Khmer nation leader 2 new

303 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
303
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Khmer nation leader 2 new

  1. 1. esckIþEføgGMNrKuN Cabzm´sUmRkabfVaybgÁM RBHBuT§ RBHFm’ RBHsgÇRKb;RBHGgÁ EdlCamøb;d¾RtCak;sMrab;BuT§sanikCnRKb;rUb nigCamUldæanRKwHd¾sMxan; sMrab;EfrkSakarBarCatiExμrRKb;sm½ykal. ´sUmelIkhtßafVaybgÁM elak«Buk Gñkmþay CaGñkmanKuNd¾elIslub)anpþl;kMeNIteGay´ekItmkCaCatiExμr. sUmeKarBEføgGMNrKuNdl;elakRKU GñkRKU saRsþacarüTaMgGs; Edl)anpþl;cMeNHdwgdl;´nigkulbuRt kulFItaExμrRKb;rUb RBmTaMgsUmEføgGMNrKuNdl;Gs;elak elakRsI CnrYmCatiExμrTaMgGs; Edl)anGanesovePAenH nigCYy]btßmÖKaMRT. esovePA emdwknaMCatiExμr PaK 2 Edl´cgRkgeLIgenH edIm,I]TÞisdl; RBH)aTC½yvrμ½nTI 7 nigRBHmhakSRt emdwknaMesñhaCatiExμr vir³CnExμr TaMgGs; EdlxitxMdwknaMRbeTsExμrknøgmkGs;BIkmøaMgkaycitþ edIm,IEfrkSakarBar Cati sasna RbCaCatiExμr TWkdIExμr eGay)ansuxsuPmgÁl rIkcMerInrugerOgsMrab;kUnecAExμr RKb;CMnan;rs;enA CaBiess ´sUmbYgsYgdl;vtßús½kásiTi§TaMgGs; EdlmanenAkñúgTwkdIExμrCYyeGayesovePAenH pSBVpSay RCYtRCabdl;citþ KMnit R)aCJa RbCaCatiExμr kulbuRt kulFItaExμrTaMgGs;enARKb;TwsTITaMgkñúg nigeRkARbeTs. esovePAenHCakarrYmcMENkd¾tictYcsþÜcesþIg kñúgkarbNþúHbNþalFnFanmnusS pþl;cMeNHdwgbEnßmdl;bgb¥Ún sisS nisSit GñksikSaRsavRCav RbCaCatiExμrTaMgGs; GMBIKMnitemdwknaMrbs;bNþaRbeTsGPivDÆn_mYycMnYn edIm,ITajykRTwsþIl¥² bTBiesaFn_sMxan;² nigKMnitfμI² mkGnuvtþn_kñúgkardwknaMRbeTsExμreyIgCaBiess tamry³esovePAenH GacbgðajpøÚvdl;GñkesñhaCatiExμr kUnExμr RbCaCatiExμrTaMgGs; h‘anegIbeLIgkarBar rMedaH Cati sasna RbCaCatiExμr eGayrYcputBI GaNaniKmn_kumμúynisþyYnEbbfμI nigrbbkumμúynisþpþac;kar h‘un Esn EdlCab£sKl;bBaðaelIbBaðaTaMgLayEdlkMBugekItmanenAkñúgRbeTsExμrsBVéf¶ edIm,IeGayRbeTsExμr CatiExμreyIgrIkcMerInrugerOgdUcRbeTsdéTenAkñúgBiPBelak. ´sgÇwmfaesovePAenH nwgCYybMPøWdl;bgb¥Ún sisS nisiSt CMnan;eRkay nigGs;elak elakRsIEdlmanbMNgcg;køayCaemdwknaMl¥ sMrab;sgÁmCatiExμr k¾dUcCasMrab;dwknaMtambNþasßab½nepSg²TaMgkñúgÉkCnrdæ nigeRkArdæaPi)al. ´yl;fa karsresrGacminTan;)anRKb;RCugeRCayenAeLIyeT enAmanxVHcenøaH xusqÁgxøH²edayRbkarepSg²Caminxan Et´rIkrayTTYlnUvmtiriHKn;Eklm¥RKb;Ebbya:gGMBIelakGñkGan. cugbBa©b;enH ´sUmpþaMepJIGs;elakGñkGan sUmGanesovePAenHeGaycb;RKb;Gtßn½y edIm,IykmkKitRtiHriHBicarNa TukCabTBiesaFn_ RTwsþI cMeNHdwg ykeTAdwknaMRbeTsExμr eGay)anCaplRbeyaCn_Bit²CUnsgÁmCatiExμr RbCaBlrdæExμr )anrIkcMerIn suxsuPmgÁl rYcBIPaBRkIRk nigmansiTi§esrIPaBeBjeljCaExμr.´sUmCUnBrdl;Gs;elak GñkGanTaMgGs; eFIVkic©karGIV²RKb;ya:g)ansMerceCaKC½ydUckarb:gR)afña nigCYbEtBuT§BrTaMgR)aMRbkar KW Gayu vNѳ sux³ Bl³ nig bdiPaN³ kMubIXøagXøateLIy. eFIVenAva:sIunetan éf¶TI 09 Ex mkra qñaM 2009 bNÐit s FmμrgSIniBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             i rkSasiTi§
  2. 2. GarmÖkfa esovePAemdwknaMCatiExμrPaK 2 Edlbgb¥ÚnCnrYmCatiExμrkMBugGanenAkñúgédenH KWCakUnesovePAtUcmYysMrab;bMPøWpøÚvdl;RBHetCKuN sisS nisSit GñkesñhaCatiExμrRKb;RsTab;kñúgsgÁm nigkulbuRtkulFItaExμr eGay)anyl;dwgbEnßmGMBIkardwknaM edIm,ICYyRCMuERCg kñúgkargarCYyrMedaHRbeTsCatimatuPUmiExμr eGayrYcputBIEpnkaryYnkumμúynisþ ¬NÐÜcin¦ EdlkMBugEtRtYtRtaTaMgExμreRkam nigRbeTsExμrnaeBlbc©úb,nñ. ExμrRKb;rUbmanEtkarQWcab; BImYyCMnan;eTAmYyCMnan; EtkarQWcab;enH enAEtKrelIKMnrTukçRbCaBlrdæExμrdEdl. edayRbCaBlrdæExμr mindwgriHrkviFImYyNa eFIVya:gdUcemþc edIm,IedaHRsaybBaða EdlkMBugEtekItmaneLIgenHeGaycb;nigrYcputBIekñobrbs;kumμúynisþyYn edIm,IeGayExμrTTYl)ansuxekSmkSanþeLIy. ExμreyIgmanEtkmøaMgcitþ EtxVHkmøaMgR)aCJa tamyuT§saRsþelak s‘un s‘U ebIeyIgcg;ykQñHsRtUv eyIgRtUvykQñHxagyuT§saRsþ. ehtudUecñHehIy GñkniBn§xitxMcgRkgesovePAenHeLIgTukCak,Ünxñat KWkñúgeKalbMNgrYmcMENkpSBVpSay dl;kulbuRtkulFItaExμr GñkesñhaCatiExμrBIRKb;mCÄdæan eGay)anyl;dwgxøH² GMBIrebobdwknaM edIm,IcUlrYmcMENkrMedaHRbeTsCatieyIg eGaymanÉkraCüPaB snþiPaB siTi§esrIPaBeBjelj ]tþmPaB rugerOg kñúgnamCaExμrminRBmsøab;dUcBs; rs;dUckEgáb dUcsBVéf¶enHeLIy. kUnExμrTaMgGs;RtUvdwgfa vasnaGnaKtCatiExμr KWsißtenAelIkNþab;édrbs;RBHetCKuNRKb;RBHGgÁ sisS nisSit bgb¥Ún CnrYmCatiExμrTaMGs; EdlmanesovePAGanenAkñúgédenHehIy. ebIelakGñk)anyl;ehIy eXIjehIy sUmrYmcMENk lHbg; KaMRT minfatic b¤eRcIn tamlT§PaBenaHCatieyIgnigrs;esμImuxCatisasn_déT minRBmsißtenAeRkamkarRtYtRtarbs;breTs dUcyYnRtYtRtaExμrsBVéf¶ tamry³ h‘un Esn eRbICa kUnGuk nigykeQμaHesþc sIhnu CarnaMg eGayExμreyIgs¶b;citþ yl;xusfaRbeTsExμrmansuxsniþPaB vaeFIVeGayExμremIleXIj manLan luy vILa CaerOgGs©arü EtKYreGayGaNitGasUrQamExμreBkéRk EdlenAEthUr enAEtRkIRk nigKYreGaysEgVkdl;QamExμrEdl)ansøab; enAelIsmrPUminigGñksøab; kñúgrbbkm<úCaRbCaFibetyüknøgmk. CnrgeRKaHExμrsBVéf¶ rs;enArgTukçevTna KμanGñkrkyutþiFm’KμanGñkykcitþTukdak; EtpÞúyeTAvij yYnsuxcitþbUCaCivit nigeFIVGIVRKb;ya:g edIm,IeKaledAFMbMputrbs;va KWykTwkdIExμr eRBaHTwkdIExμrsMxan;Cagvtßú nigsmÖar³TaMgGs;enaH KWBYkvaeRbIneya)ayRtCak; mkdeNþImykplRbeyaCn_BIExμr nigRtYtRtakñúgRksYgsMxan;dUcCa b:UlIs Tahan RksYgkarbreTs ehIyyYnbegIátsmaKmn_19 extþRkug nigecjcUlmincaM)ac;manTidæakar edIm,IbBa¢ÚnCnCatiyYnbnþicmþg² mktaMgTIlMenAelITwkdIExμr TIbMputExμrkøayCaCnCatiPaKticrbs;yYn dUcman cam nig ExμreRkam Ca]TahrN_Rsab;. 3niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             ii rkSasiTi§
  3. 3. TsSn³GñkniBn§ ´mankaresaksþay nigxVl;xVayya:gxøaMg cMeBaHvasnaGnaKtRbeTsCati vasnakulbuRtkulFItaExμrCMnan;eRkay sþayTwkdI ekrþ×dMENldUntaEdlxitxMksagTuk buBVbursExμr)anbUCalHbg;QamRss; sac;Rss;edIm,IEfrkSaTwkdITuksMrab;kUnExμrCMnan;enH. RseNaHBUCsasn_ExμrEdlFøab;l,IrnÞWkñúgelak minKYrFøak;kñúgsßanPaBdUcsBVéf¶ RtUvcMNuHbreTs RtYtRtaemIlgayeLIy. lT§plEdlyYn)anGnuvtþl,icklneya)aye)akR)as;cMeBaHCatiExμr BIGtItkal nigbc©úb,nñ edIm,IplRbeyaCn_CatixøÜn nigsMerceKalbMNgcugeRkayrbs;shB½n§NÐÚcin KWyYnRtYtRtaTwkdINÐÚcinTaMgmUl Edlman Exμr Lav camCaedIm. minEtb:ueNÑaH yYn)aneFIVeGayCatiExμrrgTukçevTna søab;rgÁal KμankIþemtþatamliTi§kumμúynisþ minfaExμreRkam b¤Exμrbc©úb,nñ EdlmanQamC½rExμrEtmYyeLIy. yYnlabBN’eGayExμrvegVg kab;smøab;RbCaBlrdæExμr eFIVeGayExμrhinehacexøacpSar edayeRbICnBalelμaPGMNac h‘un Esn CakUnGuk. cugeRkayyYnbBa¢ÚnCnCatixøÜnmkrs;enAelITwkdIExμr edayEkøgbnøMxøÜn eFIVCaExμrfμI. edIm,IpþÜlrMelIgCatisasn_mYyeGayexSay yYn)aneRbIRKb;yuT§saRsþ eRbImenaKmn_kumμúynisþbMBak;bMb:nExμr edIm,IbMpøajFnFanmnusS kab;sMlab;GñkR)aCJ GñkecHdwg bBaØvnþExμr GñkesñhaCati¬sm½y b:ul Bt¦ edaybnSl;TukenAGñkTn;exSay GñkecHtictYc edIm,IyYngayRsYlbMBak;bMb:nmenaKmn_kumμúynisþbEnßm bEgVrTisedAbMerIneya)ay ¬plRbeyaCn_¦ eGayxøÜneTAvij. karsMlab;GñkecHdwg GñkesñhaCatiExμr edayecaTfaRkumExμresrI ¬briva¦ enHsreGayeXIjfaTaMg sIhnu nig h‘un Esn CaCnEdllg;menaKmn_kumúμynisþ yYn cin ePøcKitfaGñksøab;RbmaNCit 3 lannak; CaCatiExμr manQamC½rCaExμrBYkeKbnþkab;smøab; GñkesñhaCatiExμr KμanseNþasRbNI dUcsRtUvrbs;xøÜnKμanemtþa. kareFIVEbbenH eRBaH sIhnunig h‘un Esn xøac)at;bg;GMNac raCblø½gÁ EdlyYnelIkeGay. rhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶enH etIExμr)anTTYlplRbeyaCn_GIVxøHBIyYn eRkAEtBImanbBaðaminecHcb;; eFIVTukçbukemñjExμr kab;smøab;ExμrCabnþbnÞab; ecaTExμrGñkesñhaCati edIm,Ismøab; cab;dak;KukCaedIm. BYkeKeFIVdUckalEdl sIhnu ecaTExμr ln; nl; sirImt³ RBabnÞ sm sarI sIg g:ukfaj; EdlCaGñkesñhaCatiedjyYn faCaGñkk,t;CatieTAvij b:uEnþ cMeBaHCnCatiyYneBl sIhnu cab;)an ehIyElgeGayRtLb;eTARbeTsyYnvij kalBI sIhnu CYyyYneyokkug¬1964-1970¦cMENk h‘un Esn GnuBaØat eGayyYncUlmkTwkdIExμr kat;TwkdIExμreGayyYn ¬45 PaKryénépÞdIExμrsBVéf¶RtUv)aneFIVsm,Tan eGayRkumh‘unyYn EdlmankugRta 99 qñaM¦ eKyl;famink,t;Cati lk;CatieT EteKfavaCacMNgmitþPaBevotNam km<úCaeTAvij . etITegVIEbbenHcat;TukfaCaemdwknaM eFIVedIm,IplRbeyaCn_CatiExμrb¤sMrab;bMerIplRbeyaCn_yYn ebIeFIVsMrab;plRbeyaCn_yYn eyIgGaccat; TukfaCaCnk,t;CatiExμr)anEdr b¤eT? karRsavRCavcgRkgesovePAenHeLIg eTaHbICaCIvit´RtUvsøab; edayBYk h‘un Esn k¾eday k¾´minxøacsøab; ´suxcitþlHbg;CIvit edIm,ICatiExμrrs; RtUvEtsresrkarBittamkarsikSaRsavRCav BIbNþaRbeTseCOnelOnmYycMnYndUcCashrdæGaemrik nigshKmn_GWrub cin Cb:un kUer: EdlCaRbeTsmhaGMNaceCOnelOnPaKeRcInCaPasaGg;eKøs rYmCamYybTBiesaFn_rbs;´xøH EdlFøab;)anqøgkat; edIm,IEksRmYlCaPasarExμreGaygayGan sRmYldl;karRsavRCavrbs;RBHetCKuN sisS nisSit nigRbCaBlrdæExμrTUeTA. esovePAenHqøúHniBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             iii rkSasiTi§
  4. 4. bBa©aMgsgÁmExμrbcú©úb,nñ eFobeTA niwgRbeTsdéT mkbgðajpøÚv pþl;CaKtisMrab;RtiHriHBicarNa etIeyIgRtUvedaHRsaybBaðaRbeTsCatirbs;eyIg tamviFINa? edIm,ICYyRbCaCatiExμreGayrYcputBITukçevTna nwgeGayrIkcMerIndUcRbeTsdéT. ebIeyIgemIleXIjGIVEdlfμI GacEkERbeGayeq<aHeTArkvDÆnPaB enaHeyIgRtUvEtpøas;bþÚrEkERbedayminTukeGayenAdEdlnUvGIVEdleyIgemIleXIjfa eFIVeGayRbeTsCatiFøak;eTAkñúgPaBGnþray søab;Cati)at;bg;siT§i )at;bg;GFibetyüenaHeLIy. GayuCivitRbeTsCati mansar³sMxan;CagGayuCivitrbs;eyIgxøaMgNas; ehtudUecñH GIVEdlCakarRsavRCavcgRkgesovePAenH edaykaremIleXIjsgÁmExμr CatiExμrkMBugEtFøak;kñúgkNþab;édyYn eyIgTaMgGs;KñaRtUvEtha‘nniyay h‘aneFIV nigsamKÁIKñaCaFøúgmYy edIm,ICatiExμr sasna RbCaCatiExμr TwkdIExμr nigkUnecAExμrCMnan;eRkay kMueGayrgTukçevTna dUceyIgbc©úb,nñenH RtUvbreTsemIlgayemIlefakcMeBaHCatieyIg. eyIgmanTwkdIkMeNIt manCatisasn_mYyEdr EtRtUvXøatq¶ayBITwkdIkMeNItCaTIRsLaj;rbs;eyIg mkrs;enARbeTseK)ansuxEtmñak;Ég RkumRKYsar EtebIeyIgRkeLkemIleTAkñúgRbeTsExμr CatiExμrTaMgmUl EdlmanRbCaBlrdæExμrrab;lannak; KμansiTi§esrIPaBeBjelj rgTukçevTna Qwcab;BImYyéf¶eTAmYyéf¶ edaysarEtBYkemdwknaMmYycMnYntUc EdlGtμaniym GviC¢a elμaPGMNac niglaPskáar³ EdlyYnerobcMpþl;GMNaceGay etIeyIgsuxcitþRTaMemIlTukçevTnaRbCaBlrdæExμrTaMgGs;enaH EdlmanQamC½rCaExμrdUceyIg b¤mYyya:gNa. eyIgRtUvKitfaebIeTaHCaRtUvsøab;edayRbkarNamYyk¾eday k¾søab;edaykIþsb,ayrIkray nigmanemaTnPaB BIeRBaHeyIg)aneFIVKuNRbeyaCn_sMrab;CatieyIgbnþicbnþÜcEdr eFIVedIm,ICatiExμr sMrab;kUnExμrCMnan;eRkay eGayyl;dwgGMBIbBaðaRbeTsCatixøÜn. dUcCasmþIrbs; RbFanaFibtIGaemrikeQμaH cn xinDI )anmanRbsasn_fa {cUrGñkkMuKitfaCati)anpþl;GIVxøHdl;Gñk EtGñkRtUv Kitfa eyIgmñak;²)aneFIVGIVxøHCaRbeyaCn_dl;CatieyIg ehIyb¤enA?}. cugbBa©b;enH ´sUmpþaMepJIdl;Gs;elakGñkGanTaMgGs; xitxMRsavRCavGanesovePAeGayeRcInCaerogrhUt sþab;viTüúBt’manepSg²RbcaMéf¶ GegátemIlBIRKb;sßankarN_ eronBIRKb;TIkEnøg sþab;BIRKb;mnusS minfamnusScas;ekμg mitþP½RkeLIy ykmkRtiHriHBicarNa EtRKUTI1Edll¥ KWesovePAl¥. ebIeyIgGanesovePAminRtUvGanEtRkbxageRkAeLIy eyIgRtUvGanGtßn½yxagkñúgeGaycb; l¥itl¥n;eTIbyl;dwgkan;EteRCA. cMENkkareronsURt KWeronKμanTIbBa©b;eLIy eronrhUtdl;cugbBa©b;énCivit. GIVEdleyIgGaceFIV)anenAéf¶enH eyIgRtUveFIVenAéf¶enH eyIgminRtUvbeNþaycaMéf¶Es¥keLIy. ral;kic©karTaMgLayEdleFIV RtUvEtykKm<Irk,Ünxñat RtwmRtUvmkeFIVCaeKal. ral;eBleFIVGIVmYyRtUvKitBIplcMeNj plRbeyaCn_GtibrmaCanic© etIkic©karenaH manRbeyaCn_sMrab;xøÜnÉg sMrab;sgÁmCati sMrab;RbeTsCatieyIg nigsMrab;BiPBelakb¤eT?. ebIkic©karNa EdlKμanRbeyaCn_kMucMNayeBlevlatRbeyaCn_eFIVvaeTot. RbeTsCatirIkcMerInmYycMnYn eKlHbg;plRbeyaCn_tUc cab;ykplRbeyaCn_FM dUcCaRBHBuT§suxcitþlHbg;esckþIsux GMNacCaesþcEpndI lHbg;kamtNða edIm,IEsVgrkFm’CYymnusSelakpgEdr. eyIgCaGñkesñhaCatiExμr RtUvKitKUrplRbeyaCn_CatiCaFM xøaMgCagplRbeyaCn_buKÁl ¬tUc¦mann½yfa plRbeyaCn_CatiExμrTaMgmUl EdleyIgmanedImkMeNIt CaExμr manTwkdI RbCaBlrdæExμr vtßúmantMélepSg²dUcCa éRBeQI Er: R)asaTGgÁrvtþCaedIm.l. TaMgGs;enHmantMélCagCiviteyIgmñak;xøaMgNas; eRBaHfaeyIgekItmkehIyrEmgsøab;eTAvij éf¶NamYyminxaneLIy KμannNamñak;eCosputBIesckþIsøab;eLIy. dUecñHniBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             iv rkSasiTi§
