Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Polar bear report - Sean
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Polar bear report - Sean


Published on

Published in: Education

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Polar bears by Sean Beavis P O LA R BEAR REPORT by Sean BeavisPolar Bear! 1
  • 2. Polar bears by Sean BeavisPolar BearsPolar bears live onpack ice in theArctic.The ice providesthem with a placeto hunt, live &breed. Pack Iceforms when seawater freezes,there is more packice during winter. Sea ice is an ecosystem of plankton & micro-organisms, which seals feed on ,& the polar bears then feed on the seals.Polar Bear! 2
  • 3. Polar bears by Sean BeavisAs the Arctic warms, the sea ice declines & the Polar bears must follow the ice flow for theirfood.(Solid red line indicates yearly average minimum pack-ice - dotted line indicates yearly average maximum)Unfortunately there is nowmore ice melting each summer& it is becoming a problem forthe polar bears. In the HudsonBay in Canada the bears are fac-ing a grave threat to their sur-vival, as the ice there is decreas-ing more each year.The world Conservation Unionhas listed Polar bears as athreatened species.Here is a list of some things that are affecting Polar bears : men have hunted them Pollution in their habitat Men looking for oil in the Arctic. FOOD/HABITAT The thinness of the ice covering the Arctic Ocean, approximately three metres deep, which makes it far more vulnerable to longer summers than the glaciersof the Antarctic. Since the 1960s a 40% thinning of the ice has occurred. Polar bears rely onthe ice to hunt for seals, and because it is breaking-up earlier it is giving them less time tohunt. The more the Arctic melts the more it affects global warming because it decreases theamount of sunlight reflected by the ice. The Arctic ice plays an important role in the operationof the Gulf Stream, and because more ice is melting it increases the chance of disrupting it.Previously scientists thought that the decrease in ice cover was caused by changing wind pat-terns, they used computer models to work this out. The information we have now is based onobservation and measurements made possible by the use, of radar data from a European SpacePolar Bear! 3
  • 4. Polar bears by Sean BeavisAgency satellite and microwave images obtained from an American satellite. They use all thisdata to determine any possible changes in the length of the Arctic summer.Dr Seymour Laxon, from the Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling at UCL, said: "Re-sults from the American satellite have shown that the length of summers has increased overthe last 25 years. When we compared the data from the two satellites we were astonished bythe similarity between changes in the ice thickness and the length of the summer melt season.This result suggests that if this continues, further melting will occur, leading to the eventualdisappearance of the ice during summer."The amount of Arctic sea ice created during January 2011 was the lowest in the satellite recordfor that month. In the winter of 2011 the maximum amount of Arctic sea ice was the same asthe lowest on record, and since observation began in 1979, these have been the second lowestArctic ice levels recorded.POPULATIONPopulation sizes are decreasing because of the reducedamount of hunting time because the pack ice meltsearlier and earlier each year. As the sea ice platformsmove farther apart they make swimming conditionsmore dangerous, and its more likely that they won’tmake it back, and their cubs are less likely to survive.The further they have to swim the more body fat theyloose. In 2004 biologists found 4 drowned Polar Bearsin the Beaufort Sea, they think that many more may have actually drowned. It is possible thatPolar Bear! 4
  • 5. Polar bears by Sean Beavisthe distance between land fall and pack ice is making the seas rougher and harder for the PolarBears to swim through.“A female polar bear reportedly swam for nine days - nonstop-across the Beaufort Sea before reaching an icefloe, costing her 22 percent of her weight and her cub” (National Wildlife Federation)The U.S. Geological Survey has projected that 2/3 of polar bears will disappear by 2050. This isbut a minuscule fraction of the time polar bears have roamed the vast Arctic seas, and is occur-ring during our lifetime. We have a responsibility to be more eco friendly to slow the globalwarming process.Rapid Arctic ice melt in 2011:HISTORYIn the southern most areas of Polar Bear habitat - theHudson Bay in Canada - there is now no sea ice duringsummer, which means that the Polar Bears have to liveon the land and they end up eating little or nothing. Theythen have to wait until the the Hudson Bay freezes in Autumn so that they can go hunting onthe ice again. During the last 20 years the Hudson Bay amount of ice-free periods has increased by an average of 20 days. This cuts the Polar Bears hunting season by nearly 3 weeks. Because the ice freezes later and later and melts earlier, the Polar Bears have less hunting time. This also means thatPolar Bear! 5
  • 6. Polar bears by Sean Beavistheir average weight has dropped by about 15%, this then has an effect on their ability to re-produce. The Hudson Bay Polar Bear population has reduced by around 20%.CONCLUSIONThe reduction in sea ice combined with late freezing and earlier melting means that not only isthe habitat in which they live declining, but the amount of hunting time they have is also de-clining. This results in weight loss, fewer breeding couples, less cubs born and more cubs dyingfrom starvation and drowning. As their habitat slowly shrinks, the Grizzly Bears habitat isgrowing and they are beginning to invade the Polar Bears habitat, this could also pose a majorthreat to the Polar Bear - a new predator. Humans are also invading their habitat in the form ofpetroleum industries - there are already large oil and gas operations in the Arctic and it looksas though this will be expanding in the coming years to offshore as well. The risk of oil spillscould be a huge danger to Polar Bears, Seals, and plankton - the circle of life. The Polar Bearcan be seen as the "canary in the coal mine" when we are studying global warming and its linkto wildlife species around the world. We need to look after the world and environment, as weare all linked in one way or another and if we start loosing these awesome animals - then slowlythe food chain shrinks and so does our food source.BIBLIOGRAPHYBBC Home pageNational Wildlife Federation/Global-Warming/Effects on Wildlifekidzonepolarbears international.orgwikipediaEyewitness Living Earth, Dorling Kindersley, Pub 1996 in Great BritianPolar Bears (Animals in Danger), TickTock BooksPolar Bear! 6
  • 7. Polar bears by Sean BeavisPolar Bear! 7