Technology In The Classroom SeriesPresentation Transcript
Technology In The Classroom Series Web Basics
How the web works
Getting around the web
How to avoid viruses
How to avoid spam
How the Web Works ISP – Internet Service Provider A company that provides the connection to the internet. LAN – Local Area Network Computers connected in a local environment including homes, schools and businesses, but not necessarily to the internet. POP – Point of Presence An access point to the internet. The physical location of the server and router. NAP – Network Access Point Points of access between the major backbones of the world wide web. Routers The switchboards between network backbones Backbones Large “core” networks comprising the internet.
Publicly accessible worldwide system of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using a standardized Internet Protocol (IP). It is made up of thousands of smaller commercial, academic, domestic and government networks. It carries various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, and the interlinked web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web.
The name of a web site entered registered with the Domain Name System (DNS).
WWW – World Wide Web
The WWW is a global information space which people can read and write via computers connected to the Internet. The term is often mistakenly used as a synonym for the Internet itself, but the Web is actually a service that operates over the Internet, just like e-mail.
All definitions Used in this Presentation Come from Wikipedia.org
Getting Around the Web Search Engines A search engine is a program designed to help find information stored on a computer system such as the World Wide Web, or a personal computer. The search engine allows one to ask for content meeting specific criteria (typically those containing a given word or phrase) and retrieves a list of references that match those criteria. Search engines use regularly updated indexes to operate quickly and efficiently. Some search engines also mine data available in newsgroups, large databases, or open directories like DMOZ.org. Unlike Web directories, which are maintained by human editors, search engines operate algorithmically. Spiders A spider is a computer program that searches web sites and records key words used to find that site in future searches. Cookies A cookie is not a program, but rather information stored on your computer by a web site for later retrieval. This may allow for the site to “personalize” your next visit.
How To Avoid Viruses A virus is a self-replicating program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable code or documents. A computer virus behaves in a way similar to a biological virus, which spreads by inserting itself into living cells. Extending the analogy, the insertion of a virus into the program is termed as an infection , and the infected file (or executable code that is not part of a file) is called a host . Viruses are one of the several types of malicious software or malware . In a common parlance, the term virus is often extended to refer to worms , trojan horses and other sorts of malware , however, this can confuse computer users, since viruses in the narrow sense of the word are less common than they used to be, compared to other forms of malware .
Virus Protection Software C onsists of computer programs that attempt to identify, thwart and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software ( malware ). Anti-virus software typically uses two different techniques to accomplish this: Examining (scanning) files to look for known viruses matching definitions in a virus dictionary Identifying suspicious behavior from any computer program which might indicate infection. Such analysis may include data captures, port monitoring and other methods. Popular Examples Include: McAfee Norton More
Tips and Suggestions
Do not open any files attached to an email from an unknown, suspicious or untrustworthy source.
Do not open any files attached to an email unless you know what it is, even if it appears to come from a dear friend or someone you know. Some viruses can replicate themselves and spread through email. Better be safe than sorry and confirm that they really sent it. Do not open any files attached to an email if the subject line is questionable or unexpected. If the need to do so is there always save the file to your hard drive before doing so. Delete chain emails and junk email. Do not forward or reply to any to them. These types of email are considered spam, which is unsolicited, intrusive mail that clogs up the network. Do not download any files from strangers. Exercise caution when downloading files from the Internet. Ensure that the source is a legitimate and reputable one. Verify that an anti-virus program checks the files on the download site. If you're uncertain, don't download the file at all or download the file to a floppy and test it with your own anti-virus software. Update your anti-virus software regularly. Over 500 viruses are discovered each month, so you'll want to be protected. These updates should be at the least the products virus signature files. You may also need to update the product's scanning engine as well. Back up your files on a regular basis. If a virus destroys your files, at least you can replace them with your back-up copy. You should store your backup copy in a separate location from your work files, one that is preferably not on your computer. When in doubt, always err on the side of caution and do not open, download, or execute any files or email attachments. Not executing is the more important of these caveats. Check with your product vendors for updates which include those for your operating system web browser, and email .
These tips are brought to you by McAfee.com
How To Avoid Spam Spyware Is a broad category of malicious software designed to intercept or take partial control of a computer's operation without the informed consent of that machine's owner or legitimate user. While the term taken literally suggests software that surreptitiously monitors the user, it has come to refer more broadly to software that subverts the computer's operation for the benefit of a third party. Spyware differs from viruses and worms in that it does not usually self-replicate. Like many recent viruses, however, spyware is designed to exploit infected computers for commercial gain. Typical tactics furthering this goal include delivery of unsolicited pop-up advertisements; theft of personal information (including financial information such as credit card numbers); monitoring of Web-browsing activity for marketing purposes; or routing of HTTP requests to advertising sites.
Tips and Suggestions
Know the symptoms of spyware :
Sluggish computer : If you've noticed that your PC has had a serious drop in its responsiveness lately, it could mean that spyware is draining its computing power.
New "favorites" : Spyware will often add "favorites" of its own to your browser's favorites' folder. If you notice an unusual number of new favorites and are not sure how they got there, spyware may be to blame.
Fishy pop-up ads : Pop-up ads from spyware software are designed to look like they've been served up by the legitimate Web site you're visiting. As a result, you may not recognize them as a symptom of infection. There's no way to be sure, but if the contents of the ads seem strange -- or if you're getting pop-up ads when you're not even surfing the Internet -- it's very likely that they are being served up by spyware software.
Change of your default home page : One of the oldest spyware tricks is to automatically change your Web browser's default or start-up home page. This is the Web page that appears when you start your browser or click the "home" button.