  5. 5. eyIgminRtUvxøacesckþIsøab;eLIy eyIgRtUvEtnaMKñarYbrYmsamKÁIKñaeLIg eFIVRbeyaCn_CUnCatiExμrTaMgmUl edIm,IeGayRbCaBlrdæExμr EdlkMBugrgcaMGñkmanbuNümkCYyseRgÁaH )ansuxsanþedaysareyIg eTIbCatiExμreyIgecosputBIkaremIlgay emIlefak BICatisasn_déT)an. CamYyKñaenHEdr ´sUmGMBavnav dl;Gs;elakGñkesñhaCatiExμrTaMgGs; EdlmanbMNgcg;CYyCatiExμrCYye)aHBumÖesovePAenH b¤ftcMlgEckcaypSBVpSaydl;RbCaBlrdæExμrenAkñúgRbeTs tamlT§PaBEdlGaceFIV)anedIm,IeGayBYkKat;yl;dwgbEnßm manqnÞ³ rYmcMENkCYyCatiExμreyIgeGayrs;eLIgvij. sUmGrRBHKuN nig GrKuN¡¡¡¡¡ 3C3niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             v rkSasiTi§
  6. 6. matikaesckþIEføgGMNrKuN ------------------------------------------------------------------iGarmÖkfa ------------------------------------------------------------------------- iiTsSn³GñkniBn§ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- iii CMBUkTI 1 begIátckçúvis½yI.GgÁkardwknaM ----------------------------------------------------------------------2 1-begIátRkumkargarEdlmanqnÞ³dUcKña ---------------------------------------------3 k-eKalbMNgrYm ------------------------------------------------------ 6 x-tMrUvtamsßankarN_ ---------------------------------------------------7 K-PaBs¥itrmYt --------------------------------------------------------7 X-rwgbwug maMmYn mutRsYc ------------------------------------------------ 8 2-begIátrcnasm<½n§ nigkarEbgEckParkic© tYnaTI -------------------------------------- 9 k-GMNackñúgkarsMerccitþ ------------------------------------------------ 9 x-GMNacEbgEckFnFan ------------------------------------------------ 9 K-GMNacEtgtaMg nig bBaÄb;kargar ---------------------------------------- 9 X-GMNaceFIVeGayGgÁkardwknaMsMerceKaledA --------------------------------10 3-eRCIserIsemdwknaM ---------------------------------------------------------10 4-RbB½n§RKb;RKgrdæ)al ------------------------------------------------------ 12 k-kariyal½y nigmuxgarenAkñúgkariyal½y---------------------------------- 12 x-karKUrbøg;kariyal½y ------------------------------------------------ 12 K-Parkic©rbs;GñkTTYlePJov -------------------------------------------- 12 X-Parkic©rbs;elxaFikar ---------------------------------------------- 13 g-c,ab; nig nitiviFI---------------------------------------------------- 13 c-RbB½n§RtYtBinitü ----------------------------------------------------14 q-RbB½n§eFIVEpnkar ----------------------------------------------------14 C-crnþBt’man nig TMnak;TMng---------------------------------------------14 Q-rkSaTuk nigkarBarBt’man --------------------------------------------15 j-dMeNIrkarhirBaØvtßú nigParkic©KNenyü-----------------------------------15 6-ynþkarsMrbsMrYl--------------------------------------------------------- 16 k-KN³kmμkar ------------------------------------------------------ 17niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             vi rkSasiTi§
  7. 7. x-karRbCMu --------------------------------------------------------- 17 K-GCJakNþal ------------------------------------------------------ 18II.c,ab; vin½y RkmsIlFm’ ----------------------------------------------------------- 18 1-begIátc,ab; lkçnþik³ bTbBa¢aépÞkñúg ---------------------------------------------19 2-TMnYlxusRtUvRkmsIlFm’ ----------------------------------------------------19 3-témøRkmsIlFm’ nigqnÞ³ ----------------------------------------------------19 4-PaBxøaMg PaBeCOCak; PaBR)akdniym -------------------------------------------20III.dMeNIrkar----------------------------------------------------------------------20 1-karGnuvtþPaBCaGñkdwknaM --------------------------------------------------- 21 k-begIátdMNak;kargar------------------------------------------------- 22 x-begIátlkç½x½NÐkargar------------------------------------------------ 22 K-begIátRbB½n§kargar ------------------------------------------------- 22 X-crwklkçN³GgÁkardwknaM -------------------------------------------- 22 2-karbBa¢a --------------------------------------------------------------- 23 k-eKalbMNg ------------------------------------------------------ 23 x-TwsedA---------------------------------------------------------- 23 K-eKaledA ---------------------------------------------------------24 X-ebskkmμ --------------------------------------------------------24 g-karelIkTwkcitþ -----------------------------------------------------24 3-karRKb;RKg -------------------------------------------------------------26 4-karRtYtBinitü-------------------------------------------------------------26IV.karRbNaMgRbECg ---------------------------------------------------------------26 1-h‘anRbfuy------------------------------------------------------------- 27 2-karvaytMél ------------------------------------------------------------28 3-tRmUvkar ---------------------------------------------------------------28V.ÉkeTs -----------------------------------------------------------------------29 1-CMnajviC¢aCIv³-------------------------------------------------------------29 2-kareCaKC½y -------------------------------------------------------------29 3-KMnit -------------------------------------------------------------------29 4-karTMnak;TMng ------------------------------------------------------------29 5-CMnaj nigkarbuinRbsBV----------------------------------------------------- 30niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             vii rkSasiTi§
  8. 8. 6-karBüakrN_ ------------------------------------------------------------ 30 7-karéqñRbDit------------------------------------------------------------- 30 8-GBÖnþr³jaN ------------------------------------------------------------ 31 9-karpþÜcepþIm-------------------------------------------------------------- 31 10-KMnitfμI---------------------------------------------------------------- 31 CMBUkTI 2 sßankarN_RbeTsExμrI>ktþaEdlnaMeGayRbeTsExμrrIkcMerInrugerOg ---------------------------------------------- 33 1-emdwknaMl¥ -------------------------------------------------------------- 34 2-neya)aydwknaMÉkraCü ---------------------------------------------------- 35 3-karRKb;RKgrdæl¥ --------------------------------------------------------- 37 4-sm,ÚrFnFan ------------------------------------------------------------ 38 5-KμankareRCotERCkBIbreTs ------------------------------------------------- 38 6-ExμreGaytMélelICatiExμrxøÜnÉg ---------------------------------------------- 38 7-KitRbeyaCn_CatiFMCagRbeyaCn_buKÁl ----------------------------------------- 38 karsnñidæan---------------------------------------------------------------- 39II>ktþaEdlnaMeGayRbeTsExμrFøak;cuH ----------------------------------------------------40 1-kMesayemdwknaM ----------------------------------------------------------40 k-neratþm sIhnu -----------------------------------------------------41 x-ln; nl; ----------------------------------------------------------44 K-b:ul Bt ----------------------------------------------------------45 X-h‘un Esn---------------------------------------------------------47 2-neya)aydwknaM ----------------------------------------------------------48 k-sgÁmraRsþniym ----------------------------------------------------48 x-saFarN³rdæExμr ----------------------------------------------------50 K-km<úCaRbCaFibetyü -------------------------------------------------51 X-saFarN³rdæRbCamanitkm<úCa ¬yYnkan;kab;¦ ------------------------------56 g-RBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa ------------------------------------------------60 g-1-briyakasneya)ay -----------------------------------------62 g-2-KNbkSneya)ay-------------------------------------------62 g-3-kat;eTasExμrRkhm------------------------------------------64 g-4-CemøaHdIFIø --------------------------------------------------66niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             viii rkSasiTi§
  9. 9. g-5-GMeBIBukrlYy -----------------------------------------------67 g-6-R)asaTRBHvihar --------------------------------------------68 3-kareRCotERCkBIbreTs ¬sRgÁam¦---------------------------------------------69 k-karQøanBanrbs;esom------------------------------------------69 x-karQøanBanrbs;yYn -------------------------------------------70 4-ExμrmineGaytMélelICatixøÜnÉg----------------------------------------------- 71 5-KitRbeyaCn_buKÁlFMCagRbeyaCn_Cati ----------------------------------------- 72 CMBUkTI 3 begIátkarpøas;bþÚrI.begIátyuT§saRsþ ------------------------------------------------------------------74 1-ebskkmμ ---------------------------------------------------------------74 2-eKalbMNg --------------------------------------------------------------75 k-pøas;bþÚremdwknaM nigrcnasm<½n§ ------------------------------------------75 x-pøas;bþÚrneya)aydwknaM -----------------------------------------------75 K-pøas;bþÚrRbB½n§RKb;RKg ------------------------------------------------76 X-bNþúHKMnitCatiniymTUlMTUlay---------------------------------------- 77 g-karBarkareRCotERCkBIbreTs----------------------------------------- 77 c-KitplRbeyaCn_CatiFMCagRbeyaCn_buKÁl -------------------------------- 77II-eRCIserIsyuT§saRsþ nig]bkrN_ ---------------------------------------------------- 78 k-neya)ay ---------------------------------------------------------------79 x-eXasna ----------------------------------------------------------------79 K-hirBaØvtßú ----------------------------------------------------------------79 X-kgT½B -----------------------------------------------------------------80 g-karTUt ------------------------------------------------------------------80III.Gnuvtþn_yuT§saRsþ nigkll,ic s‘un sU‘ -------------------------------------------------80 1-eronRbyuT§ ------------------------------------------------------------- 81 2-bgðajpøÚv --------------------------------------------------------------- 81 3-Gnuvtþn_eGayRtUv--------------------------------------------------------- 81 4-sÁal;sßankarN_ ---------------------------------------------------------- 81 5-KitEpnkarcaj; ---------------------------------------------------------- 81 6-begIánel,ÓnedIm,IeCaKC½y ---------------------------------------------------82 7-dutqnÞ³ -----------------------------------------------------------------82niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             ix rkSasiTi§
