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Report in phn

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  • It must generate the best possible evidence from groups of subjects regarding the effectiveness and efficiency of various clinical courses of action. It must also translate this evidence (or the lack thereof) into rational clinical decisions pertaining to the management of individual patients. Clinical Epidemiology utilizes techniques developed by classical epidemiology, and adapts these to the study of individual patients. It incorporates concepts from related fields such as Bisotatistics, Health Social Science, and Health Economics. It deals mainly with the teaching of clinical research methodology and evidence based medicine.Over the past 15 years, Clinical Epidemiology has gained tremendous groud in terms of achievements and popularity. At least 3 textbooks bearing the title “Clinical Epidemiology” have been published. Articles on clinical decision-making and the assessment of clinical evidence have been proliferated in both local and international literature. Specific journals on clinical epidemiology have even begun to emerge and be used in General Medicine. An International Clinical Epidemiology Network (INCLEN) has been formed, facilitating the training of hundreds of clinical epidemiologists, across the globe, on the exchange information about doing and teaching clinical epidemiology.

Report in phn Report in phn Presentation Transcript

  • CONNECTING CIRCUITS
    EPIDEMIOLOGY AND VITAL STATISTICS
  • INTRODUCTION
    Complexity of Human Behavior
    Disease Intervention
    Alternative Solution
    CHANGE
  • OTTAWA CHARTER
    Health promotion to:
    Increase CONTROL
    (Health is a LIFE resource)
  • Structure of the Health System
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Concern: Epidemic
    Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary: “Medical science treating of epidemics”
    New standard dictionary of English Language:” the science or doctrine of epidemics”
    Stedman’s Practical Medical Dictionary: “the science of epidemics and endemic diseases”
    The American College Dictionary: “That branch of medicine dealing with epidemic diseases.”
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Concern: All Infectious Diseases
    Stallybass: “The science of infective diseases, their primary causes propagation and prevention.”
    Frost:”The science of the mass phenomena of infectious diseases or the natural history of infectious diseases.”
    Frost2: “ a science which will give, firstly, a picture of the occurrence distribution and the types of the infectious diseases of mankind, in distinct epochs of time and at various points of the earth’s surface; and secondly, will render an account of the relations of these diseases to the external surroundings of the individual and determining his manner of life.”
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Concern: Infectious and Non Infectious
    Greenwood: “The study of disease, as a mass phenomenon.”
    Lumsden: “The study of conditions known or reasonably supposed to influence the prevalence of disease.”
    American Epidemiological Society: “The science which concerns itself with the natural history of disease as it is expressed in groups of persons related by some common factors of age, sex, race, location or occupation, as distinct from the development of diseases in an individual”
    Hilleboe: “ a science of mass phenomena of diseases and human defects; it delineates significant variations of these phenomena in time and place and draws upon statistical methods and theory, all phases of medicine, and the natural science to give true picture of the occurrence, distribution and types of diseases or defects; it weighs the importance of variations of human traits and renders an account of the causal relationships of diseases or defects to the environmental factors surrounding the individuals under observations, representatives of the group from which they are drawn.
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Concern: Ecology of Health and Disease
    Maxcy: that field of medical science which is concerned with the relationships of the various factors and conditions which determine the frequency and distribution of an infectious disease, a process, or a physiologic state in a human community”
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Three Greek word roots make up the word epidemiology -- epi, demos, and logos. Epi means upon, on or over. Demos means people or populace. And logos can mean study, word, discourse, count, tell, say, or speak.
    http://www.usetinc.org/Programs/USET-THPS/TribalEpiCenter/DefiningEpidemiology.aspx
  • Clinical Epidemiology is defined as the “study of groups of people to achieve the background evidence needed for clinical decisions in patient care.” (White, 1996).
    http://clinical-epidemiology.ph/2009_10/modules/sections/index.php?op=viewarticle&artid=2
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Problem Solving Process
    Diagnostic Process
    Nursing Process
    Scientific Process
    Quality Improvement Cycle
    Public Health Intervention
    http://www.usetinc.org/Programs/USET-THPS/TribalEpiCenter/DefiningEpidemiology.aspx
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    CONCERNING ON:
    -Epidemic
    -All infectious Disease
    -Infectious and Non Infectious
    -Ecology of Health and Disease
  • Agent, host and Environment
    Primary point of interest in epidemiology is what happens to the host-whether it gets sick or not, whether it becomes a carrier, a source or a reservoir. To a greater extent, a fair deal of information about the agent can be gathered by studying the host reaction to it.
    -Remigio Mercado MD,MPH
    Epidemiology for the health administrator 1998, 2nd Edition
  • Agent, host and Environment
    “ Social work is the profession which is concerned with man’s adjustment to his environment------“social functioning”-roles
  • How HEALTH IS OBJECTIVELY MEASURE??
  • MAJOR SOURCES OF PHILIPPINE HEALTH INFORMATION
  • MAJOR SOURCES OF PHILIPPINE HEALTH INFORMATION
  • MAJOR SOURCES OF PHILIPPINE HEALTH INFORMATION
  • MAJOR SOURCES OF PHILIPPINE HEALTH INFORMATION
  • MAJOR SOURCES OF PHILIPPINE HEALTH INFORMATION
  • MAJOR SOURCES OF PHILIPPINE HEALTH INFORMATION
  • MAJOR SOURCES OF PHILIPPINE HEALTH INFORMATION
  • OTHER INFORMATION
    FOUNDATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY Inc.
    -member of the International Clinical Epidemiology Network.
    -non-profit
    http://clinical-epidemiology.ph/2009_10/modules/sections/index.php?op=listarticles&secid=3
  • INSTITUTE OF CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY
    -identification of effective and efficient health interventions.
    • They train “people” in this.=)
    • http://clinical-epidemiology.ph/2009_10/modules/sections/index.php?op=viewarticle&artid=3&page=3
  • ONE of their WORKS
    A) Dr. Cecilia S. Acuin2002 Effectiveness Trial of Zinc Supplementation + ORT for Acute Watery Diarrhea (WHO-JHU-INCLEN)2002 Process Documentation of the Convergence Strategy of the Health Sector Agenda (MSH-HSRTAP-DOH)2002 National Health Research System Assessment (COHRED-DOH-PCHRD)2001-2002 Prioritizing the Research Needs of the Health Sector Reform Agenda (DOH-ENHR)2001 A Baseline Assessment of the Philippine Strategy for IMCI in HKI-USAID Assisted Areas (DOH-HKI-USAID)2001 Mid-Term Review of DOH Vit. A Supplementation Program, “GaranstisadongPambata”, (DOH-HKI-USAID)2000- 2001 Development of an Integrated Reproductive Health Training Package (DOH-UNFPA)2000- 2001 Development of a Reproductive Health Data Base, (PCHRD)1999- 2000 Evaluation Study of an MCH/FP Matching Grant Program In the Philippines (Population Council, USAID)1999- 2000 Evaluating the Impact of Devolution as a Strategy for Equity in Health Care Delivery (WHO,DLSU-CEU)1998- 2000 Effectiveness of Dissemination of Clinical Practice Guidelines on UTI in the Philippines (co-author,INRUD, WHO, PSMID)
  • One of their works
    C) Prof. Rachel A. Delino2001-2003 Baseline Surveys for the National Objectives of Health (DOH)
  • Ongoing works
    ONGOING RESEARCHESA) Dr. Cecilia S. Acuin2002-2003 Child Health Nutrition Research in Asia and the Pacific: An Assessment of Research Priorities and Research Institutions (Global Forum for Health Research)B) Prof. Rachel A. Delino2002-2003 Effectiveness and Safety of a Community-Based Pill Dispensing Package(MSH-GTZ)2002-2003 World Health Survey (Philippines)(WHO)2003 Effectiveness of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Improving the Quality of Tuberculosis Care (DOH)2003-2004 An International Study of Health Research Funding Agencies’ Support and Promotion of Knowledge Translation in Low- And Middle-Income Countries (CIHR)C) Dr. Jesus Emmanuel A.D. SevillejaJan 2003 - present Effectiveness of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Improving the Quality of Tuberculosis Care in Public-Private Urban SettingsJan 2003- present Clinical Practice Guidelines on Urinary Tract Infections, updateJuly 2002-present Building a Collaborative Quality Improvement Model to Implement Hospital Infection Control ProgramsFeb 2002-present Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Different Dissemination Strategies Using Clinical Practice Guidelines on Urinary Tract Infectionhttp://clinical-epidemiology.ph/2009_10/modules/sections/index.php?op=viewarticle&artid=3&page=7
  • ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
  • ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
    apologizing to the officers working with the NSCB for suggesting in a previous column that “some” amount of doctoring was going on their Board because of the addition of 146, 582 babies to the actual number recorded in the 2000 census.
    --By BERNARDO VILLEGAS
    October 17, 2010, 11:52am
    Manila bulletin
  • ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
    The Philippines estimates its 2010 population at 94.01 million..making it the 12th most populous nation in the world.
    September 23, 2010, 8:00pm
    By Helen Flores of the PHILIPPINE STAR
     
  • ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
    Preliminary results from the 2008 National Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) showed that there was a significant decline in infant mortality rate IMR from 351 percent in 1998 to 249 percent in 2008. Infant mortality rate in the country declined from 35 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in the period 1993 to 1997 to 25 deaths per 1000 live births in 2003 to 2007, NSO administrator Carmelita Ericta told a media forum in Quezon City.
  • ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
    “The Philippines is among 68 countries which contributed to 97 percent of maternal, neonatal and child health deaths worldwide”
    --United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) in its State of the World's Children 2009 report.
  • ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
    nutritional status of Filipino ----the FNRI has commenced another survey, the 2003 National Nutrition Surveys (NNS). The survey is made up of the following components:
    (a) Anthropometric Nutrition Survey;
    (b) Biochemical Nutrition Survey;
    (c) Dietary Assessment Among 0-5 Year-Old Children, Pregnant and Lactating Women; Baseline Food Consumption Survey for Evaluating the Impact of the Food Fortification Program in the Philippines; and Household Food Security Survey; and
    (d) Clinical Phase: National Nutrition and Health Survey.
  • ReSEARCHES
    THESIS TITLE: Nurse’s structured Health Teaching Mother’s socio demographic characteristics and their knowledge and skills on Diarrhea
    SAYS THAT: There is a significant Difference in the level of knowledge and skills before and after structured Health teaching.
    --Malapitan Rosemarie L
    July 2000
  • Researches
    Thesis Title: Extent of Performance of the roles and functions of Community Nurses in Northern Samar basis for Educational Program Development
    SAYS THAT: There is a relationship Between socio-demographic profile and extent of performance as community organizer and recommends determination of number of service and training of Public Health Nurses.
    Cagro, Maryflor
    2003
  • THANK you!!
    ROSALIE CASTRO RN, MSN
    rosaliecastrorn@yahoo.com