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Streaming Video over the Internet Approaches and Directions Dapeng Wu Yiwei Thomas Hou Wenwu Zhu Ya-Qin Zhang Jon M. Peha ...
Raw Video Compressed Audio Application-layer QoS Control Compressed Video Transport Protocol Video Decoder Audio Decoder R...
Six Key Areas <ul><li>Video Compression </li></ul><ul><li>Application layer QoS control </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous media...
Two approaches of video compression <ul><li>Nonscalable video coding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate 1 compressed bit-strea...
 
 
 
 
 
Six Key Areas <ul><li>Video Compression </li></ul><ul><li>Application layer QoS control </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous media...
Application-Layer QoS Control <ul><li>Congestion Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li...
Rate Control <ul><li>Source-Base Rate Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probe-Based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain th...
Rate Control <ul><li>Receiver-Based Rate-Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When no congestion is detected,join a layer/channel...
Rate Shaping <ul><li>To match the rate of a pre-compressed video bit stream to their target rate constraint </li></ul><ul>...
Error Control FEC: add redundant information <ul><li>Channel coding : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Packetized into k packets </li...
Error Control Delay-Constrained Retransmission
Error Control Error-Resilient Encoding <ul><li>MDC : Multiple description coding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compressed into mul...
Error Control Error Concealment <ul><li>Reconstruct the missing data </li></ul><ul><li>in intra-coded frames </li></ul><ul...
Six Key Areas <ul><li>Video Compression </li></ul><ul><li>Application layer QoS control </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous media...
Continuous Media Distribution Services <ul><li>Network Filtering </li></ul><ul><li>Application-Level Multicast </li></ul><...
Network Filtering
Network Filtering <ul><li>Typically, frame-dropping filters are used as network filters </li></ul>
Application-Level Multicast <ul><li>IP multicast has barrier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalability,network management,deployme...
Content Replication <ul><li>Mirroring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place copies of the original multimedia files on other machine...
Six Key Areas <ul><li>Video Compression </li></ul><ul><li>Application layer QoS control </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous media...
Streaming Servers <ul><li>Real-Time Operation System </li></ul><ul><li>Storage System </li></ul>
Streaming Servers OS:process management <ul><li>EDF : each task is assigned deadline  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>close to deadl...
< EDF vs Rate monotonic >
Streaming Servers OS:Resource Management <ul><li>Resource management involves admission control and resource allocation </...
Streaming Servers OS:File Management <ul><li>Non-scatterd vs scatted </li></ul><ul><li>Scatted  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thro...
Streaming Servers Storage System <ul><li>Increase throughput with data striping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>load-balance and low...
Streaming Servers Storage System <ul><li>Increase capacity with tertiary and hierarchical storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To...
 
 
Six Key Areas <ul><li>Video Compression </li></ul><ul><li>Application layer QoS control </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous media...
Media Synchronization <ul><li>Intra-stream synchronization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain continuity of logical data unit ...
Media Synchronization <ul><li>Methods maintain the temporal relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interval-based </li></ul></ul>...
Six Key Areas <ul><li>Video Compression </li></ul><ul><li>Application layer QoS control </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous media...
Protocols For Streaming Video <ul><li>Transport Protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Session Control Protocols </li></ul>
 
Protocols For Steaming Video Transport Protocols <ul><li>TCP  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>retransmission </li></ul></ul><ul><li>...
Protocols For Steaming Video Transport Protocols <ul><li>RTP : does not guarantee QoS or reliable delivery </li></ul><ul><...
Protocols For Steaming Video Session Control Protocols <ul><li>RTSP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support VCR-like control operati...
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[VOD] Streaming Video over the Internet: Approaches and ...

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Transcript of "[VOD] Streaming Video over the Internet: Approaches and ..."