  10. 10. 8-eFIVeGayRbesIreLIg--------------------------------------------------------82 9-ÉkPaBKña xitxMrYmKña------------------------------------------------------- 83 10-eFIVeGaysRtUvsgS½yrhUt ------------------------------------------------- 83IV.vaytMélyuT§saRsþ ------------------------------------------------------------- 83 CMBUkTI 4 begIátGñkGnuvtþn_tamI.karP¢ab;TMnak;TMng-----------------------------------------------------------------86 1-begðIbBITsSn³------------------------------------------------------------86 2-bgðajckçúvis½y -----------------------------------------------------------86 3-pSBVpSayckçúvis½y --------------------------------------------------------86 4-bgðajeKalkarN_ TwsedA eKaledA --------------------------------------------86 5-bgðajBIviFIsaRsþ yuT§saRsþ EdlnwgsMerceKaledA -------------------------------- 87 6-bgðajBIplRbeyaCn_EdlnwgTTYl)an ----------------------------------------- 87II>ktþaEdleFIVeGaymnusSedIrtamemdwknaM ----------------------------------------------- 87 1-cat;TukCamnusSsMxan; ----------------------------------------------------- 87 2-ykcitþGñkdéTmkdak;elIcitþeyIg----------------------------------------------88 3-minEkxøÜn lak;kMhus TMlak;dak;GñkdéT -----------------------------------------88 4-sresIrkEnøgsaFarN³ riHKn;CaÉkCn-------------------------------------------88 5-bgðajxøÜneGayeKsÁal;------------------------------------------------------88 6-eRbIkarRbkYtRbECg --------------------------------------------------------88III>ktþaEdleFIVeGaymanTi§BlkñúgkardwknaM -----------------------------------------------88 1-karbBa©úHbBa©Úl -----------------------------------------------------------88 2-karcrcar----------------------------------------------------------------89 3-karesBKb; --------------------------------------------------------------89 4-kartMrg;Tws --------------------------------------------------------------89IV.ktþaEdleFIVeGayeKeCOCak; --------------------------------------------------------89 1-eFIVemdwknaMedayxøÜnÉg------------------------------------------------------89 2-CYyGñkdéTedayKuNFm’ ----------------------------------------------------90 3-GPivDÆn_CMnaj smtßPaBCanic©------------------------------------------------90 4-riyabfviC¢man -----------------------------------------------------------90niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             x rkSasiTi§
  11. 11. V>eKalkarN_bBa©úHbBa©Úl ------------------------------------------------------------91 1-bþÚrrUbragtamkal³eTs³ ----------------------------------------------------91 2-niyayeGaycMbBaðaGñksþab; --------------------------------------------------91 3-manxnþI Gt;Fμt; -----------------------------------------------------------91 4-begIátekrþ×eQμaHl¥ ----------------------------------------------------------91 5-kMuRbEkk tmat; eQøaH-------------------------------------------------------92 6-Tajkarsnñidñan -----------------------------------------------------------92 7-elIkTwkcitþeGaymankarriHKn; ------------------------------------------------92 8-begIátTMnak;TMngl¥ ---------------------------------------------------------92 9-pþl;karshRbtibtiþkar----------------------------------------------------- 93 10-eRbITi§BlRkum --------------------------------------------------------- 93 11-nimitþrUbEdlman ---------------------------------------------------------94 12-minRtUvCECkykQñH caj; Etsþab;ehtupleKniyay ------------------------------94 13-sMueGayeKcUlrYm --------------------------------------------------------94 14-eRbIGñkEdlmanTi§Bl ¬RKU RbFan Rsuk XMu PUmi Gacarü eGayeKCYyeXasnaeGayeyIg¦---94 15-eRbITi§Bl smaKm GgÁkar shKmn_ edIm,Ieqøot»kaseXasna ----------------------94 16-RtUveKarB eGaytMéleTAelInimitþrUbenAkEnøgenaH edIm,IeGayeKmanCMenO nigTukcitþ --------94 17-bBa¢ak;BIeKalbMNgrYmKña---------------------------------------------------94 18-erobcMKMeragCamun --------------------------------------------------------95 19-niyaysareLIgvij nUveKalsMxan;² -------------------------------------------95 20-eRCIserIsTIkEnøgl¥ nigeBlsmrmü-------------------------------------------95 21-bgðajTWkcitþTaMgsgxag---------------------------------------------------95 22-eqøIycMeBaHkarsaksYrrbs;Gñksþab; -------------------------------------------96 23-ecHeRbITi§BlEdlman nigRbCaRbiyPaB---------------------------------------97 CMBUkTI 5I.GMNacemdwknaM -------------------------------------------------------------------98 1-GMNacmenayiTi§-----------------------------------------------------------98 2-GMNacKuNFm’------------------------------------------------------------ 99 3-GMNacTMnak;TMng --------------------------------------------------------- 99 4-GMNacbgçitbgçM --------------------------------------------------------- 100 5-GMNacÉkeTs---------------------------------------------------------- 101niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             xi rkSasiTi§
  12. 12. 6-GMNaceyag ----------------------------------------------------------- 101 7-GMNacRsbc,ab; -------------------------------------------------------- 102 8-GMNacBt’man ---------------------------------------------------------- 102 9-GMNachirBaØvtßú --------------------------------------------------------- 103 10-GMNaceGkULÚsIu ------------------------------------------------------- 103II>tYnaTIemdwknaM ----------------------------------------------------------------- 103 1-GñknaMBakü ------------------------------------------------------------ 103 2-Gñkcrcar bBa©úHbBa©Úl ---------------------------------------------------- 103 3-GñkbeRgon hwVkhat; nigGñkelIkTwkcitþ --------------------------------------- 104 4-GñkbegIátRkumkargar ----------------------------------------------------- 104 5-GñkedIrtYtMNagRkum ------------------------------------------------------ 105 6-GñkedaHRsaybBaða ------------------------------------------------------ 105 7-GñkbegIátEpnkaryuT§saRsþ ------------------------------------------------ 106 8-GñksMruHsMrYl bRgYbbRgYm ------------------------------------------------- 106 9-GñkeFIVsmaFicitþ --------------------------------------------------------- 107 10-GñkerobcMxñatKMrU ------------------------------------------------------- 107III.ktþanaMeGaymanTi§BlelIGñkdéT nigkardwknaM ---------------------------------------- 107 1-PaBs¥itrmYt ----------------------------------------------------------- 107 2-kardwknaMeFIVpÞal; -------------------------------------------------------- 107 3-EbgEckeGayc,as;rvag mnusS kargar nigcrwklkçN³---------------------------- 108 4-rkSaBaküsnüa BaküBit Baküsc©³ ------------------------------------------- 108 5-eqøIytbedayriyabfviC¢man----------------------------------------------- 108 6-bgðajnUvkarRsLaj;rab;GanedayesμaH --------------------------------------- 108 7-snñidæan b¤KitcMNucl¥bMputcMeBaHGñkdéT --------------------------------------- 108 8-EsVgyl;xøÜnÉgCamun eTIbbgðajGñkdéTCaeRkay -------------------------------- 108 9-citþTUlay esμaHRtg; ------------------------------------------------------ 109 10-mankareyaKyl; Gt;eGanGFüaRs½y --------------------------------------- 109 11-RBmTTYlkMhus nig sMueTas ---------------------------------------------- 109 12-eFIVkarebþCJacitþsarCafμInUvGIVEdleFIV ------------------------------------------ 109 13-CYyGñkdéTedayesμaH sb,úrs -------------------------------------------- 109 14-GñkdéTmanTi§BlelImun------------------------------------------------- 110 15-riyabfviC¢manRKb;sßankarN_ -------------------------------------------- 110niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             xii rkSasiTi§
  13. 13. 16-erobKMnitnigcitþ muneBlniyay -------------------------------------------- 110 17-minRtUvman³ ---------------------------------------------------------- 110 18-niyayPasamantkáviC¢aRtwmRtUv nigGarmμN_l¥ --------------------------------- 110 19-pþl;kargarEdlmanRbsiT§PaB --------------------------------------------- 110 20-esBKb;mnusSsMxan;² --------------------------------------------------- 111esckþIsniñdæan ------------------------------------------------------------------- 111 3C3niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             xiii rkSasiTi§
  14. 14. CMBUkTI 1niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             xiv rkSasiTi§
