Collection of Data
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  • 1. Collection of Data
  • 2. Malabanan, Kathleen S. Data, Classification of Data According to Source, Selecting the Method of Data and Research instruments or tools. 
  • 3. Data  These are factual information used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, and research.  It also pertains information, especially facts, quantities, records or numbers, collected to be examined and considered and used to help decision-making.
  • 4. Collection of Data Primary Data and Secondary Data
  • 5. Primary Data  are those which are collected for specific purpose directly from the field of enquiry and original in nature.  Such data are published by authorities who themselves are responsible for their collection.  They are original and raw. Example:  Documents  Creative works  Interviews  Man-made materials  Surveys
  • 6. Secondary Data  This is any source cited for its secondhand information from a different work.  It also pertains on the data which have already collected by other person who entitled to organize a data. Example:  Unpublished thesis and dissertations  Manuscript  Books  Journals
  • 7. Selecting the Method of Data Qualitative Method and Quantitative Method
  • 8. Qualitative Method  Deals with descriptions.  Data can be observed but not measured. It approximates or characterizes but does not measure the attributes, characteristics, and properties of a thing or phenomenon.
  • 9. Quantitative Method  Deals with numbers.  Data which can be measured.  This method rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories.
  • 10. Research Instruments or Tools Clerical Tools and Mechanical Tools
  • 11. Clerical Tools  used when researcher studies people and gathers data on the feelings, emotions, attitudes and judgment of the subjects. Example:  Questionnaire  Interview  Experiment  Observation
  • 12. Mechanical Devices  includes all tools that is used in different branch of science. It is more on to measure things. Example:  Thermometers  Cameras  Microscopes  Meter stick
  • 13. Malabanan, Llana Lyn O. Questionnaire, Advantages and Disadavantages of Questionnaire, and Construction of a Questionnaire 
  • 14. Questionnaire is a list of prepared questions or a checklist. This is usually sent of distributed to respondents for the purpose of seeking their opinions, views, suggestions, or perceptions.
  • 15. Advantages of Questionnaire  Practical  Large amounts of information can be collected from a large number of people in a short period of time  Can be carried out by the researcher or by any number of people with limited affect to its validity and reliability  The results of the questionnaires can usually be quickly and easily quantified by either a researcher or through the use of a software package  Can be analysed more 'scientifically' and objectively than other forms of research
  • 16. Disadvantages of Questionnaire  Lacks validity  There is no way to tell how truthful a respondent is being  There is no way of telling how much thought a respondent has put in  The respondent may be forgetful or not thinking within the full context of the situation  People may read differently into each question and therefore reply based on their own interpretation of the question
  • 17. Construction of a Questionnaire  Doing a research with a specified topic  Talking to people with knowledge about the topic  Study the guidelines on what data should be gathered  Writing the Questionnaire  Revise the Questionnaire  Rewrite the Questionnaire  Pre-test the Questionnaire  Write the Questionnaire in the final form
  • 18. Malijan, Robert Quinte G. Types of Questions, Guidelines in Formulation, Some Problems with Responses, and Evidence of Misleading Questions 
  • 19. Types of Questions  Open-ended Questions – They are used in qualitative interviews where the respondent is made to explain why certain things is done.  Free Response Questions – They are asked in such a way that the respondent does not limit the scope of his answers or responses.  Multiple Choices – It is the most commonly used type of questioning. It is a list of a number of answers provided for every question.  Scaled Response – The respondents are given a range of categories in which to express their feelings or opinions.  Checklist – This is a form of multiple choice questions from which the respondents chooses one or more response categories.  Ranking Questions – This refers to an opinion question where the respondent is asked to rank comparatively the items listed either in ascending or descending order.  Dichotomous Question – There are only two possible answers to the questions like the Yes – No type.
  • 20. Guidelines in Formulation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Decide on the specific information needed and its sources. Prepare a list of sources of the specific information needed. Put yourself in a place of the respondents. Understand the sequences in which these various subjects should appear on the questionnaire. Decide on the type of question to use. Write the actual question. Provide proper spaces for the answers. Consider the facts needed to understand the results properly. Examine the whole questionnaire. Try to time test yourself in answering the whole questionnaire. See if the questions are clear, interesting, and cordial. Reconsider the hypothesis to see if the questions are asked to answer the research problem. Pre-test the questionnaire. Have the final form reproduced in the quality and quantity needed.
  • 21. Some Problems with Responses 1. Answers might be bias 2. The answers might be irrelevant. 3. Answers might be a guess. 4. The choice of words affect responses. 5. Some respondents give answers that would make them appear good to a researcher. 6. Irrelevant way of the respondents answering the questionnaire.