  1. 1. Streaming Video over the Internet Approaches and Directions Dapeng Wu Yiwei Thomas Hou Wenwu Zhu Ya-Qin Zhang Jon M. Peha 2001 년 9 월 4 일 발표자 : 서승우
  2. 2. Raw Video Compressed Audio Application-layer QoS Control Compressed Video Transport Protocol Video Decoder Audio Decoder Raw Audio Video Compression Audio Compression Application-layer QoS Control Transport Protocol Media Synchronization Storage Device Streaming Server Client/Receiver Internet (Continuous media distribution services)
  3. 3. Six Key Areas <ul><li>Video Compression </li></ul><ul><li>Application layer QoS control </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous media distribution services </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming servers </li></ul><ul><li>Media Synchronization mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Protocols for Steaming media </li></ul>
  4. 4. Two approaches of video compression <ul><li>Nonscalable video coding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate 1 compressed bit-stream </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scalable video coding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate multiple compressed bit-stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One is base substream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others are enhancement substream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SNR , FGS </li></ul></ul>
  5. 10. Six Key Areas <ul><li>Video Compression </li></ul><ul><li>Application layer QoS control </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous media distribution services </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming servers </li></ul><ul><li>Media Synchronization mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Protocols for Steaming media </li></ul>
  6. 11. Application-Layer QoS Control <ul><li>Congestion Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source-Based Rate Control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receiver-Based Rate Control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid-Rate Control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate Shaping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frame-dropping filter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Layer-dropping filter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency filter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Re quantization filter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Error Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FEC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delay-Constrained Retransmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Error-Resilient Encoding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Error-Concealment </li></ul></ul>To avoid congestion and maximize video quality in the presence of packet loss
  7. 12. Rate Control <ul><li>Source-Base Rate Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probe-Based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain their packet loss ratio below a certain threshold </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model-Based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on throughput model </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 13. Rate Control <ul><li>Receiver-Based Rate-Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When no congestion is detected,join a layer/channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>=>Result in an increase of its receiving rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When congestion detected, drops a layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>=> result in a reduction of its receiving rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hybrid Rate-Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both Sender and receiver control rate </li></ul></ul>
  9. 14. Rate Shaping <ul><li>To match the rate of a pre-compressed video bit stream to their target rate constraint </li></ul><ul><li>Required for source based rate control </li></ul><ul><li>Codec filter </li></ul><ul><li>Frame-dropping filter </li></ul><ul><li>Layer-dropping filter </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency filter </li></ul><ul><li>Re-quantization filter </li></ul>
  10. 15. Error Control FEC: add redundant information <ul><li>Channel coding : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Packetized into k packets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate n packet block ( k < n) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only need to receive any k packets in n packet block </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Source coding-based FEC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N-th group of blocks contains redundant information of (n-1)th group of blocks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Joint source/channel coding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimal allocation between source coding and channel coding </li></ul></ul>
  11. 16. Error Control Delay-Constrained Retransmission
  12. 17. Error Control Error-Resilient Encoding <ul><li>MDC : Multiple description coding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compressed into multiple streams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each description provides acceptable visual quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With only one description, can reconstruct video with acceptable quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COST !! </li></ul></ul>
  13. 18. Error Control Error Concealment <ul><li>Reconstruct the missing data </li></ul><ul><li>in intra-coded frames </li></ul><ul><li>in inter-coded frames </li></ul><ul><li>Example of skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximally smooth recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>projection onto convex sets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>various motion vector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coding mode recovery methods </li></ul></ul>
  14. 19. Six Key Areas <ul><li>Video Compression </li></ul><ul><li>Application layer QoS control </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous media distribution services </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming servers </li></ul><ul><li>Media Synchronization mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Protocols for Steaming media </li></ul>
  15. 20. Continuous Media Distribution Services <ul><li>Network Filtering </li></ul><ul><li>Application-Level Multicast </li></ul><ul><li>Content Replication </li></ul>
  16. 21. Network Filtering
  17. 22. Network Filtering <ul><li>Typically, frame-dropping filters are used as network filters </li></ul>
  18. 23. Application-Level Multicast <ul><li>IP multicast has barrier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalability,network management,deployment,support for higher layer functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>=> application level multicast mechanism was proposed </li></ul><ul><li>Media-Bridge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performs routing at application layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnect with neighbor Media-Brides through explicit configuration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application level multicast is possible </li></ul></ul>