  15. 15. begIátckçúvis½y karbegIátckçúvis½yCaktþasMxan;bMputsMrab;emdwknaM eBlEdleyIgcab;epþImeFIVCaemdwknaM cab;epþImdMeNIrkardwknaMenaH. eyIgCaemdwknaMRtUvbegIáteGaymanckçúvis½yCamun karbegIátckçúvis½yenH edIm,IeGayeyIgeCOCak; ehIyeFIVdMeNIreq<aHeTAtamTisedAmYyBitR)akd nig)ansMerceCaKC½ydl;eKaledA tamlT§plEdlcg;)an. eyIgCaemdwknaMCatiExμrmñak;²mantYnaTIkatBVkic© CaGñkEfrkSakarBar nigEsVgrkplRbeyaCn_BitR)akdsMrab;RbCaBlrdæExμrTUeTA plRbeyaCn_BitR)akdsMrab;RbeTsCati RbkbedaysmFm’ nigyutþiFm’ . karbegIátckçúvis½yRtUvEp¥kelIkarsikSavaytMélTinñn½y sßankarN_Cak;Esþg viPaKelIRbvtþisaRsþ nigRBwtþikarN_bc©úb,nñbBaðaEdlkMBugekItman GBÖnþr³jaN esckIþsgÇwm nigkarBüakrN_ sMrab;vasnaGnaKtRbeTsCati. karsikSaBIRbvtþisaRsþ karsikSaBIGtItkal mansar³RbeyaCn_ya:gxøaMg eRBaHGtItkalenHehIy CakBa©k;qøúHbBa©aMgnigCapøÚv EdlbgðajeGayeyIgdwgGMBIcMNucxVHxat cMNucl¥ ktþaeCaKC½y b¤braC½y GaRkk;b¤l¥ KYbpSMnigkaremIleXIjbBaðanabc©úb,nñkal eFIVeGayeyIgGacEsVgrkedImehtu ¬bBaða¦BitR)akd ¬sc©³¦ edIm,IelIkykb£sKl;bBaðaenaHmkedaHRsayeGay)ancb;CasßaBr. kalNaeyIgdwgBIb£sKl;bBaðaBitR)akd EdlkMBugekItmanenAkñúgRbeTsExμr vaCaKnøwHsMrab;eyIgTaMgGs;Kña EsVgrkviFIedaHRsayeGaycMbBaða eTIbbBaðaenaHRtUvbBa©b;.karedaHRsaybBaðaCYyCatienH eRbobdUcCaRKUeBTü EdlBinitüBüa)alGñkCm¶W edaysÁal;emeraKBitR)akdsÁal;eraKsBaØac,as; eTIbRKUeBTüBüa)alGñkCm¶wenaHCasHes,Iy. emdwknaMCatiExμrRtUvRkeLkemIlKMrUdwknaMrbs;RBHBuT§eFobeTAnigkardwknaMsgÁmmnusSnaeBlbc©úb,nñ EdlkardwknaMrbs;RBHGgÁmanckçúvis½ymYyBitR)akd.RBHGgÁsuxcitþlHbg;RTBüsm,tþi yss½ká laPskáar³ RbBn§kUn edIm,IEsVgrkehtuBitR)akd EdlnaMeGaymnusSmanTukç bnÞab;BIRBHGgÁTteXIjeTBnimitþ 4 ya:g KwmnusScas;Cra mnusSQW mnusSsøab; nig GñkbYs.RBHGgÁ)anyagcUléRBedIm,IsikSarkviFImkCYyseRgÁaHmnusSelak eGayrYcputGMBITukçevTnaTaMgenH ¬pøÚvrMlt;Tukç¦ cugbBa©b;RBHGgÁrkeXIjmaKa’mYy KWpøÚvrMlt;esckþITukç. RBHGgÁ)anrkeXIjfa TukçekItecjmkBI GviC¢a.ya:gNamij cMeBaHRbeTsExμreyIgvij ebIeyIgnaMKñaedaHRsaycugbBaða bBaðaenaHmincb;eLIy GIVEdleyIgemIleXIjbc©úb,nñCacugbBaða EdlCapl)annwgkMBugekItmankñúgsgÁmExμrbc©úb,nñ eyIgemIleXIjEtpl ¬GaRkk;¦etIehtu¬edImbBaða¦BitR)akdenAÉNa? ehtuEdlnaMeGaymanplGaRkk;enAÉNa?. edImehtu KW KMnit edImehtuKWEpnkaryuT§saRsþ dUcenHeyIgRtUvemIleGayeXIjyuT§saRsþrbs;sRtUv edIm,IeGaydwgc,as; GMBIedImcmbBaðaEdlekItmanenAkñúgsgÁmExμr minecHcb;. ¬sUmGanehtupledImbBaða GMBIkarviPaKyuT§saRsþneya)ayrbs;kumμúynisþyYn nig h‘un Esn enAkñúgesovePAemdwknaMCatiExμr PaK 1 ¦. GaRs½yehtuenH emdwknaMcaM)ac;RtUvsikSaGtItkaleGay)anc,as; BinitütamdansßankarN_ RBwtþikarN_eBlbc©úb,nñ nignaMeGayeyIgGacBüakrN_dwgfanwgmanGIVekIteLIgenAeBlGnaKt. müa:gvijeTot ckçúvis½yCaktþaCMrujTwkcitþmYyya:gxøaMg dl;buKÁlwksmaCikGñkeRkam»vaT eGaykan;EtxitxMRbwgERbgeFIVkarRbNaMgRbECgKñaya:gsRsak;sRsaM tMrg;tamTisedAeTArkeKaledArYmEtmYy. srubmk ckçúvis½yKWCaGVIEdleyIgemIleXIjBI GtItkal bc©úb,nñkal nigGnaKtkal.niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             1 rkSasiTi§
  16. 16. I.GgÁkardwknaM (Organization) GgÁkardwknaMRtUvkMNt;ckçúvis½yeGayc,as;las; sMrab;karpøas;bþÚr. eyIgGacpøas;bþÚr eFVIeGaymankarrIkcMerInlUtlas; nigeFIVeGayRbesIreLIg kalNaGgÁkardwknaMmanemdwknaMEdlmanckçúvis½yc,as;las;. GgÁkardwknaMl¥xøaMg CaGgÁkardwknaMEdlmaneKalbMNgFM ehIyyUrGEgVg. cMeBaHkarbegIátGgÁkardwknaM eyIgRtUverobcMeGay)anc,as;las;BI eKalbMNg eKaledA TwsedA ebskkmμ yuT§saRsþ ]bkrN_eRbIR)as; kll,ic FnFanedIm,IFanakareCaKC½y. kareCaKC½yenH CakmøaMgmYymanTi§BlbMputsMrab;GgÁkardwknaMeTAelIriyabfGñkeRkam»vaT BIeRBaHfa FmμCatiénmnusSEtgEtQrxagGñkQñH KμannrNamñak;cg;enAxagGñkcaj;enaHeT. GgÁkardwknaMEdldwknaMeTArkPaBeCaKC½y qab;rh½s kan;EtRbesIr EtebIGgÁkardwknaMGUsbnøayyUr vaGaceFIVeGayGñkeRkambgÁab;Føak;Twkcitþ Ebk)ak;épÞkñúg Gs;kmøaMg xatbg;eBlevla RTBüsm,tþi nigGacbraC½y)an. karerobcMeGaymanyuT§saRsþQñHrbs;GgÁkardwknaMenH RtUvpþl;plRbeyaCn_GIVmYyEdlskásmnigsñaédrbs;buKÁlwk eFIVeGaybuKÁlwk smaCikTaMgLayTukcitþ eCOCak; nigmankmøaMgcitþ ebþCJacitþeFIVkic©karenaH edayKμanenOyht;.RtUvcaMfa emdwknaMminGaceFIVGIV²mñak;ÉgsMercdl;eKaledAtamckçúvis½yeLIy ebIKμankarcUlrYmBIGñkeRkambgÁab;b¤KμankarKaMRTcUlrYmBIRbCaBlrdæExμr. karbegIátGgÁkardwknaMnImYy² RkumkargarRtUverobcMdak;eQμaHGgÁkardwknaMenaH eGaysmRsbtamckçúvis½y dUcCa KNbkS rNsirS shB½n§ shPaB shrdæ shCIB sm<½n§ KN³kmμkar KN³kmμaFikar GgÁkarsmaKm rdæaPi)al clna.l. erobcMEsVgrknimitþsBaØasMKal;rbs;GgÁkardwknaM EdlmanGtßn½yRKb;RKan;¬LÚkU¦. eQμaHnignimitþsBaØaenH eFIVya:gNaeGay xøI xøwm c,as;las; gayGan gayyl; gaycaM gayB¤ EbøkBIeKehIymanGtßn½yRKb;RKan; gayRsYlGacTak;TajcMNab;GarmμN_KaMRTBIRbCaBlrdæTUeTA. bnÞab;mk eyIgRtUvEsVgrkTItaMg TIsñak;kar b¤mUldæanc,as;las;sMrab;GgÁkardwknaM edIm,IdMeNIrkarkargar. eyIgRtUvBicarNa faetIeyIgKYrdak;TItaMgenATINa? kEnøgNa? EdlmaneRbobelIKUrRbkYtRbECgrbs;eyIg manskþanuBl eRbobxagcitþsaRsþ eRbobxagneya)ay sMbUrFnFansmÖar³ bec©kviTüa gayTMnak;TMngBt’man gayTak;TajkmøaMgKaMRTmank,ÜnxñatKm<IyuT§saRsþeRcInminecHrIgs¶Üt briyakasl¥ ¬GakasFatu ekþA RtCak; esIm s¶Üt ePøog Føak;TwkkkeRKaHFmμCati¦.l. eyIgRtUvdwknaMRkumkargar erobcMEpnkar edayBicarNanUvsMNYrmYycMnYn etIRtUvbegIátGgÁkardwknaMGIV? maneQμaHGIV? nimitþsBaØaGIV? edIm,IbMeBjebskkmμGIV? maneKaledAGIV? eFIVya:gem:cedIm,IeCaKC½y? GgÁkardwknaMenaHmanmUldæanenAÉNa?. bnÞab;mk emdwknaMnigRkumkargarEdlerobcMGgÁkardwknaMeFIVya:gNaeGaymanlkçN³ rs;revIk Tn;Pøn; Etrwgbwug Gacbt;EbntamkaleTs³ rhUt)ansMerctamckçúvis½y . kñúgkarbegIátGgÁkardwknaM emdwknaM b¤RkumkargarRtUvsikSaeGaysÁal;c,as;GMBIKUrRbkYtRbECgnigsikSaeGaysÁal;c,as;GMBIxøÜneyIg sÁal;eGayc,as;GMBIsßankarN_CMuvij munniwgeyIgcab;epþImQaneCIgecjRbkYtRbECg ebIniyayBITahanvij RtUvsikSaeGayc,as;faQñHsin munnigecjc,aMgeFIVsRgÁam. cMENkGñkvinieyaKTunvij RtUvsikSaeGayc,as;fa)ancMeNjsin eTIbeFIVvinieyaKTun. ebIeyIgdwgc,as;faeyIgQñHenaHeyIgRtUvecjmuxeFIVkarRbkYt EtebIeyIgmindwgc,as;faeyIgQñHeT mincaM)ac;ecjRbkYteLIy.niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             2 rkSasiTi§
  17. 17. 1-begáItRkumkargarEdlmanqnÞ³dUcKña (Team work with the same willing) karbegIátRkumkargareTA)anluHRtaEtmanckçúvis½y karebþCJacitþ karTukcitþKña eFIVeGayRkumxitxMrYmKñanigmanEpnkaryuT§saRsþBitR)akdedIm,IsMercckçúvis½y. karbegIátRkumenH mincaM)ac;xVl;fa eyIgCamnusSminqøatmin)aneronx<s; ehIyKitfaeyIgminGacbegáItRkumkargar)anenaHeLIy EtGIVEdleyIgman KWxøÜnrbs;eyIg nigeKalkarN¾mYycMnYnEdlerobrab;xagelICakareRsc sMrab;karbegáItRkumkargar. karerobcMbegIátRkumkargarRtUveFIVtamckçúvis½yrbs;GgÁkardwknaM edayeRCIserIsRkumEdlmanlkçN³sm,tþiRKb;RKan;l¥elIseKbg¥s; RkumEdlmanÉkeTs ehIyFanafamansmtßPaB eFIVkic©karsMercdl;eKaledAEdl)ankMNt;. RkumEdlmanqnÞ³EtmYymanqnÞ³l¥ CalkçN³RkumemdwknaMEdlxøaMg. karbegIátRkumkargareRbobRbdUceTAnwgRkumkILa)al;Tat;mYy EdlxøaMgBUEkehIymansmtßPaBelgTaMgGs;Kña edIm,IRbkYtCamYyRkumkILa)al;Tat;epSg²eTot mñak;²enAkñúgRkumRtUvxitxMelgTaMgGs;Kña eKaledAEtmYyKt;KW Tat;)al;bBa©ÚlTI. cugbBa©b; ebIRkumNamYymanBnÞúeRcInCag RkumenaHmanC½yCMn³ ehIyTTYl)anBanrgVan;. cMENkkardwknaMRbeTsCati RkumdwknaMGgÁkarsßab½nNamYy manlkçN³dUcKña eTaHCakardwknaMRkumtUc b¤kardwknaMRkumFMk¾eday eGayEtRkumkargarenaH EbgEckkargarc,as;las;maneKalbMNgEtmYy dUckILa)al;Tat;enaH RBmTaMgRkumkargarxitxMRbwgERbgeFIVkargarrYmKña RkumenaHR)akdCaTTYl)aneCaKC½y . dUcenH ebIsinCaeyIgbegIátRkumkargarsMrab;eFIVCaemdwknaMCatiExμr RkumkargarenaHRtUvkarerIs edIm,ImkbMerI Cati sasna nigRbCaCatiExμr dUcFøab;)anerobrab;enAkñúgesovePAPaK1 rYcmkehIy.RkumemdwknaMenHRtUveGaytMélelICnesñhaCatiExμrBitR)akd EdlmanlkçN³RBmCaemdwknaM edIm,ImkdwknaMRbeTsCati CYyrMedaHRbeTseyIg eGaymansSr³PaB snþiPaB RbCaFibetyüBitR)akd RbCaBlrdæmanesckþIsux rYcputBIPaBRkIRk GyutiþFm’ GMeBIBukrlYyepSg². RkumEdlRtUveRCIserIs RtUvmansmtßPaBxøaMgxagneya)ay esdækic© eyaFa c,ab; bec©kviTüa BaNiC¢kmμ ksikmμ eTscrN_ b:UlIs TUrKmnaKmn_ Bt’man .l.buKÁlTaMgenHKWCaGñkEdlh‘anniyay h‘aneFIVskmμPaBRKb;Ebbya:g edIm,ICatirs;kñúgyuT§saRsþrYmEtmYy eRkamGgÁkardwknaMEtmYy eRkamemdwknaMEtmñak;. bnÞab;mkRkumRtUvbegIátTisedA viFIsaRsþ KMnit EpnkaryuT§saRsþmeFüa)ay FnFan edIm,IsMercckçúvis½yenaH. müa:geTot kareFIVkargarCaRkumenH minRtUvecaTRbkan;faGñkenHxus GñkenaHRtUveLIy EtebICYbbBaða RtUvelIkbBaðamkedaHRsay tamk,Ünc,ab; tameKalkarN_ edayminedaHRsaybBaðatamkareRbIGarmμN_eLIy. RkumkargarbzmEdlpþl;GTiPaB CabuKÁlmanmanlkçN³ 8cMNucdMbUgdUcxageRkam³ 1-GñkesñhaCatiExμrBitR)akd ¬ExμrsuT§¦ 2-esμaHRtg;cMeBaHCati nig GgÁkardwknaM 3-køahan muHmut 4-TTYlxusRtUvral;kic©kar 5-R)akdniym hμt;ct;kargar 6-lHbg;x<s; ¬eBlevla RTBüsm,tþi GayuCIvit¦ 7-smtßPaB ¬cMeNHdwg nig bTBiesaFn_ eTBekaslü¦niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             3 rkSasiTi§
  18. 18. 8-KuNFm’ ¬RBhμvihaFm’ nig TsBiFFm’¦citþTUlay RkumkargarsMedAelIRkumkargarEdlmaneKalbMNgrYmKña manCMnajepSg²Kña EtGacbMeBjkargarKñaeTAvijeTAmk. eKsegáteXIjRkumkargar EbgEckCaeRcInRbePTepSg²Kña dUcCa RkumkargareFIVtammuxgarRkumkargarEdleFIVkargarcMruHmuxgar RkumkargarEdleFIVkarcat;EcgedayxøÜnÉg RkumkargarkMNt;Etmñak;Ég Rkumkargarq¶ay². emdwknaMminRtUvKitxøÜnÉgfa CaGñkRKb;RKg CaGñkRtYtRta nigcg;eFIVCaemeKeLIy. smaCikRkumRtUvebþCJaya:geRCAedIm,IkarlUtlas;smaCikRkum edayCYyGPivDÆn_KñaeTAvijeTAmk nigkareCaKC½y nigCaRkumkargarmYymanGtßRbeyaCn¾ sMrab;GgÁkardwknaM. 1-1-GtibrimaFnFanmnusSrbs;GgÁkardwknaM (Maximum of Human Resource in the Organization) edIm,IBRgIksmaCikeGaymancMnYneRcIn smaCikcas;²RtUvCYybeRgonsmaCiknImYy² smaCikfμI²rbs;RkumkargareGayecHkargar eGayecHdwknaM nigCYysmaCikd¾éTeTotTaMgGs;eGayrIkcMerInbnþ. KμancMeNHdwgkargar kic©kar nig eKalbMNgNa RbesIrCagcMeNHdwgdwknaMrbs;buKÁlmñak;²enaHeT. KYrkt;cMNaM RkumkargarPaKeRcIn minEmnCaRkumkargarBitR)akd BIeRBaHkarRbmUlpþMúTMnak;TMng EtCamYynig ecAhVay. buKÁlnImYy²RbNaMgRbECgCamYynigGñkdéTeTotsMrab;GMNac kitüanuPaB nigtMENg minRbkYtRbECg edIm,IsMerceKaledA. karCECkBiPakSa sikSaGMBIbBaða b¤eFIVKMerag minRtUvRbKl;eGaybuKÁlNamYyb¤RkumNamYy EtRtUveFIVkaredayRkumkargarTaMgGs;Kña. RkumkargarEdlkMNt;fal¥bMput KWCaRkumEdlsgÇwmelIskmμPaBrbs;xøÜnÉg Gacbt;EbnlμmEdlGacpøas;bþÚredIm,IeGayeKalbMNgrbs;eKpÞal; KWeKalbMNgrYm)ansMerc. RkumkargarRtUverobcMk,Ünc,ab; kardwknaMedIm,ICYyeGaysMerceKalbMNg nigkarGnuvtþn¾. RkumkargarRtUvepþatelIkarrIkcMerInkargar nigkareFIVskmμPaB karGnuvtþn_ eRbIRKb;]bkrN_ edIm,IdwknaMTaMgGs;Kña dUcCakarbeRgon karRbwkSa nigkarGegátCaedIm . enAkñúgkargar eyIgGaceRbIkarTMnak;TMngFmμta dUcCa bgðajkareKarBEføgGMNrKuN nigelIktMekIgsñaédrbs;eK. GarmμNrbs;emdwknaMRkumRtUvbgðajBIkarebþCaJcitþ PkIþPaB emaTnPaBnigTukcitþenAkñúgRkumrbs;Gñk. eyIgRtUvbegIátsaxatamtMbn;sMxan;² nigpþl;GMNaceGayBYkeKsMerccitþ.CYnkal eyIgRtUvbþÚrevnKña epÞreGaysmaCikxøÜn edIm,IeFIVkarsMrbsMrYl b¤dwknaMGgÁRbCMuepSg². CaFmμta GgÁkardwknaMvaytémø emdwknaMtamskmμPaB nigriyabf. b:uEnþ meFüa)ay Edll¥bMputedIm,IvaytémøPaBCaGñkdwknaMenaH GaRs½yelIkarbMpusKMnitBIRkumdwknaMEdlenACMuvijemdwknaM. 1-FatupSMénRkumkargar emdwknaM eKalbMNgRkumkargar karcUlrYmbegIát eFIVskmμPaB edayRkumTaMgGs;Kña 2-kMritRkumkargar eFIVviPaKTan Tinñ½y nigcMeNHdwg rYmcMENkkñúgdMeNIrkarsMerccitþ nig QaneTArkÉkcänÞ eFIVkarsMerccitþniBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             4 rkSasiTi§
