Lengua Extranjera, Inglés. Educación Básica. Secundaria. P. 15. Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S., & Baumgartner, L. M. (2007). Learning in adulthood: a comprehensive guide. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Experiential_learning
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY Macedo, Donaldo. (2000). Introduction to the Anniversary Edition of Pedagogy of the Oppressed: 30th Anniversary Edition. New York: Continuum International. P. 17. Retrieved from http://campusvirtual.upn.mx/eaile/mod/book/view.php?id=447&c hapterid=375 Larsen-Freeman, Diane. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. (Second Edition). Oxford University. Kolb’s Learning Styles and Experiential Learning Model. Retrieved from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/styles/kolb.html
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY Itin, C. M. (1999). Reasserting the Philosophy of Experiential Education as a Vehicle for Change in the 21st Century. The Journal of Experiential Education,.22(2), 91-98. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Experiential_learning Experiental Learning Principles. Retrieved from http://www.pathintl.org/images/pdf/conferences/national/present ations%20for%20web/2011/Pre-Conf-Ann-Alden.pdf