  19. 24. Content Replication <ul><li>Mirroring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place copies of the original multimedia files on other machines scattered around the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes local copies of contents that clients retrieve frequently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To store complete video is expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A few cached frames can contribute to significant improvement in performance </li></ul></ul>
  20. 25. Six Key Areas <ul><li>Video Compression </li></ul><ul><li>Application layer QoS control </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous media distribution services </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming servers </li></ul><ul><li>Media Synchronization mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Protocols for Steaming media </li></ul>
  21. 26. Streaming Servers <ul><li>Real-Time Operation System </li></ul><ul><li>Storage System </li></ul>
  22. 27. Streaming Servers OS:process management <ul><li>EDF : each task is assigned deadline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>close to deadline first </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rate-monotonic scheduling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high rate task first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More task switching </li></ul></ul>
  23. 28. < EDF vs Rate monotonic >
  24. 29. Streaming Servers OS:Resource Management <ul><li>Resource management involves admission control and resource allocation </li></ul><ul><li>Deterministic admission control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard guarantees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statistical admission control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical guarantees </li></ul></ul>
  25. 30. Streaming Servers OS:File Management <ul><li>Non-scatterd vs scatted </li></ul><ul><li>Scatted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>throughput improved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek times can be reduced by disk-scheduling algorithms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SCAN-EDF, grouped sweeping scheduling,DC-SCAN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Support pause/resume,fast forward,fast backward => under study </li></ul>
  26. 31. Streaming Servers Storage System <ul><li>Increase throughput with data striping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>load-balance and low latency are two conflicting objectives </li></ul></ul>
  27. 32. Streaming Servers Storage System <ul><li>Increase capacity with tertiary and hierarchical storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To keep the storage cost down , tertiary storage must be added </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SAN : use fiber channel </li></ul><ul><li>NAS : directly attach to a local area network </li></ul>
  28. 35. Six Key Areas <ul><li>Video Compression </li></ul><ul><li>Application layer QoS control </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous media distribution services </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming servers </li></ul><ul><li>Media Synchronization mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Protocols for Steaming media </li></ul>
  29. 36. Media Synchronization <ul><li>Intra-stream synchronization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain continuity of logical data unit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inter-stream synchronization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain temporal relationships among different continuous media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inter-object synchronization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relation with time-independent data such as text, still image and streams </li></ul></ul>
  30. 37. Media Synchronization <ul><li>Methods maintain the temporal relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interval-based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axes-based : time stamping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Widely used </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control flow-based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Event-based </li></ul></ul>
  31. 38. Six Key Areas <ul><li>Video Compression </li></ul><ul><li>Application layer QoS control </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous media distribution services </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming servers </li></ul><ul><li>Media Synchronization mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Protocols for Steaming media </li></ul>
  32. 39. Protocols For Streaming Video <ul><li>Transport Protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Session Control Protocols </li></ul>
  33. 41. Protocols For Steaming Video Transport Protocols <ul><li>TCP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>retransmission </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UDP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically employed as the transport protocol </li></ul></ul>
  34. 42. Protocols For Steaming Video Transport Protocols <ul><li>RTP : does not guarantee QoS or reliable delivery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time stamping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence numbering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Payload type identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source identification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RTCP : designed to work in conjunction with RTP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>QoS feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participant identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control packets scaling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-media synchronization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal session control information </li></ul></ul>
  35. 43. Protocols For Steaming Video Session Control Protocols <ul><li>RTSP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support VCR-like control operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(stop,pause/resume,fast forward, fast backward) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choosing delivery channel(UDT,multicast UDT, TCP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish and control streams of continuous audio and video media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media retrieval : media request,ask session setup to server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding media to an existing session </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SIP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support user mobility by proxying and redirecting request </li></ul></ul>
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