  19. 19. eFIVkic©karsMerccitþkargarEdleKdak;eGay 3-karTMnak;TMng ebIkcMhr esμaHRtg; nigkarbþÚrBt’man manRbsiTæPaBrvagsmaCikRkum. karTukcitþ karebIkTUlay kñúgkarriHKn; nigTukcitþKña KMnitrbs;kmμsiTæ PaBs¥itrmYtedayeKebþCJaedIm,IGaNtþiEdleKyl; nigGtþsBaØaNRkumkargar. 1-2-RkumkargareFIVtammuxgar (Functioning Team) karTTYlxusRtUvcMeBaHkardwknaMenH CaFmμtaeKepþatelIemdwknaMpøÚvkar eTaHbICaRkumkargareFIVkarenAkñúgmuxgarCak;lak;enHk¾eday. RkumkargarmankarelIkTwkcitþya:gxøaMg RbsinebIkardwknaMepþatelIeKaledArYmcat;TukeKaledArYmCasar³sMxan;. smaCikeCOCak;faRkummansmtßPaBGacsMerceKaledA. RkumkargarnigGnuvtþkargarxøaMgCagmun eBlEdlsmaCikRkumdwgtYnaTIc,as; nigmanCMnajc,as;las;Cagmun. karGnuvtþyuT§saRsþ EdlRkumkareFIV faetImanRbsiT§PaBb:unμancMeBaHkargarEdleFIV?. kardwknaMEdlBak;B½n§nigkarGnuvtþyuT§saRsþenHmandUcCa eFIVEpnkarBIrebobEdleRbIbuKÁlwk nigEbgEckFnFaneGaymanRbsiT§PaB eFIVEpnkarGnuvtþn_yuT§saRsþeGaymanRbsiT§PaB cUlrYmCamYyGñkÉkeTsedIm,IeFIVEpnkarRbtibtþikarsMrab;Rkum naMRkumkargareGayeronGnuvtþn_ RbmUlBt’manGMBIyuT§saRsþEdleKGnuvtþn_manRbsiT§PaBBIRkumepSg²eTot. karTukcitþ nigshRbtibtþikargareTAvijeTAmk CaktþasMxan;. eTaHbICaRkummaneTBekaslübiunRbsBVerobcMl¥ya:gNak¾eday k¾GacbraC½y)anEdr ebIsinCaxVHkarTukcitþKña PaBs¥itrmYt nigshRbtibtþikarBIsmaCikenAkñúgRkumenAeBlGnuvtþn_ebskkmμ. CaBiess karshRbtibtþikarmansar³sMxan; eBlRkumtMrUveGaypþl;Bt’man smÖar³ FnFan nigkarCYyKñaeTAvijeTAmk eFIVkarCamYyKñaenAkñúgry³eBlyUr nigkñúgsßanPaBlM)ak.karKaMRTxagneya)ay nigFnFan. karGnuvtþn_RkumeTA)an GaRs½yelImanFnFanEdlcaM)ac;sMrab;eFIVkar.FnFanEdlBak;B½n§enaH manmUlniFifvika ]bkrN_ smÖar³ rbs;rbreRbIR)as;sMrab;eFIVkar. 1-3-RkumkargarEdleFIVkargarcMruHmuxgar (Mixed Function Team) tamkarsegátRkumkargarEdleFIVkarcMruHmuxgar mantYnaTIsMxan;² dUcCa edaHRsaybBaða cat;EcgKMeragkar b¤begIáteKalneya)ay. tYnaTITaMgenaH manbegIátckçúvis½y erobcM karcUlrYm kareFIVEpnkar. begIátckçúvis½ypþl;eGaymaneKaledArYmmYy erobcMCYyeGayRkumEfrkSackçúvis½y karcUlrYmBIsgÁm CYyeGaymanPaBs¥itrmYtépÞkñúg nigEpnkarxageRkA CYyeGaykarsMerccitþRkumCamYyKUrRbkYtRbECgxageRkA. eyIgGacniyayfaCaRkumkargarma:RTIs RkumkargarenHrYmman Rkumkargar Rkummuxgar kmøaMgkic©kar RkumedaHRsaybBaðaKN³kmμkar nigRkumKMeragkarBiessCaedIm . RkumkargareFIVkic©kar GaRs½yelIkic©RbwgERbgrYmKña. RkumkargarenHmancMnYntic mansmaCikcMnYn BI 2 eTA 25 nak; kEnøgxøHmanBI 5 nig 9 nak;. CMnajmñak;Gacpþl;famBlenAeBlEdlRkumkargarmanKMnitEbøkKña b¤manKMnitepSgKña nigmanCMnajeRcInmuxdak;bBa©ÚlKañ.niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             5 rkSasiTi§
  20. 20. 1-4-RkumkargarEdleFIVkarcat;EcgedayxøÜnÉg (Self Management Team) enHRtUvkMNt;eKaledAeGayc,as; nigGTiPaBedIm,IeFIVkar sMerccitþkargar sMrbsMrYlkic©xitxMRkumkargarTaMgmUl nigpþl;karvaykartMélkarrIkcMerInRkum nigEktMrUvkarGnuvtþn_yuT§saRsþ. kargarRtUvEtCakargarmanRbeyaCn_ kargarEdlmann½y mansar³sMxan;. RkumkargarenH CaRkumEdlmanmnusScMnYnticCaGñkeFIVkargarnigmansiTi§sMerckargar. cMENkkarpþl;rgVan;epSg² RtUvpþl;CaRkum ehIytMrUveGaybuKÁlGPivDÆn_CMnajrbs;eKtamRkumtMrUveGayeFIV. RtUvmankarKaMRTBIneya)ay BIfñak;dwknaMxagelI rYmTaMgkarEbgEckFnFan GMNacsmrmüEdlRbKl;eGay edIm,IeFIVkargareGaymanRbsiT§PaB. smaCikRtUveroneGayecHBIrebobsþab; nigrebobTMnak;TMngmanRbsiT§PaB . 1-5-RkumkargarEdleFIVkarcat;Ecgmñak;Ég (Single Management Team) CaGñkerobcMbøg;kargaredayxøÜnÉg eFIVkarcat;EcgedayxøÜnÉg. CaGñkmanKMnitdwknaMedayxøÜnÉgTaMgkarpþÜcepþIm eFIVskmμPaB skmμbþÚrpþac; edayminrgcaMbBa¢a b¤manGñknaMeFIVenaHeLIy CakardwknaMEdlekIteLIgBIqnÞH. dUcenHcab;taMgBIkarerobcMEpnkaryuT§saRsþ karGnuvtþn_eFIVskmμPaB nigkarGnuvtþn_PaBCaemdwknaMTaMgRsugEtmþg. emdwknaMCaGñkcab;epþImeFIVkic©karTaMgGs; eFIVedayPaBeCOCak; eFIVedaymankmøaMgcitþ.etIemdwknaMRtUveFIVxøHeTot? emdwknaMGacR)ab;GñkepSgGMBIskmμPaBRkum nigsñaéd dwknaMRbCMuviPaKdMeNIrkareRbInimitþsBaØaedIm,IsMKal;Rkum begIánelIkTwkcitþedIm,IkarshRbtibtþieTAvijeTAmk. 1-6-Rkumkargarq¶ay² (Distanced Team) CaRkumkargarEdlenAtMbn;PUmisaRsþdac;edayELkBIKña ehIykMr)anCYbKñapÞal; EteKGacCYbKñaedayTMnak;TMngtamkMuBüÚT½r bec©kviTüaTUrKmnaKmn_ dUcCa GIutaENt GIuEml vIDIGU TUrs½BÞéd .l. RkumkargarenHbegIáteLIgsMrab;kargarCak;lak; dUcCakarsMerccitþCayuT§saRsþ edaHRsaybBaðarYmKña eFIVEpnkarelIRBwtþkarN_fμI² sMrbsMrYlskmμPaBkñúgcMeNamGñkEbk)ak;kñúgGgÁkardwknaM RkumkargaenHekItmanedaysarEtbec©kviTüa eFIVeGaymanPaBgayRsYledIm,IcUlrYmtamviFIepSg²EdleKRtUvkar. k-eKalbMNgrYm (Common Goals) bnÞab;BIerobcMRkumkargarEdll¥ehIy RkumkargarRtUvCYbRbCMuedIm,IEsVgrkcMNucrYmmYy EdlmaneKalbMNgrYmKña ÉkPaBKña samKÁIKña sMrab;eFIVdMeNIreTATaMgGs;Kña. eKalbMNgrbs;Rkumkargar CaeKalbMNgrbs;RbCaBlrdæExμrcg;)an CaeKalbMNgrbs;CatiExμrTaMgmUl. TaMgemdwknaMRkum TaMgRkumkargar CatMNageGayRbCaBlrdæExμr CatMNageGayCatiExμr CatMNageGayplRbeyaCn_CatiExμr. eKalbMNgrYmenH eFIVeGayfñak;elInigfñak;eRkammanKMnitdUcKña manqnÞ³dUcKña yl;eXIjdUcKña vaCaktþamYYynaMeGayGgÁkardwknaMenaHQaneTArkeCaKC½yya:gR)akd minfaGgÁkardwknaMenaHtUc b¤FM b¤RbeTsenaHtUc b¤FMeLIy. dUecñH eyIgTaMgGs;KñaCaRbCaCatiExμrRKb;RsTab;énsgÁm man RBHsgÇ nisSit bBaØvnþ yuvCn yuvnarIkmμkr ksikr BaNiC¢kr mRnþIraCkarRKb;RbePT GgÁkarRKb;sßab½n eTaHCars;enATINak¾eday TaMgkñúgRbeTs nigeRkARbeTskþI maneKalbMNgrYmKñaEtmYy KWeFIVya:gNaeGay Cati sasna RbCaCatiExμr rYcputBIGaNaniKmn_niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             6 rkSasiTi§
  21. 21. kumμúynisþyYnEbbfμI¬lYclak;¦ nig rbbkumμúynisþpþac;kar h‘un Esn edIm,IeGayCatiExμrTaMgmUlman sSr³PaBvibulPaB snþiPaB RbCaFibetyüBitR)akd ]tþmPaB dUcRbeTsnanakñúgBiPBelak. x-tMrUvtamsßankarN_ (Adjust to Situation ) sßankarN_CaGñkkMNt;eGayeyIgerobcMEpnkaryuT§saRsþTaMgLay minEmnEpnkarkMNt;sßankarN_eT.dUcenHGgÁkardwknaMnImYy² RtUvkMNt;erobcMbnÞat;neya)ay erobcMEpnkaryuT§saRsþeGayRsbeTAtamsßankarN_. eyIgCaemdwknaMneya)ay CaGñkTTYlxusRtUvcMeBaHGayuCIvit Cati sasna RbCaCatiExμr RtUvsÁal;sßankarN_neya)ayGnþrCati neya)aytMbn; nigneya)aykñúgRbeTseGay)anc,as; edIm,IerobcMGgÁkardwknaMeGaymanlkçN³elceFøaeLIgRsbtamsßankarN_enaH nigCakþIsgÇwmdl;RbCaBlrdæExμrRKb;rUb. ]TahrN_dUcCa enAqñaM 1930 CaqñaM Edlmanvibtþiesdækic©BiPBelak edayplitplelIsesckþIRtUvkareBlenaHelak r:UEsVl CaesdæviTU)anecjmkeFIVCaRbFanaFibtIGaemrik edaHRsayvibtþiesdækic©BiPBelak)aneCaKC½y RbCaBlrdæGaemrik)ane)aHeqñateGayelakCab;CaRbFanaFibtIGaemric 4 GaNtþiCab;Kña EdlCaRbFanaFitI1rUbdwknaMshrdæGaemrikyUrCageK edIm,ICakartbsñgsgKuNelak. enAeBlsRgÁamelakelIkTI 2 Cb:un Galøwm:g; GIutalI eFIVsRgÁamedIm,IvatTIRKb;RKgBiPBelak eBlenaHRkummçageTot r:UsIu )araMg Gg;eKøs )aneRbIkmøaMgT½Btbtvij nigRtUvbBa©b;eRkayBIGaemrikcUlkñúgsRgÁamehIyTMlak;RKab;EbkelITIRkugrbs;Cb:un 2 RKab;enATIRkug hIr:UsIuma: nig Naga:saKI ehIy)anbBa©b;sRgÁamelak. eRkayBIbBa©b;sRgÁamelakelIkTI 2 GgÁkarshRbCaCatibegIáteLIg enAqñaM 1945 RbkaseGayRbeTsnImYy²sMerceCaKvasnaedayxøÜnÉg eBlenaHeKeXIjman mhatμak;Kn§I TamTarÉkraCüBIGg;eKøs )ansMercenAqñaM1947. RbeTsepSg²eTot dUcCa siugkarBYr ma:eLsIu NÐÚensIu hVwliBinTamTarBI hULg; nig B½rTuykal;.cMENkenANÐÚcinvij hU CImij )aneFIVsRgÁamrMedaHxøÜnecjBIGaNanIKm)araMg rhUt)anQñH)araMgenAeDonebonPU)araMgcuHsn§isBaØaRbKl;ÉkraCüenA éf¶TI 20 kkáda 1954 enATIRkughSWENv. GkuslEtExμreRkam RtUvyYn)anRtYtRtabnþ cab;taMgBI)araMgkat;TwikdIeGayyYn éf¶TI 4 mifuna 1949 rhUtmkdl;bc©úb,nñ . kalBIéf¶TI 7 mkra qñaM 1979 Caéf¶EdlyYn)anEkERbneya)ayTmøak;kumμúynisþcas; QøanBanExμrelIkBYYkkumμúynisþfμI eFIVsRgÁamrvagGñkts‘U nig yYn nigRkumGay:gyYn h‘un Esn rhUtdl;mankarekobsgát;BIRbeTsmhaGMNac dUcCa Gas‘an cin nig Gaemrik eGaydkkgT½BecjenAqñaM 1989 eRkayBIemrbs;xøÜnshPaBsUevotRtUvdYlrlM ehIyerobcMeGaymankic©RBmeRBogTIRkug)a:rIseLIgenAéf¶TI 23 Extula qñaM1991Exμrxat yYncMeNj. cMENkbc©úb,nñenH etIeyIgRtUveFIVya:gdUcemþcedIm,IeGayRtUvnigsßankarfμIenH? K-PaBs¥itrmYt (Cohesion) PaBs¥itrmYtrbs;RkumdwknaMenAkñúgGgÁkardwknaM s¥itrmYtCamYykargar s¥itrmYtCamYyshesvik Rkumkargarmann½yfa CaRkumkargarmYy EdlsamKÁIKña ÉkPaBKña ecHCYyKña eTAvijeTAmk søab;rs;TaMgGs;Kña minrt;ecalKña ts‘UBüayam Gt;Fμt;TaMgGs;KñakñúgeKalbMNgrYmEtmYy rhUt)aneCaKC½ydl;TIbBa©b;. CaRkummYyEdlsÁal;Parkic© tYnaTIxøÜnÉgc,as; ehIyxitxMeFIVkargartamtYnaTIerog²xøÜn. karTMnak;TMngkargarBIfñak;eRkameTAfñak;elI BIfñak;elImkfñak;eRkammindac;. eFIVesckþIraykarN_BIlT§plkargar TMnak;TMngkargar Epñkrdæ)alniBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             7 rkSasiTi§
  22. 22. karpþl;Bt’manepSg²dl;KñaeTAvijeTAmk karcuHRtYtBinitü karCYbRbCMuKñaedIm,IbegIátEpnkarEdlmanlkçN³rs;revIk sVahab; mutRsYc begIáncMNab;GarmμN_sMrab;smaCik smaCika buKÁlwk. eFIVya:gNaeGayemdwknaMkMBUlkNþal nigfñak;eRkam manskmμPaBskmμmindac; minrGak;rGYl nigQb;e)aHbg;kargarecalBak;kNþalTI edIrxusTwsedA nigeKalbMNgrYmCaedIm. PaBs¥itrmYtenH eyIgRtUveFIVya:gNa dUcCa «Buk nig kUn b£dUcCa Rcva:k;. X-rwgbwug maMmYn mutRsYc (Firm and Decisive) GgÁkardwknaM b¤RbeTsCatimYyrwugbwugmaMmYneTA)an GaRs½yelIRbCaBlrdæenaHrwgbwugmaMmYn EdlekItecjmkBI TI 1-emdwknaMl¥ 2-neya)aydwknaMl¥ 3-RbB½n§RKb;RKgl¥ 4-sßanPaBhirBaØvtßúminecHrIgs¶Üt¬esdækic©¦5-bec©kviTüaTMenIb 6-sμartIbuKÁlwkrwgbwug eFIVkarecjBIqnÞ³BitR)akd 7-vin½yl¥ nigmanktþabnÞab;bnSMCaeRcIneTot. edIm,IeGayGgÁkardwknaMenaHmanlMnwgeTA)an RtUverobcMeFIVya:gNaeGaymantulüPaBKñarvagGMNacTaMg3 GñkbBaØtþi GñkRbtibtþi nigtulakar. kalNaGgÁkardwknaM b¤ RbeTseFIVtameKalkarN_c,ab; eKarBc,ab;manyutþiFm’ mansIlFm’ CaRbeTsnitirdæBitR)akd enHCacMNucmYYyrwgbwugmaMmYn. GMNacTaMgbIenHesIμKña dac;edayELkepSgBIKña mineRkamcMNuHGMNacNamYy. kMNt;GaNtþiemdwknaMRtwmEt 2 GaNtþi edIm,Ipþl;»kasdl;GñkepSg²eFIVkarRbNaMgRbECg elIkTwkcitþGñkCMnan;eRkayeGaymanTwkcitþcUlrYm dwknaMtamKMnitfμI²pg.ktþaTaMgenHGaceFIVeGayGgÁkardwknaMenaHrwugmaM)an eRBaHmñak;²xitxMeFIVkaredIm,IbeBa©jsmtßPaBeGayeKeXIjehIyKitfaéf¶NamYy eKnwgman»kasmkdwknaMdUcKñaEdr. GñkbegIátc,ab;RtUvKitplRbeyaCn_rYm plRbeyaCn_saFarN³ plRbeyaCn_CatiExμrCaFM c,ab;karBarGñkTn;exSay c,ab;karBarplRbeyaCn_RbCaBlrdæ minEmnsMrab;bMerIplRbeyaCn_buKÁl b¤plRbeyaCn_RkumdUcsPaKNbkSRbCaCn bMerIEtplRbeyaCn_KNbkS eFIVtambBa¢aCnpþac;kar h‘un Esn Etmñak;ÉgenaHeT.cMENkGñkGnuvtþn_c,ab;RtUveKarBc,ab; RtUveFIVtamc,ab; minRtUveyaKyl; xøacGñkFM GñkmanGMNac eFIV)abEtRbCaBlrdætUctacenaHeT RtUveFIVtameKalkarN_c,ab;EdlmanCaFrman edayKμanelIkElgbuKÁlNamñak;eLIy.RbCaBlrdæExμrTaMgGs;mansiTi§esμIKñaenAcMeBaHmuxc,ab; KμannrNamñak;enAelIc,ab;eLIy. GCaJkNþalCaGñkvinicä½ykargar tulakarCaGñkkat;kþIedayÉkraCü RtwmRtUvyutþiFm’ RtYtBinitüdMeNIrRbRBwtþeTArbs;GñkRbtibtþiFanaedaHRsaybBaðavivaT edayEp¥kelIkc,ab; tlMeGog edIm,IFanakarTukcitþ yutþiFm’enAkñúgGgÁkardwknaMeCOCak;BIsaFarN³Cn BIRbCaBlrdæExμr. GgÁkardwknaM b¤RbeTsEdlmanlkçN³rwgbwugmaMmYn eTaHCaGgÁkardwknaM enaHtUck¾eday k¾GacRbkYtRbECg ykC½yCMnHelIGgÁkardwknaMEdlFM)anEdr eGayEtGgÁkardwknaMenaHmanEpnkarl¥ Cak;EsþgdUcCa RbeTsRb‘uyeN EdlmanRbCaBlrdætic TwkdItUc Etrs;enAedayÉkraCünigsb,Úrsb,ayeTotpg edayKμanRbeTsNaemIlgay QøanBaneLIy. ekaHTIm½rCaRbeTsmYytUc EdlGacerIbMr:HrYcxøÜnecjBIGaNaniKmn_ NÐÚensIufμI²enAqñaM 2001 . kardwknaMminsMedAelImankmøaMgtic b£eRcIn mankmøaMgFMb¤tUceLIy eGayEtRkumkargar GgÁkardwknaMmanlkçN³rwgbwug maMmYn k¾GacmaneCaKC½yelIGgÁkardwknaMFMEdr.GgÁkardwknaMEdlmanemdwknaMxøaMg eTaHCakUnecAxageRkamexSay k¾GaceFIVeGayGñkeRkam»vaTxøaMg)an EtebIemdwknaMexSay eTaHbIGñkxageRkamxøaMgya:gNak¾eday k¾minGacdwknaMxøaMg)anEdr. ]TahrN_ dUcCam¢úlEdlCavtßúmYytUc EteyIgGacykvamkeFIVCaRbeyaCn_)anCaeRcIn GaRs½yeTAtameTBekaslürbs;GñkeRbIR)as;.niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             8 rkSasiTi§