  • 22. Manalang, John Michael A. Cover Letter, Evaluating Questionnaire, Interview, Purposes and Uses of the Interview, Advantages and Disadvantages of Interview 
  • 23. Cover Letter  – it would be a classified as a part of a questionnaire where in it is normally written at the upper left corner of the questionnaire that entails the message of the researcher to the respondents Things that should be seen in a cover letter would be: Purpose of the questionnaire The study itself Thing to be gathered in the questionnaire for the research Reasons it should be answered Due date of the questionnaire Guaranteed confidentiality for the respondents Expressions of thanks to the respondents
  • 24. Evaluating the Questionnaire These are the following to consider in evaluating a questionnaire:  Grammar  Format  Arrangement of Questions  Relevant to the Study  Number of Questions  Format of the Questionnaire  Reliability of Questionnaire  Respondents
  • 25. Interview  It is one of the major techniques in gathering data or information.  It is a conversation between two or more people where questions are asked by the interviewer to elicit facts or statements from the interviewee.
  • 26. Purposes and Uses of the Interview  The researcher could gain some insights about the study, the variables to be use, in making the hypothesis and generalize questions and the methods to be use statistically.  The researcher could add some more significance about the study.  The researcher could collect some factual data in order to be added for the support of the study.
  • 27. Advantage of the Interview  Generating more valid and compete information  Interviewer can classify points or questions which are vogue to the interviewee  Seeing the sincerity in terms of answering the questions  Flexibility  Greater complex questions can be asked
  • 28. Disadvantage of Interview  Respondents  Time would be hard to be contacted consuming  Inaccurate in terms of getting numerical data  Inaccurate due to bias data given by the interviewee in favourable with the study  Difficult to make conclusion
  • 29. Manguiat, Michelle Ann L. Types or Classes of Interview 
  • 30. Types or Classes of Interview Structured Interview Semi-structured Interview Unstructured Interview
  • 31. Structured Interview  Description and/or Aim of interview: - Normally, structured interviews are done in a face-to-face format or via telephone using a standard set of questions to obtain data that can be aggregated because identical questions have been asked of each participant.  Nature of questioning route: fixed, given order, very standardized  Type of question format/structure: 1. Open-ended 2. Closed-ended with ordered response choices 3. Closed-ended with unordered response choices 4. Partially closed-ended  Role of probing: Little or none, perhaps only repeating or clarifying instructions
  • 32. Semi – Structured Interview  Description and/or aim of interview: “More or less open-ended questions are brought to the interview situation in the form of an interview guide” (Flick, 1998 p. 94). From the beginning the focus is on gaining an understanding based on textual information obtained. The level of depth of understanding that the researcher pursues is used to characterize this type of interview.  Nature of questioning route: flexible, but usually a given set of questions is covered, varying levels of standardization  Type of question format/structure: 1. Open-ended, yet directed at obtaining particular information (content, topic, aspects of theory, etc.) 2. In some cases, closed-ended style of questions are used  Role of probing: Get the participant to expand upon their answer, give more details, and add additional perspectives
  • 33. Unstructured Interview  Description and/or Aim of interview: Normally, unstructured interviews are done in a face-to-face format and some would say you are trying to get participants to share stories. The researcher starts from a position of wanting to be sensitive to how participants construct their views and perspectives of things. Therefore, a goal is to allow the participant’s structure to dominate.  Nature of questioning route: ask questions to get people to talk about constructs/variables of interest to the researcher.  Type of question format/structure: 1. Open-ended – descriptive 2. Reactions to a given situation presented by the researcher  Role of probing: Simply to get the participant of talk about a topic area, normally probing questions are not directed, but rather asked to encourage the participant to keep talking or to get back to the subject of interest.
  • 34. Manojo, Reymel L. Interview Instrument and What to avoid in interviews
  • 35. Interview Instrument 1. Interview Schedule  It is like a questionnaire.  Used when the researcher knows all the item to be included in the interview about the research problem. 2. Interview Guide  It only provides ideas and allows the interviewer to freely pursue relevant topics in depth.  The items provide for flexibility in the manner, order, and language of questioning.
  • 36. Steps in Interview 1. Set the feeling tone for the interview 2. Set up Equipment 3. Prepare 4. Start the Person the Tape Recorders 5. Let the Interviewee Talk 6. Get Consent 7. Word/Name list
  • 37. What to avoid in Interviews  Being unprepared  Dress in a wrong manner  Don’t argue with the interviewee’s answer in the questions  Don’t talk irrelevant manners  Don’t unduly pressing the respondent to make a reply  Don’t appear too high above the respondent in education, knowledge and social status.  Don’t talk about irrelevant matters
  • 38. Thanks for listening guys.  Prepared and Edited by: itsmeroqui