  23. 23. EteyIgkMuemIlgaymú¢ltUcfaminGacsmøab;stVFM dUcCaeKa RkbI dMrI esHeGayesaH eBlEdlm¢úlenaHmanCatiBiseTaHbICastVdMrIFMb:uNÑa k¾m¢úlGaceFIVeGaydMrIenaHsøab;)anEdr enHCaPaBrwgbwugmaMmYnrbs;m¢últUcenaH. cMENkkaMbitvij eTaHCakaMbitFMmandgeRsabmasb:uNÑak¾eday EtebImuxkMabitenaHminmuteT minGacykeTAeRbIR)as;CaRbeyaCn_)aneLIy eRBaHminGackab;GIVmut EtebIkaMbitmuteTaHCadgeFIVBIeQIk¾eday k¾kaMbitenaHmantMélGacykeTAeFIVCaRbeyaCn_)anEdr edaysarkaMbitenaHmut. ebImnusSvij CabuKÁlEdlmansmtßPaBeFIVGIVmYyBitR)akd. 2-begIátrcnasm<½n§ nigkarEbgEckParkic© tYnaTI (Establish Structure and Delega tion) karbegIátrcnasm<½n KWedIm,IEbgEckkarTTYlxusRtUvkargareGayc,as;las;enAkñúgGgÁkardwknaM. ebIeyIgmin)anEbgEckkargarc,as;las; eFIVeGaykic©karmanPaBRcbUkRcbl;enAGgÁkardwknaM eFIVeGaybuKÁlwkminsÁal; Parkic© tYnaTIeFIVkargar GaceFIVeGayEbk)ak;Kña ehIykargarminGacdMeNIrkareTAya:grlUneLIy.eyIgRtUvkMNt;muxgar tYnaTI TMhMkargarkñúgkarsMerccitþ karEbgEckFnFannImYy² dUcCaRbFanmanmuxgareFIVxøH?manParkic©GIVxøH? cMENkGnuRbFan GKÁelxaFikareFIVxøH? smaCiktamkariyal½ynImYy² nigbuKÁlwkepSg²eTotedayerobcMmnusSeGayRtUvkargar tamcMeNHdwg CMnaj bTBiesaFn_ nigeTBüekaslü. karbegIátrcnasm<½n§RtUvBicarNafa etIRbePTrcnasm<½n§EbbNamYyEdleyIgRtUvykmkGnuvtþn_ edIm,IeGaykargarelOn manRbsiT§PaB l¥RbesIrCagmun. rcnasm<½n§GacEckecjCa rcnasm<½n§EbbPUmisaRsþ¬GñkTTYlxusRtUvtamtMbn;tamTIVb tamtMbn; tamRbeTs tamPUmiPaK tamextþ Rsuk XMu PUmi¦ rcnasm<½nEbbmuxgar ¬tamÉkeTsrbs;buKÁlwk¦ rcnasm<½n§tamRbePTRbCaBlrdæ¬RBHsgÇ nisSit RsþI kmμkr RKUbeRgon mU:tUDub .l.¦eyIgGacniyayepSgfa rcnasm<½nEbgEckecjCa EbbExSedk¬mñak;TTYlxusRtUveFIVkareRcInmux¦ ExSQr¬mñak;TTYlxusRtUvEtmYymux BIelIdl;eRkam¦ Ebbma:RTIs ¬bBa©ÚlKña tamParkic© nigtYnaTI¦. k-GMNackñúgkarsMerccitþ (Authorities of Decision Process) edIm,IeGayc,as;las; GMNackñúgkarsMerccitþenH eKRtUverobcMcgRkgenAkñúgc,ab; manc,ab;rdæFmμnuBaØc,ab;tamRksYgepSg² raCRkwtü Rkwtü Rkm saracr RbkasCaedIm. cMENkÉenAtamGgÁkardwknaMtUc²vijeKEckenAkñúgc,ab;lkçnþik³ c,ab;bBa¢aépÞkñúg b£bMramepSg². etIsßab½nRbtibtþimanGMNacsMerccitþelIGIVxøH? TMhMb:unμan? RbFan GnuRbFan nig GñkTTYlxusRtUvtamEpñknImYy². x-GMNacEbgEckFnFan (Financial Divided Authorities) edIm,IEbgEckFnFaneGaymansmFm’ yutþiFm’ etIGñkNamanGMNackñúgkarEbgEckFnFanenH.etIGñkNamansiTi§sMerckñúgkarcMNayFnFan? etIkarEbgEckFnFanmanKMeragRtwmRtUvb£mYyya:gNa? etIkarEbgEckFnFanenH tamEpnkaryuT§saRsþ KMeragrbs;GñkRbtibtþikar sMeNIrCaGñksMerc? K-GMNacEtgtaMg nigbBaÄb;kargar (Authorities of Assignment and Dismiss) eyIgRtUvEbgEck kMNt;eGayc,as;las;enAkñúgc,ab; dUcCac,ab;rdæFmμnuBaØ c,ab;lkçnþik³CaedIm.etInNamansiTi§eRCIserIs EtgtaMgbuKÁlwk tMeLIgbuNüskábuKÁlwk nignNaCaGñkmansiTi§bBaÄb;kargarbuKÁlwkniBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             9 rkSasiTi§
  24. 24. eBlbuKÁlwkmankMhus b¤RbRBwtþpÞúyBIc,ab; bTbBa¢aepSg²Edl)ankMNt;. karEtgtaMgb¤bBaÄb;kargarbuKÁlwkRtUveFIVCasaFarN³ edIm,Ipþl;dMNwg ENnaMbuKÁlwkenAkñúgGgÁkardwknaMeGayTTYldMNwgpg. X-GMNaceFIVeGayGgÁkardwknaMsMerceKaledA (Authorities for Achieving the goals) kareRCIserIskargar edIm,IRbKl;GMNacTTYlxusRtUveGayGñkeRkambgÁab;Gnuvtþn_kargar RtUveFIVtameKalbMNgrbs;kargar dUcerobrab;CUnsegçbxageRkam. munnwgRbKl;kargareGayGñkeRkambgÁab; emdwknaMRtUvBicarNadUcxageRkam? 1-vaCakic©karEdlGñkeRkambgÁab;eFIV)anl¥CageyIg ¬kargarÉkeTs¦ 2-vaCakic©karEdlRbBaJab; EtminEmnGaTiPaBx<s; 3-vaCakargarEdlTak;TgGaCIBrbs;GñkeRkambgÁab; 4-vaCakargarEdlRsYlpg nig Bi)akpg 5-kic©karBi)aklμmetIeyIgRtUvRbKl;kargarya:gdUcemþc? 1-bBa¢ak;karTTYlxusRtUveGayc,as; 2-FanafaGñkeRkambgÁab;RBmTTYlykkarTTYlxusRtUv 3-pþl;dMNwgdl;GñkepSgeTot ebIeKcg;dwg 4-erobcMeGayGñkeRkambgÁab;TTYlBt’mancaM)ac; 5-pþl;karKaMRT nigCMnYy Etminykkic©karmkeFIVCMnYs 6-kMhusTukCabTBiesaFn_eronsURt 3-eRCIserIsemdwknaM (Choose Leader) kareRCIserIsemdwknaMrbs;GgÁkardwknaMmYy CaBiesskarerIsemdwknaMfñak;Cati manParkic©sMxan;bMputsMrab;GgÁkarsßab½n sMrab;RbeTsCatienaH eRBaHfa ebIeyIgeRCIserIsemdwknaMl¥ GgÁkardwknaMRbeTsCatinwg)ansux snþiPaB suPmgÁl rIkcMerInrugerOg EtebIeyIgerIsemdwknaMxus eFIVeGayRbeTsCatienaHedIrfyeRkayFøak;cuHCaedIm. cMeBaHkarerIsemdwknaMsMrab;dwknaMRbeTsExμr ritEtmansar³sMxan;sMrab;BlrdæExμrTUeTA EdlRtUvEtykcitþTukdak; BIeRBaHfaemdwknaMCati eRbobbIdUcCaGñkebIkLan EdleyIgTaMgGs;KñaCaRbCaBlrdæExμr rab;lannak;enACiHxageRkay ebIsinCaerIsemdwknaMxus erIsemdwknaMEdlGatμaniym elaPln;EtGMNac buNüs½káRTBüsm,tþi eRbobdUcCaerIsGñkebIkLan EdlminecHebIkLan dUcCaBYk h‘un Esn etIvasnarbs;CatiExμrvasnarbs;eyIgCaBlrdæExμrTaMgGs;KñaeTACaya:gNa? dUcbkSBYk h‘un Esn min)anbMerIplRbeyaCn_eGayRbCaBlrdæExμr min)ankarBarplRbeyaCn_CatiExμr eFIVeGay)at;bg;TwkdI RbCaBlrdæRkIRklM)akevTnaGMeBIBukrlYy GyutþiFm’ bkSBYk lYcRTBüsm,tþiCatimkeFIVRTBübuKÁl suxelIKMnrTukçraRsþExμr sb,ayelITwkEPñkRbCaBlrdæExμr etIBYkenHsmeFIVCaemdwknaMCatiExμr EdlCaEm: Ca« enaH)anEdrb¤eT? h‘un Esn EdleRbIGMNacpþac;kar minbMerIplRbeyaCn_eGay Cati sasna RbCaCatiExμr EteRbIEl,gq<inEPñkeGayeKyl;faRbCaBlrdæExμrCaGñke)aHeqñateGayKNbkSRbCaCn. tamkarBit lT§ple)aHeqñatCakarerobcMbMP½nþrbs;BYkniBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             10 rkSasiTi§
  25. 25. kumμúynisþpþac;kar EdlmanyYnenAeRkayxñgEtb:ueNÑaH. eyIgRtUvdwgfa kareRCIserIsemdwknaM KWCakareRCIserIstMNagrbs;eyIg edIm,IedIrtYCMnYseyIg karBarplRbeyaCn_ EsVgrkplRbeyaCn_CUnCatiExμrTaMgmUl ehIyEbgEckFnFaneGaymansmFm’ eTAdl;CnrYmQamExμrTaMgGs;. eyIgCaRbCaBlrdæExμrTaMgGs;RtUvykcitþTukdak;tamdanTegIVrbs;emdwknaM eyIgRtUvTTYlxusRtUvTaMgGs;Kña cMeBaHkareRCIserIsemdwknaM RtUvsÁal;c,as;fa etIemdwknaMNaEdlmansmtßPaBdwknaMeGayCatirIkcMerIn CaemdwknaMesñhaCatiExμrBitR)akd . eyIgRtUvmanlkçNHviinicä½yeGayRtwmRtUv munnwgeyIgerIsbuKÁlNamñak;mkeFIVCaemdwknaMCatiExμr edayEp¥kelI]tþmKti yutiþFm’stism,CBaس minlk;]tþmKti edIm,IEtluybuNüs½ká EtecalCatiExμrTaMgmUleGayFøak;cuH. emdwknaMminbMerIplRbeyaCn_Cati k,t;Cati lk;Cati dUcBYk h‘un Esn eyIgRtUvEtedaHdUrecjCadac;xat. kareRCIserIsemdwknaMEdll¥ sMrab;fñak;Cati nigGgÁkardwknaMRtUveRCIserIs nigvaytMélBIRKb;mCÄdæanCMuvij 360 dWeRk dUcCasaFarN³Cn vaytMélxøÜnÉg emdwknaMpÞal; GñkeRkam»vaT shesvikRkumkargar. shrdæGaemrik eKmanlkçxNÐsMrab;buKÁl EdlGaceFIVCaRbFanaFibtI)an eKRbkYtRbECgKñaenAkñúgbkSnImYy²sin bkSRbCaFibetyünig bkSsarFarNrdæ EtmaneKalbMNgrYmKña eFIVedIm,IplRbeyaCn_CatieKdUcKña. kareRCIserIsvaytMélRtUveFIVtameKalkarN_ edaymin)aneFIVtamEtGarmμN_ edays¥b; b£RsLaj;bkSBYkniymeLIy. BinitüemIlsñaédEdlecjBIkarxitxMeFIVkargar. KN³kmμkarerobcMe)aHeqñatRtUvmanyutþFm’ ÉkraCü CaGCJakNþal minsßiteRkamTi§BlGñkneya)ayNamYyeLIy. eyIgRkeLkemIlkare)aHeqñat erIsemdwknaMenAkñúgRbeTsExμrfμI²vij enAéf¶TI 27 Exkkáda qñaM 2008RKan;EtkarerobcMqakelçanedIm,IbMP½nþEPñkRbCaBlrdæExμr mtisaFarN³ nigmtiGnþrCatiEtb:ueNÑaH minEmnCalT§plecjBIqnÞ³RbCaBlrdæExμrBitR)akdeT EtvaCakarerobcMrYcCaeRsceday KNbkSRbCaCn h‘un EsnEdlmanyYnenABIeRkayxñgRtYtRtaelI. KNbkSRbCaCn h‘un Esn EdlCakUnGukrbs;yYn )aneFIVrebobenHtaMgBIeRkayrdæRbharenA éf¶TI 5-6 kkáda 1997 dUcCakare)aHeqñat qñaM 1998 qñaM2003 knøgmk.vaCakarerobcMKNbkSRbCaCn h‘un Esn b:ueNÑaH eRBaHfaKN³kmμkarCatierobcMkare)aHeqñat eFIVtambBa¢aKN³bkSRbCaCn h‘un Esn RbB½n§eXasnaminÉkraCü. h‘un Esn eFIVtambBa¢ayYn ebIsinCa h‘un EsnmineFIVtamyYn vasnadUc Eb:n suvNÑ EdlRtUv say b‘Ufg h‘un Esn XubXitCamYyyYncab;ykeTAdak;KukenARbeTsyYn Gs;ry³eBl 10qñaM 5 Ex nigvasnadUc can; sIu EdlRtUveKcak;fñaMsmøab;enAelIynþehaH. Rtg;cMNucenH sUmelIk]TahrN_Rbvtþielak Eb:n suvNÑ EdlmineFIVtambBa¢ayYn.tamsMdIelak Eb:n suvNÑ eBleKcab;elakenaHKWman h‘un Esn nig say b‘Ufg. h‘un Esn)anGanesckþIsMerccitþrbs;mCÄwmbkSbdivdþRbCaCnkm<úCadktMENgTaMgGs; edaysarkMhusmYycMnYn dUcteTA³1-bgEb:n suvNÑ RbqaMgrbbkumμúynisþ ksagesdækic©TIpSaesrI 2-ykBn§elIeyokNamenARBlanynþehaHRbqaMgnigEpnkarbegIát k 5 3-KMnitCatiniymceg¥otcg¥l;RbqaMgniKmeyokNam minGnuBaØatieGayniKmeyokNammkrs;enAkñúgRbeTsExμr. enAéf¶TI 13 FñÚ 1981 eL dwkf mkCYb ¬´minniksμanfabgÉgh‘aneFIVGBa©wg h‘anRbqaMgnigeyIg´¬yYn¦ bgÉgdwgeTfa TahanyYnenAkñúgRbeTsExμr man 180 000 nak; bgÉgbegIátKN³kmμkarGenþaRbevsn_niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             11 rkSasiTi§
  26. 26. begáItKN³kmμkarRBMEdn bgÉgcg;RKb;RKgRbeTsedayxøÜnÉg eTaHCaeBleRkay minmanTahanyYnk_edayRbeTsExμrminGacegIbeTANarYceLIy ebIGñkNaha‘nRbqaMg ´Rc)ac;eGaym:dæ ¦. tamsmþIEdlyYnniyayxagelI srbBa¢ak;eGayeXIjfa h‘un Esn minEmnCaemdwknaMCatiExμrBitR)akdeT h‘un Esn RtUvyYnelIkbnþúbmktaMgBIyYnkan;kab; QøanBanTwkdIExμréf¶ 7 mkra 1979emøH edIm,IbkSkumμúynisþyYnsMercEpnkarshB½n§NÐÚcinEtb:ueNÑaH. 4-RbB½n§RKb;RKgrdæ)al (Administrative system) RbB½n§RKb;RKgrdæ)al CaRbB½n§eFIVeGaydMeNIrkarrdæ)alRbRBwtþeTA)anl¥ GacRKb;RKgkargarmanRbsiTi§PaB. karRKb;RKgrdæ)alCakic©karmYycMnYnTak;TgeTAnigPar³kic©kariyal½y dUcCakargarTTYleP¶ov ParHkic©rbs;elxaFikardæan nig KNenyü karRbCMu nig dMeNIrRbRBwtþieTAkargar bec©kviTüaeTAelIesvakmμnigkarriyal½ykMuBüÚT½r bNþajkMuBüÚT½r GIuntaENt nigRbB½n§Bt’man.l. karTMnak;TMngtameGLicRtUvnic tamRbiysNIy nigtamTUrs½BÞcl½t. karrkSaTukBt’man nig karRKb;RKgÉksareGLicRtUnik RbB½n§sMNMuÉksarRbcaMqñaMCaedIm k-kariyal½y nigmuxgarenAkñúgkariyal½y (Office and Function in the Office) kariyal½ymanmuxgarCakEnøgTTYl nigEbgEckBt’man. karTTYlBt’manBImCÄdæanepSg²TaMgkñúgGgÁkardwknaM nigBIRbPBxageRkA dUcCa TTYlBt’manBIrdæaPi)al TTYlBt’manBIRbCaBlrdæ ¬karbþwgtva:karsMNUmBr¦ TTYlBt’manBIKUrRbkYtRbECg ¬karvayRbhar ecaTRbkan; karecjesckIþEføgkarN_¦ Bt’mansßab½nhirBaØvtßú ¬GaRtakarR)ak; FanaKar GaRtabþÚrR)ak;¦ RBwtiþkarN_neya)aykñúgnigeRkARbeTs sßanPaBesdækic©dMeNIrkavivDÆbec©kviTüa nigc,ab;TMlab;CaedIm. enAkñúgGgÁkardwknaM mankargarCaeRcInEdlRtUveFIV dUcCaeFIVr)aykarN_ eFIVkMNt;ehtuGgÁRbCMu GnusarN³épÞkñúg KNenyücugeRkay nigÉksarépÞkñúgepSg²eTot. x-karKUrbøg;kariyal½y (Office design) erobcMKUrbøg;karriyal½y EdltMrUvtamGgÁkardwknaM etIGgÁkardwknaMRtUvkarerobcMkariyal½y tamRbePTEbbNa? KUrbøg;tamkariyal½yEdlebIkcMhr CarebobEdlbiTTVa nigmanRckrebog b¤karriyal½yEdlmaneTsPaBl¥ RbkbedayeRKOgsgðarwm tamrebobFmμCati EdlmantubEtg mankEnøgkMsanþepSg² tamcMNg;cMNUlcitþ dUcCamankEnøgelgkILa TUrTsSn_ manrUbPaBemIlepSg². enAkarriyal½yRtUverobcMeGayman]bkrN_kariyal½ydUcCa ma:sIunftcmøg TUrdak;Éksar sMNMuÉksar mansIune)aHBumÖ ]bkrN_enAelItukMuBüÚT½r Rkdas .l. K-Parkic©rbs;GñkTTYlePJov (Duty of Receptionist) GñkTTYlePJovRtUvEfrkSakEnøgTTYlePJoveGay)anl¥. enAkEnøgTTYlePJovRtUverobcM eGaymansNþab;Fñab; erobrys¥at hammineGayCk;)arI mankEnøgGgÁúyRsYlsMrab;ePJov manesovePA TsSnavdþI karEstsMrab;GanpgEdr. ebIsinCamanePsC¢³KYrTukenACitédGñkTTYlePJov. GñkTTYlePJovRtUvmanesovePANat;CYbesovePAsMrab;kt;RtaePJov nigb½NÑePJov. manesovePATUrs½BÞ hVak; bBa¢IelxTUrs½BÞEpÞkñúg elxTUrs½BÞsMrab;eBlGasnñ dUcCa b:UlIs GKÁIP½y eBTüCaedIm. RbRktiTin nigtu.niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             12 rkSasiTi§
  27. 27. eyIgCaGñkTTYlePJovcaMfa GñkTTYlePJovCamuxmat;rbs;GgÁkardwknaM sMrab;ePJovcMeBaHkarTak;TgdMbUg.eBlTTYlePJovGñkTTYlePJovRtUvrYsrayrak;Tak;b:uEnþkMueGayxøaMgRCul nigsVaKmn_ePJovCapøÚvkar edayCMrabsYrCaedIm. sVaKmn_edayrIkray bnÞab;mkRtUvRtYtBinitüeQμaH nigsYrfaetIePJovcg;CYbnrNa? ePJovEdlmankt;RtaenAkñúgkarNat;CYb ehIykt;RtaenAkñúgesovePAvtþman. sMNUmBreGayePJovcuHhtßelxa elIesovePAvtþman TaMgecj nigcUl edIm,IkarBarRbugRby½tñTukCamun eBlmanGasnñ EdlekIteLIgCayfaehtu eyIgGacdwgfaGñkNaxøH? cMnYnb:unμannak;enAkñúgGKarenaH. pþl;b½NÑCUnePJov nig ykRtLb;mkvijeBlEdlePJovecjBIsßab½neyIg. eBlEdlePJovmkdl; GñkTTYlePJovRtUvpþl;Bt’mandl;GñkEdlePJovRtUvNat;CYb. ebIsinCakñúgkrNIERbRbYl EdlePJovminGacCYbPøam² edaysarkic©karCab;rvl;epSg² GñkTTYlePJovRtUvsMuGP½yeTascMeBaHkarBnüaeBl ehIyRtUvpþl;Bt’mandl;ePJov eFIVkarNat;sarCafμI ebIsinCaePJovminGacrgcaM)an. Parkic©epSgeTot dUcCa RtUvedaHRsayBakübNþwgepSg² GñkTTYlePJJovRtUvEtecHKYrsm nig suPaBTn;Pøn; RKb;eBlevla ehIyRtUvsþab;ya:gRbugRby½tñ eBlEdlePJovTUrs½BÞmk nigecosevogkarrMxanepSg²b£sþab;minyl;Gtßn½y. kt;RtaeGay)anBisþaGMBIkarbwþgtva: BaküsmþIrbs;ePJov edayRbugRby½tñ mineqøIybdiesFnig eqøIyRsbcMeBaHkarbþwgtva:rbs;ePJovPøam² TuksMrab;tYnaTIeGayGñkmansmtßkic©Bak;B½n§. eyIgCaGñkTTYlePJovmanParHCYysMrbsMrYl CYykic©kar b¤bBa¢ak;bBaðaepSg². Par³kic©mYycMnYneTot dUcCa eFIVkarenAkEnøgCUndMNwg eqøIyTTYlTUrs½BÞ ma:sIunEhVk nigsarsMeLg KitluyTUrs½BÞ TMnak;TMngtamTUrs½BÞkñúgRbeTs nigeRkARbeTs CaedIm. X-Parkic©rbs;elxaFikar (Duty of Secretary) elxaFikarKYrEt rYsray rIkray suPaBrabsar Tn;Pøn; nigmansNþab;Fñab;l¥. elxaCaGñkmanÉkeTsxagTMnak;TMngTaMgsresr nigpÞal;mat;. CaGñkEdlgayRsYlkñúgkarTMnak;TMng nigmanÉkeTsviC¢aCIv³RKb;eBlevla. CabuKÁlEdlmanqnÞ³ecHCYykic©karedayminerIskargar nigmanKMnitpþÜtepþImedaHRsaykargar enAeBlmanvibtþi. elxaFikarEckecjCa elxapÞal; CMnYykar CMnYykarCan;x<s; nigGKÁelxaFikar. GKÁelxaFikarmantYnaTIsMrab;eFIVEpnkar nigerobcMkargar eFIVkarNat;CYbePJov erobcMeFIVdMeNIr eRtomerobcMsMrab;karRbCMu nigerobcMsniñsiT. g-c,ab; nignitiviFI (Rule and Regulation) erobcMeGaymanc,ab;TMlab; sMrab;smaCik smaCika buKÁlwkmRnþIraCkar RbCaBlrdæ enAkñúgGgÁkardwknaMc,ab;sMrab;RbeTs eGaymansNþab;Fñab; CaRbeTsnitirdæmYyEdlRbCaBlrdæcg;)an. RbCaBlrdæExμrTaMgGs;RtUvmansiTi§esrIPaB esμIrKñacMeBaHmuxc,ab; TaMgGs;KñaRtUvsißtenAeRkamc,ab;. kMueGaymanEtc,ab; EtKμanGñkGnuvtþn_c,ab; KμanGñkeKarBc,ab;dUcrbbRtYtRta h‘un Esn sBVéf¶. c,ab;eFIVeGayGgÁkarsßab½n RbeTsCatimanvin½y mansNþab;Fñab; esckþIéføfñÚr . c,ab; nignitiviFIepSg² RtUveFIVeGayRsbeTAtamc,ab;GnþrCatic,ab;CatiénRbeTsnImYy² nigeKarBsiiTi§mnusSCaktþacMbg. c,ab;rdæFmμnuBaØCac,ab;cMbgrbs;RbeTs cMENktamGgÁkardwknaMtUc² c,ab;lkçnþik³ nigbTbBa¢aépÞkñúgmansar³sMxan;sMrab;dwknaMGgÁkardwknaMeGay)anl¥. c,ab;RtUvbMerIplRbeyaCn_TUeTAsMrab;GgÁkardwknaM sMrab;RbeTsCati nigRbCaBlrdæ. GñktMNagraRsþCatMNageGayniBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             13 rkSasiTi§
  28. 28. RbCaBlrdæBitR)akd minEmntMNageGaybkSenaHeLIy dUcenHGñkbegIátc,ab;RtUvbMerIeGayplRbeyaCn_Blrdæ. edIm,IeGayc,ab;manRbsiT§PaBRtUvmanGñkGnuvtþn_c,ab;manRbsiT§PaBEdr edIm,IbgçMeGaymankareKarBc,ab; ebIc,ab;manEtelIRkdas c,ab;manEtelIbbUrmat;rbs; h‘un Esn enaHminEmnCac,ab;eT EtCaGMNacpþac;karGMNacéRBEtb:ueNÑaH. dUcenH GñkbegIátc,ab;RtUvyl;eGayc,as;GMBIGtßn½yénc,ab; edIm,IBnül;bkRsayeTAGñkGnuvtþc,ab;eGayyl; kMueGaymankaryl;RcLM b¤bkRsay xuscMeBaHc,ab; cMENkRbCaBlrdæ EdlCaGñkeKarBk¾RtUvyl;dwgGMBIc,ab;EdredIm,IeKarBtam. srubmk xagEpñknitibBaØtþi nitiRbtibtþi nignititulakarRBmTaMgRbCaBlrdæRtUvyl;dwgGMBIc,ab;TaMgGs;Kña. c-RbB½n§RtYtBinitü (Controlling System) edIm,IeGayGñkGnuvtþn_kargar eFIVkargarRbkbedaykarTTYlxusRtUv nigmanRbsiiT§PaBenaH RbB½n§RtYtBiinitümantYnaTIsMxan; edIm,IBinitüemIlfa GñkGnuvtþn_eFIVtamKMeragRtwmRtUv ehIyecjlT§plmkl¥ manKuNPaBTTYleCaKC½y. eTaHbICamankareKgbnøM karminTTYlxusRtUvya:gNak¾eday k¾RbB½n§RtYtBinitüGacTTYlBt’man)anRKb;RKan;. RbB½n§RtYtBiinitüenH begIátsMrab;RtYtBinitüelIkarGnuvtþn_kargar nigkarRbtibtþikargarenAkñúgRbeTsb¤GgÁkarsßab½nNamYy. RbB½n§RtYtBinitüRtUverobcMeGaymancab;taMgBIfñak;yuT§saRsþ fñak;Rbtibtþikar nigfñak;bec©keTs. kalBIdMbUgeLIyRbB½n§RtYtBinitüeKeRbImnusSedIm,IBinitü Etbc©úb,nñenH eKeRbIRbB½n§bec©kviTüaedIm,IRtYtBinitü dUcCa páayrNb kMuBüÚT½r masWunftsV½yRbvtþi Rbdab;RsUbsMelg eRKOgma:sIunCaedIm.l.enAeBlcUleFIVkar eKmanma:sIun vayema:gcUl nig ema:gecjBIkariyal½y. enARbeTsrIkcMerInmYycMnYn eKeRbIma:sIunftsV½yRbvtþiBinitüemIlRKb;skmμPaBkargarrbs;buKÁlwk nigGñkEdleFIVxusc,ab;edayminGaceKcputBIRbB½n§RtYtBiinitüs½VyRbvtþieLIy. rhUtdl;eKbegIátCaPñak;garesIubGegát b¤Pñak;garcarkmμ edIm,IeFIVkaresIubGegátkargarsMxan;² EdlRbB½n§bec©kviTüaminGacRtYtBinitü)an CaBiessenAkñúgerOgneya)ay nigerOgkgT½BEdlbec©kviTüaminGacdwgBIEpnkarsm¶at;rbs;sRtUv manEtcarkmμeT EdlGacykkic©karsm¶at; b¤Epnkarsm¶at;rbs;sRtUv. GñkRtYtBinitüRtUvEtÉkraCü nigRtUvelIkTwkcitþ edIm,IeGayGñkRtYtBinitümanyutþiFm’ eFIVkarsMerccitþedayÉkraCü. q-RbB½n§eFIVEpnkar (Planning System) RbB½n§eFIVEpnkar KWCaEpñkmYydac;edayELk EdlsMrab;erobcMEpnkareGaydMeNIrkarRbtibtþikarkargarenAkñúgsßab½nRksYgGgÁkardwknaM. RbeTsCatiGacdMeNIrkarl¥eTAmux rIkcMerIneCaKC½y GaRs½yelIGñkerobcMEpnkar)anl¥ GnuvtþRtwmRtUvtamEpnkar. RbB½n§Epnkar CaGñkerobcMEpnkaryuT§saRsþ EpnkarRbtibtþikarEpnkarkl,yuT§. ebImanEt EpnkaryuT§saRsþ EtKμanEpnkarkl,yuT§eT minGacdMeNIrkar)aneLIy )anRtwmEtRsém:. karerobcMkmμviFIepSg² erobcMKMeragkargarCaedIm. edIm,IerobcMRbB½n§enHeGay)anl¥ eyIgRtUverIsbuKÁlwk EdlmanÉkeTs RtUvnigckçúvis½yrbs;GgÁkardwknaMmkeFIVEpnkar eTIbGgÁkardwknaMenaHGacdMeNIreTA)an. C-crnþBt’man nigTMnak;TMng (Information and Communication System) crnþBt’man nigkarTMnak;TMng mansar³sMxan;Nas;sMrab;GgÁkardwknaM. ebIsinCacrnþBt’maneyIgl¥elOn Tan;eBlevla enaHkarerobcMEpnkarepSg²)anl¥. crnþBt’man KWCakarpþl;Bt’manr)aykarN_ ehtukarN_niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             14 rkSasiTi§
  29. 29. bBaðaEdlekItmanenAkñúgGgÁkardwknaM b¤ eRkAGgÁkardwknaM. crnþBt’manGaceGayeyIgdwgBIsßankarN_ RbeTsCati RBwtþkarN_ ehtukarN_GIVEdlekIteLIg. eKGaceFIVkarTMnak;TMngtam TUrs½BÞ sareGLicRtUvnic viTüúTak;TgkarepJIsar karsresrsMbuRt karbBa¢ÚntamPñak;gar.l. crnþBt’manenH CaEPñkCaRcmuHrbs;GgÁkardwknaM.enAEpñkBt’manenHRtUvsikSaGMBIkarRbmUlBt’man viPaKBt’man bBa¢ÚnBt’man pSBVpSayBt’man eGay)anTan;eBlevla. Bt’manEckecj CaBt’mancMhr nigBt’mansm¶at;. cMeBaHBt’mancMhr CaBt’manEdleKecjpSayCasaFarN³tam karEst TUrTsSn_ tamvibsay GIuntaENt.l. EtBt’mansm¶at; CaBt’mansMxan;EdleKminpSBVpSay Bt’manEbbenHsMxan;Nas;sMrab;GgÁkardwknaMnImYy²RtUvdwg. eRBaHfa Rtecok EdlxøaMgKWCaRtecokEdlsþab;B£GIVEdleKminniyayecjmk minEmnsþab;B£rnÞH b¤pÁrlan;eLIy. EPñkEdlPøWCaEPñkEdlemIleXIj kñúgTIggwt emIleXIjkEnøgEdleKbiT)aMg emIleXIjGIVEdleKmineGayeyIgemIl minEmnemIleXIjRBHGaTitüenaHeT. GñkEdlxøaMg KWeFIVGIVEdlGñkd¾éTminGaceFIV)an b¤eFIVeGayPñMmYyGacrMkil)an. CaTUeTAdMeNIrkarnigTMnak;TMngBt’manEdlTTYl)an tMrUveGayykmkviPaKBicarNa cMra:j;bEnßmmunniwgykeTAeRbIR)as;manRbsiT§PaB nigEckcayeTAkEnøgepSg²eTot etIBt’manenaHcMeNj b¤xatsMrab;GgÁkardwknaM . eKEckmeFüa)ayTMnak;TMngecjCa 4 ya:g pÞal;mat; CYbRbCMuTl;muxKña TUrs½BÞ karRbCMutamvIDIGU sresr sMbuRt r)aykarN_ GnusSarN nig kMNt;ehtu tamsareGLicRtUnic dUcCa karepJIsartameGLIcRtUnic nig karEhVk tamkaremIleXIj dUcCa niyaytamGIutaENt snñisITtamvIDIGU Q-rkSaTuk nigkarBarBt’man (Keep and Protect Information) enAeBlEdlmanBt’man eKRtUvrkSavaTukedIm,IeFIVCaÉksareyag. eKGacrkSvaTuksMrab;RbB½n§RKb;RKgÉksareGLicRtUnic b¤RbB½n§sMNMuÉksar. Bt’mansm¶at; Bt’mansMxan; KYrrkSaTukeGaymansuvtßPaB l¥edIm,IkarBar mineGaybBa©ÚlkñúgTinñin½ybEnßm karEkERbepSg² kuMBüÚT½rRtUvdak;elxsm¶at; b¤cak;esarva. RbB½n§Bt’manCaviFIsaRsþmYysMrab;erobcMTinñin½y nignitiviFI edIm,Icab;ykdMeNIrkar rkSaTuk nigplitBt’manmanKuNPaBkñúgeKalbMNgeFIVkarsMerccitþ. kMriténkarsMerccitþ EckecjCa 3 KWfñak;Rbtibtþikar fñak;kl,yuT§ nigfñak;yuT§saRsþ. fñak;yuT§saRsþsMrab;yuT§saRsþry³eBlEvg RtUvkarbTBiesaFn_ karvinicä½yGBÖnþrjaN Bt’manxageRkA nigxagkñúgBit. karsMerccitþfñak;kNþal RtUvmanry³eBlmFüm tMrUveGaymankarvinicä½yxøH eRbIr)aykarN_BIfñak;RbtibtþikarpÞal; nigBt’manBIxageRkA. karsMerccitþfñak;eRkam RbtibtþikarRbcaMéf¶ RtYtBinitü nigelIkElgskmμPaBr)aykarN_BImYyéf¶eTAmYyéf¶. cMeBaHkarepJIrtaméRbysNIy_ eBlEdleKepJIcUlmk RtUvmancuHhtßelxa cuHelxsMbuRtcUl dak;tamRbePTsMbuRt sMbuRtTUeTA sMbuRtÉkCn sMbuRtpÞal;xøÜn Rbjab; sm¶at; . cMeBaHsMbuRtebIkcMhrCaTUeTA GacebIk)an EtsUmkMuebIk ebIsinCasMbuRtepIJCUnbuKÁl CaÉkCn ebIKμankarGnuBaØat. vayRtakalbriecäT eBlebIksMbuRt.BinitüeRsamsMbuRtedIm,IFanafabiT. EckcaysMbuRteTAkEnøgEdlRtUvepJI. kt;RtaesovePAecjcUl.niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             15 rkSasiTi§
  30. 30. j-dMeNIrkarhirBaØvtßú niigParkic©KNenyü (Financial system and Accounting duties) eyIgRtUverobcMRbB½n§RKb;RKghirBaØvtßúeGayc,as;las;. skmμPaBrbs;KNenyü dUcCa rkSaesovePAvik½yb½Rt erobcMkarkt;RtacMNUl nigcMNay esckþIEføgkarsMrbsMrYlFanaKar nigR)ak;ExbuKÁlwk. cMeBaHGgÁkardwknaMPaKeRcIn manbBaðacMeBaHhirBaØvtßú edaykarRKb;RKgminl¥. cMeBaHRbeTsCativij karRKb;RKgcMNUlrbs;fivikaCatinig karcMNaymantmøaPaB ecosvagGMeBIBukrlYy eKgbnøMfvikarCati . RbeTsExμreyIgGMeBIrBukrlYy manplb:HBal;sMxan; RKb;sßab½nCati EdleFIVeGay)at;bg;fvikarCati kñúgmYYyqñaM 250 landuløaeTA 300 landuløa. edIm,IeGayhirBaØvtßúGgÁkardwknaMenaHl¥ RtUvcMNUleGayeRcInCagcMNay b¤cMeBaHesdækic©RbeTsvij RtUvnaMecjeGayeRcInCakarnaMcUlb¤elIktMekIgplitplkñúgRsuk. etIRbPBhirBaØvtßúrbs;eyIgTTYl)anmkBIRbPBNaxøH? GIVCaskþanuBlsMrab;esdækic©Cati? etIsßanPaBhirBaØvtßúya:gdUcemþc? hirBaØvtßúenHmantYnaTIsMxan;Nas; eFIVeGayGgÁkardwknaMGacdMeNIrkareTA)an. ral;karcMNayepSg²RtUvmanvik½yb½Rt EdlecjmkBIRbPBEdlGacTukcitþ)an dUcCavik½yb½RtecjBIma:sIunKitluyCaedIm. ]TahrN_ RbeTsrUsSIedaysarEtneya)ayvatTIrbs;xøÜn enAkñúgTIVbGWur:ub )aneFIVeGaycMNay CaeRcInelIkgT½BkñúgGMLúgsRgÁamRtCak; rvagRbeTsGaemrik nigshPaBsUevot eRkayBIsRgÁamelakelIkTI 2.eBlEdlRbFanaFibtI kU)aqUv eLIgkan;GMNac eBlenaHsßanPaBhirBaØvtßúrbs;shPaBsUevotFøak;dl;)atehtuenHehIyeFIVeGay kU)aqUv EkERbneya)ayebIkcMhr nigerobcMrcnasm<½n§sarCafμI RbB½n§esdækic© nigRbB½n§kariyaFibetyü. elak)aneFIVkarTMnak;TMngCamYybs©wmRbeTs shrdæGaemrik edIm,Ikat;bnßykareRbIR)as;fvikaelIkEpñkeyaFa. cMENkenAqñaM 1997 EdlmanvibtþihirBaØvtßúenAGasIu CaBiessRbeTséf EdlnaMeGayrIkraldalb:HBal;dl;RbeTsmYycMnYnEdleFIVTMnak;TMngBaNiC¢kmμCamYy dUcCa kUer:xagt,Úg Cb:un r:UsSI ma:eL NÐÚensIunighVwliBInCaedIm. . vibtþienHekIteLIgedaysarEt rMelaHrUbiyb½NÑ Edl)anx©ImkvinieyaKelIehdæarcnasm<½n§sMNg; ehIyTIbMputGñkvieyaK)andkecj nigdkTunecj eTIbeFIVeGayKμanhirBaØvtßú naMeGaymanvibtþienHekIteLIg. mUniFirUbiyvtßúGnþrCati)aneGaydk DIbUsiud cMnYnBak;kNþal 50 PaKry EdlCacMnYndkeRcInelIseKTaMgGs;. 5-ynþkarsMrbsMrYl (Coordination System) RKb;GgÁkardwknaMEtgEtCYbbBðaa edayeCosminput ehtuenHehIyGgÁkardwknaMRtUvmanynþkarsMrab;sMrbsMrYlenAeBlEdlmanbBaðavivaTekIteLIgenAkñúgépÞkñgGgÁkardwknaM. ynþkarsMrab;sMrbsMrYlmanbegIátCa úGaCJakNþal begIátCaKN³kmμkaredaHRsayvivaTepSg² nigmanc,ab;sMrab;Gnuvtþn_ ehIyKN³kmμkarRtUvÉkraCü. ebIsinCaenAkñúgynþkarsMrbsMrYlfñak;CatiKW xagnititulakar. tulakarRtUvEtÉkraCü yutþiFm’RtwmRtUv edayminsßimeRkamGMNacneya)ay buKÁlmanGMNacNamYyeLIy. eRkayBIcb;sRgÁamelakelIkTI 2edIm,IerobcMBiPB elakeGaymanreboberobry eK)anbegIátGgÁkarshRbCaCatienAqñaM 1945 EdlmanRbeTsmhaGMNac shrdæGaemrik )araMg Gg;eKøs rUsSI nigcin EdlCasm<½n§mitþRKb;RKgBiPBelak. enAkñúgsRgÁamNÐÚcinelIkTI 3 EdlCaCemøaHrvagkarQøanBanrbs;yYnkumμúynisþ nigBYkkumμúynisþExμrrNbyYn CamYyniBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             16 rkSasiTi§
  31. 31. ExμrRtIPaKI RtUv)ancuHkic©RBmeRBogsn§isBaØasnþiPaBenATIRkugRkug)a:rIséf¶TI 23 tula 1991 edaymanRbeTsNÐÚensIu nig)araMgCaGñkeFIVkarsMrbsMrYlkñúgkic©karenH eRBaHNÐÚensIu nig)araMgCaRbeTsÉkraCü minBak;B½n§enAkñúgCemøaHenaH. enAqñaM 1993 RbeTsExμr)anerobcMkare)aHeqñatEdlerobcMRtYtBinitüedayGgÁkarshRbCaCati. dUcenH GgÁkarshRbCaCati edIrtYnaTIya:gsMxan;sMrab;sMrbsMrYl edaHRsaybBaðaCYyBiPBelakeGaymansnþiPaB. cMENkÉkardwknaMkñúgRbeTsmantulakar CaGñkvinicä½y kat;kþInUvRKb;bBaðaEdl ekItmanenAkñúgRbeTsdUcenHehIytulakaRtUvEtÉkraCü. ebIenAkñúgGgÁkardwknaMtUctac RtUvmanKN³kmμkarÉkraCüsMrab;edaHRsaysMrbsMrYlbBaðaedayyutþiFm’. ynþkarsMrbsMrYlenH ebIsinCamanbBaðavivaTekIteLIg dMNak;kardMbUg eKeFIVkarcrcarrvagPaKICemøaH bnÞab;mkEsVgrkGaCJakNþal ebIsinCaPaKICemøaHminsuxcitþeTIb Gacdak;bNþwgCapøÚvc,ab;eTArktulakarCYyedaHRsay. k-KN³kmμkar (Committees) karbegIátKN³kmμkarsMrab;; sMrbsMrYlRtUverIseLIgedayÉkraCü CaGñkmanÉkeTsxagc,ab; nigbTBiesaFn_xagc,ab; edIm,IsMrbsMrYl edaHRsaybBaðavivaT. x-karRbCMu (Meeting) karCYbCMuKña CacMNucmYyEdleyIgGacbeBa©jKMnit sikSaKMnit eronsURtBIKñaeTAvijeTAmk nigeFIVeGaymanPaBsñitsñalKña. karRbCMueyIgGackMNt;sMrab;ry³eBleTotTat; karRbCMusamBaØ ¬GacmYyExmþg tamkarkMNt;rbs;Rkumkargar¦ b¤ karRbCMuvisamBaØ ¬karkMNt;eBlevlaERbRbYltamkal³eTs³¦ karRbCMuedayRkumkargarBiesstamfñak; karRbCMuFMEdlCakarRbCMuTUeTARbcaMqñaM EdlehAfa mhasniñ)aT. karRbCMuRtUvmankarkt;RtakMNt;ehtuGgÁRbCMueGayc,as;las; erobcMrebobvir³GgÁRbCMu rYcpþl;dMNwgdl;GñkcUlrYmRbCMu ya:gehacNas;1 s)þah_mun edIm,IeGayGñkcUlrYmRbCMu eKeRtomxøÜnrYcCaeRsckñúgkarcUlrYm. eRkayBIGgÁRbCMusMercGIVmYy eyIgRtUverobcMCar)aykarN_ esckþIEføgkarN_ snñisITkarEst pþl;dMNwgeTARKb;sßanTUt sßab½nTak;Tg bNþajsarBt’man. edIm,IelIkTwkcitþdl;GñkcUlrYmRbCMu eyIgRtUvbgðajR)ab;BIplRbeyaCn_EdlniwgTTYl)anmkvijsMrab;GñkcUlrYm. enAéf¶RbCMu eyIgRtUverobcMeGaymansnþisux bdisNæakic© karcuHeQμaH nigBiFIkareGay)anRtwmRtUv. eyIgRtUvKitKUrkarcMNayepSg²rbs;GñkcUlrYmdUcCa karcMNayelIéføeFIVdMeNIr sñak;enA mðÚbGaharnigÉksarepSg². eyIgRtUverobcMkmμviFIkalviPaKeGayc,as;las; etImuneBlcUlrYmRbCMuRtUveFIVGIVxøH? eBlRbCMuRtUveFIVGIVxøH? nig eRkayBIRbCMuRtUveFIVGIVxøH. sUmelIk]TahrN_karRbCMu enAéf¶TI 20-23 Ex mkra qañM 2008 sIþBI siTi§CnCatiedImPaKticenAGasIuGaeKñy_ EdlmanryHeBl 3 éf¶ ehIymankarcUlrYmtMNagnanaénGgÁkarGnþrCati tMNagGgÁkarshRbCaCati mantMNagGgÁkarsiTi§mnusSGgÁkarshRbCaCatimkBITIRkughSWENv tMNagGgÁkarsiTi§mnusSGasIuhVr:ummkBIbNþaRbeTsCag 10 CaedIm. eBlEdlGñkcUlrYmeFIVdMeNIreTAdl;sNæaKarRbCMuenaH eKmanbiTpøaksMrab;;bgðajGMBIbnÞb;EdlRtUvRbCMu . enAeBlEdleTAdl;kEnøgRbCMu GñkcUlrYmRtUvcuHeQμaHenAkñúgbBa¢IvtþmanedaymanTTYlePJov 2 nak;sMrab;ENnaM. eK)anpþl;kmμviFIGgÁRbCMunigENnaMR)ab;BITIkEnøgRbCMu. kaRbCMumanry³eBl 3éf¶tamrebobvir³GgÁRbCMu. enAeBlRbCMuenaH KwelIkeLIgGMBIbBaðasiTi§mnusSrbs;CnCatiPaKticniBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             17 rkSasiTi§
  32. 32. EdlRtUv)anrMelaPsiTi§esrIPaBedaysarrdæaPi)al CaBiessKW elIkeLIgrvagGCJaFrevotNamEdleFIVkarrMelaPsiTi§CMenO sasna eFIVTukçbukemñj elIbgb¥ÚnExμreRkameyIg nig Cnpþac;kar h‘un Esn EdlCa]bkrN_neya)ayrbs;yYn. enAkñúgeBlRbCMu eKmanerobcMeBlevlasRmak 10-15 naTI edIm,IeFIVkarRss;RsUb TwkEtkaehV b¤nMCaedIm. kñúgeBlsMrakenaH eyIgGaceqøoteBlCECkBIbBaðaepSg²CamYytMNagnanaEdlcUlrYmkñúgBiFIenaH. enAkñúgkic©RbCMuenaH eKerobcMeGaymanGahar 3 eBl eBlRBwk eBléf¶ nig eBll¶ac ehIyenAéf¶cugbBa©b;eK srublT§plkargarEdlecjmkBIkarRbCMu eKnaMeTATTYlTanGahareBll¶ac edaymankareFIVdMeNIrkMsanþeTotpg . K-GaCJakNþal (Referee) GaCJakNþal CaCnEdlÉkraCü s¥ats¥M esμaHRtg; yutþiFm’ sMrab;edaHRsaybBaða nigCYyrkyutþiFm’dl;buKÁlwk smaCik smaCika EdlmanbBaða. GaCJakNþalRtUvmancMeNHdwgxagc,ab; nigyl;dwgGMBIc,ab;TMlab;enAkñúgGgÁkardwknaM. eyIgRtUvkMNt;GNtþisMrab;GñkeFIVGaCJakNþaledIm,IkMueGayGaCJakNþalGagnigmanGMeBIBukrlYy lMeGogeTArksmaCikepSg² nigGacCMrujeGayGaCJakNþalfμI²beBa©jsmtßPaB RbkYtRbECg ehIyman»kassMrab;mnusSl¥TUeTA.II.c,ab; vin½y RkmsIlFm’ (Rule, Discipline and Morale) edIm,IFanakareCaKC½ykñúgGgÁkardwknaMnImYy² vin½yl¥CaktþasMxan;Nas;. c,ab; nigRkmsIlFm’eFIVeGay smaCik smaCika manreboberobry manvin½y sNþab;Fñab;l¥RbesIr. ebIcg;eGayBiPBelakmansniþPaB sNþab;Fñab; RtUverobcMeGayRbeTsnImYy²mansnþiPaB reboberobryl¥ sNþab;Fñab;l¥Camunsin.ebIcg;eGayRbeTsCati mYymansnþiPaB reboberobryl¥ RtUverobcMRkumRKYsarénRbeTsnImYy²mansuxsnþiPaBmanvin½yl¥sin. ebIcg;eGayRkumRKYsarnImYy²manvin½yl¥ sNþab;Fñab; mansuxsnþiPaB suPmgÁl RtUvGb;rMerobcMKMnitbuKÁlmñak;²eGays¶b; manrebobl¥ . dUecñH muneBlerobcMRbeTsCatieGaymansnþiPaB mansNþab;Fñab;l¥ RtUverobcMcitþKMnitrbs;buKÁlmñak;eGay)anl¥ mansNþab;Fñab;l¥sin eTIbRkumRKYsarl¥ sgÁml¥RbeTsCatil¥ nigBiPBelakl¥. cMENksßab½ndwknaMtUc²vij RtUvmanGñkerobcMbegáItc,ab; GñkGnuvtþn_c,ab;Gñkvinicä½yc,ab; edIm,IeGayc,ab;manRbsiT§PaB. c,ab;RtUveGaysmaCik smaCika buKÁlwkkñúgGgÁkar dwknaM)andwgebIsinCac,ab;sMrab;RbeTs rdæaPi)al b¤sßab½nBak;B½n§RtUvpSBVpSay beRgondl;RbCaBlrdæeGayyl;dwgGMBIc,ab;enaH edIm,IeFIVeGaysmaCik smaCika RbCaBlrdæyl;dwg ykeTAGnuvtþn_kñúgsgÁmmanerobryecosvagmanbBaða mkBIkaryl;GMBIc,ab; . dUcCac,ab;cracrN_CaedIm RbCaBlrdæmaneRKaHfñak;eRcInedaymin)andwgGMBIc,ab;cracrN_ edIm,Ikat;bnßyeRKaHfñak;cracrN_ RbCaBlrdæTaMgGs;RtUvyl;dwgBIc,ab;cracrN_EtminEmndUcb:UlIscrcrN_enATIRkugPñMeBj caMsgát;krRbCaBlrdæCMritTaluyenaHeLIy Cak;EsþgenAéf¶mYyeBlEdlesμr CiHm:UtUkBa©as;mYy ma:k qalI eTIbmkBITICnbTdac;Rsyal Rsab;EteBlEdlCiHm:UtUbt;eTAsþaMkac;RCug eTApøÚvneratþm Rtg;eBTüGgÁDYg Rsab;Etb:UlIs mksMLútTarluy dUcCaecarbøn;m:UtU. ´bg;luyeGayeKGs; Cag 12 000 erol EdlkalenaHb:UlIsTarsMLútykm:UtUeTAb:us nigTaluy 60 000 erolenHehIysgÁmExμrbc©úb,nñ KμanKuNFm’ seNþasRbNI cMeBaHCnrYmQamExμr GñkTn;exSayeT EtmanEtCiHCan;niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             18 rkSasiTi§
  33. 33. GñkTn;exSayEfmeTot. c,ab;minbMerIplRbeyaCn_eGaymYyRkumtUc b¤c,ab;bMerIplRbeyaCn_eGaybreTsdUcCaBYk RtYtRta h‘un Esn begáItc,ab;pþl;dIsm,TaneGay GñkvinieyaKyYn mkkab;éRBeQI ehIycab;ykdIedayykelsfa vinieyaK nigGPivDÆn_ EttamkarBitRkumh‘unenaH)andeNþImykdIRbCaBlrdæ deNþImdIcMkarekAs‘URbCaBlrdæExμr Cak;EsþgenAextþkMBg;cam enAbwgekt yYn eQμaH Lúg )anrwbGUsykdIcMkarekAs‘URbCaBlrdæExμrenAbwgekt ehIyEfmTaMgedjkmμkrExμrmineGayeFIVkarenATIenaHeTot edayyYnykEtkmμkrCnCatiyYnKñaeKmkeFIVkarCMnYsvij EfmTaMgminGnuBaØateGayExμrcUlkñúgcMkarenaHeTotpg . ebIsinCaExμreyIgcUleTAkñúgcMkarekAs‘U edIm,IerIsC½rekAs‘U EdlenAelITwkdIExμresaH EteKeGaysnþisuxcMkarekAs‘U)aj;smøab;ExμrRkIRk edayecaTfacUllYcekAs‘UeK. vahak;dUcCIvitRbCaBlrdæExμr KμantMélesμIrnigC½rekAs‘U EdlenAelITwkdIExμrxøÜnÉg edayKμannrNaCYyrkyutþiFm’GIVeLIy. CivitExμrEdlsøab;CabnþbnÞab;enAelITwkdIxøÜnÉg h‘unEsn minEdlykEPñkemIleLIy EtebIeyIgniyayBIerOgyYn hUrcUlmkrs;enAkñúgTwkdIExμrCabnþbnÞab;tamkarGnuBaØatieday h‘un Esn huk LgDI rdæaPi)alRsemalyYn EdlCasmaKmn_TaMg 19 extþRkugeKfaGñkRbkan;BUCsasn_. sUmbgb¥ÚnGs;elak GñkGanCYyBicarNaBI sm½y b:ul Bt rdækm<úCa nig sm½y h‘unEsn LÚvetIxusKña b¤dUcKña ebIExμrenAEtsøab; ExμrRtUveKbeNþjecj edIm,IdeNþImdIFøI ExμrenAEtRkIRkrebobenH. 1-begIátc,ab;lkçnþik³ bTbBa¢aépÞkñúg (Establish Statute and Regulation) karbegIátc,ab;enH CakarbegIátxñatKMrUsMrab;karGnuvtþn_enAkñúgGgÁkardwknaM eFIVeGayGgÁkardwknaM mantMélmYyBitR)akd. eyIgsegátemIleragBum< e)aHBum< esovePA b¤e)aHBum<karEst eKRtUverobcMBum<rYcCaeRsceTIbe)aHBum<CaeRkay. karerobcMc,ab;enHeFIVeGaykargarTaMgLay dMeNIrkareTAelOn manvin½y tamxñatKMrUEtmYy eFIVya:gNaeGayGgÁkardwknaMmantMélmYyrwgmaMEdlbgðajBI eKalbMNg TwsedA ebskkmμ nignitiviFIdwknaM. sMrab;kareFVIdMeNIrmYy eyIgRtUvsÁal;pøÚv manmeFüa)ay maneKaledA nigTwsedAc,as;. ebIsinCaminTan;manpøÚv eyIgRtUvbegIátpøÚvCamun pøÚvRtUvs¥atl¥edIm,IFanasuvtßiPaBeBleFIVdMeNIr eFIVdMeNIrelOn cMNayGs;FnFantic eBlevlatic. EtebIsinCaeFIVpøÚvmin)anl¥ kareFIVdMeNIrrGak;rGYl CYb]bsKÁ CYnkalminGacdl;eKaledA edaysarpøÚvmins¥at. dUcenH GgÁkardwknaMEdlbegIátc,ab;RtUveFIVeGayl¥ c,ab;ecjBIRkumkargar minEmnecjmkBIbuKÁlNamYyedayFanafa GñkTaMgGs;GacGnuvtþn_)antamc,ab;enaH. c,ab;l¥ eFIVeGaykardwknaMl¥ KμanbBaðaekIteLIg. RKb;RbeTsEtgEtmanc,ab; eTaHCaRbeTskumμúynisþ saFarNrdæ raCaniymb¤esrIk¾eday. EtRKan;Etc,ab;RbeTsnImYy²manlkçN³xusKña tamcrikneya)ayrbs;RbeTsenaH. 2-TTYlxusRtUvRkmsIlFm’ (Responsible for Morale) emdwknaMRtUveFIVCaKMrUnaMmuxeKRKb;Ebbya:g edIm,IeGayGgÁkardwknaMenaHeFIVdMeNIreq<aHeTAmux GgÁkardwknaMminGacmandMeNIrkareTAmux)aneT ebIsinCaemdwknaMenArYjraxageRkay minedIrmuxenAxagmuxeK. ebIcg;eGayeKeFIVGIVmYy emdwknaMRtUvGnuvtþn_muneK dUcCastVGeNþIkeBlEdlvaeFIVdMeNIreTAmux vaRtUveGItecjmk eTIbeFIVdMeNIreTAmux)an. dUcenH edIm,IeGayeKeKarBc,ab; manRkmsIlFm’ emdwknaMRtUvelIktMekIgkarGnuvtþn_ehIyRtUvGnuvtþmuneK eKarBc,ab; elIktMekIgc,ab; elIktMekIgRkmsIlFm’ CaKMrUdl;GñkeRkam»vaTeFIVtam.niBn§eday s FmμrgSI                                                             19 rkSasiTi§

×