Unauthorized 1-900 number charges : If your phone bill charges you for 1-900 phone calls you didn't make, you may have fallen victim to a particularly devious form of spyware. These programs will hang-up your normal Internet connection and instruct your computer to dial a 1-900 number -- silently.
These tips are brought to you by GetNetWise.com
Learn about examples of the most devious programs :
The trickiest part of spyware is that there is not one clear-cut type. Here are some examples:
A computer user may see an Internet advertisement for SomeProgram. She clicks on the ad and is sent to a page that pops up a window asking if she wants to download SomeProgram. The user clicks "no," but SomeProgram is surreptitiously downloaded and installed anyway.
A computer user sees an ad for AnotherProgram, and clicks on it. She is sent to a page that immediately pops up a window asking if she wants to download AnotherProgram. The user clicks "no." An identical window pops up as soon as she declines, however, and repeats until the user gets frustrated and clicks "yes."
A computer user goes to a Web page, www.acompany.com. The page then opens another page running a java script When the user closes www.acompany.com, the java script remains and covertly resets the user's home page. The java script is written such that any time the user attempts to reset his home page, the program automatically resets it again so the user cannot reset his home page to what it was before the hijacking took place.
A computer user downloads a software package, Footloose 3.1, that will allow her to share files over the Internet using a peer-to-peer sharing site. Among the programs in the software package is a hidden dialer application, GreatCharges.exe, that was not mentioned in any advertisements, software licenses, or consumer notices associated with the package. The dialer application is not an integral part of the file-sharing software package, but is included anyway. (This tactic is sometimes referred to as bundling .) When the user opens her Web browser after installation of software package, the dialer opens in a hidden window, turns off the sound of the user's computer, and calls a phone number without her permission. The charges for the calls made by the hidden dialer appear on the user's phone bill at the end of the month.
A computer user has downloaded "New Game: Return to Hades" from the Internet, but now wants to remove the game program from the computer because he fears it might be spyware. "New Game" does not have an uninstall program or instructions and does not show up in the standard feature in the user's operating system that removes unwanted programs. The user's attempts to otherwise delete it are met by confusing prompts from "New Game" with misrepresentative statements that deleting the program will make all future operations unstable.
A computer user has downloaded Program 2.0. He thought it would be a helpful program, but it has turned out to be spyware. Now he wants to remove Program 2.0 from the computer. Program 2.0 appears in the standard feature in the user's operating system that removes unwanted programs, but when he utilizes the "remove" option, a component of Program 2.0 remains behind. The next time the user connects to the Internet, this component re-downloads the remainder of Program 2.0 and reinstalls it.
Explore steps you can take to prevent spyware :
Prevention is the key to a safe and secure computer. The tips to help you prevent spyware will also help keep viruses and hackers from taking advantage of your computer.
Be skeptical about installing strange or free software : Make sure you know what EXACTLY is being installed onto your computer when you download applications off the Internet. Use the custom install option to see the programs that will be placed on your computer with the downloaded application. Sypware is often bundled with many free software downloads. Many of the file sharing or peer-to-peer programs include spyware in the installation package.
Pay attention to security warnings : "Security Warning" screens alert users to new software being installed from Web pages they visit. This software can include ActiveX controls and other executable files. You should not blindly accept such "Active-X" software installations; and be sure you trust the company installing the software. Just because the company's "identity" is verified, it does not mean that you should blindly trust content from them. Carefully read the license agreement or privacy disclosure if one is provided (clicking on the software name may cause these to be displayed). Also, make sure the "Security Warning" screen links to an end user license agreement or other description of what you're getting.
Read the end user licensing agreement : Almost all legitimate software installations will include an end user licensing agreement ( EULA ) that includes a lot of information. You should make a habit of reading these EULA s. Ideally, they should tell you exactly what they intend to install on your machine and the limitations to your use of the software. If the EULA is hard to find, or if the documentation is unreasonably difficult to read and understand, then you should think twice before agreeing to install the software.
Practice basic computer security hygiene :
Following the three security tips below will help prevent all manner of programs from infecting your computer.
Always use anti-virus software : And keep the software up to date. Over 500 new viruses are discovered each month.
Always use a firewall : A firewall is an "internal lock" for information on your computer. Many computer operating systems already have firewalls installed, you just have to turn them on. There are many other firewalls available to download or buy that help you secure your computer.
Keep your software up to date : You should always make sure that the software on your computer is up to date with the latest security patches. The makers of your software probably offer security updates to your Web browser program, your e-mail client and your operating system. Learn how to automatically update this software.
Use Tools to Remove Spyware, popular examples are:
Microsoft Anti- spyware
Wikis A wiki is a type of website that allows users to easily add and edit content and is especially suited for collaborative writing. The term wiki also sometimes refers to the collaborative software itself (wiki engine) that facilitates the operation of such a website. A wiki system may also provide various tools that allow the user community to easily monitor the constantly changing state of the wiki and discuss the issues that emerge in trying to achieve a general consensus about the wiki content. Some wikis allow completely unrestricted access so that people are able to contribute to the site without necessarily having to undergo a process of 'registration' as had usually been required by various other types of interactive websites such as Internet forums or chat sites. Blogs A blog is a website in which journal entries are posted on a regular basis and displayed in reverse chronological order. The term blog is a shortened form of weblog or web log . Authoring a blog, maintaining a blog or adding an article to an existing blog is called "blogging". A person who posts these entries is called a "blogger". Often blogs focus on a particular "area of interest", such as HUNBlog .
Streaming Audio and Video
Streaming media is any content that is consumed (read, heard, viewed) while it is being delivered. Although it is generally used in the context of certain content types ("streaming audio", "streaming video", etc), streaming is more a property of the delivery systems employed to distribute that content.
The distinction is usually applied to media that are distributed over computer networks; most other delivery systems are either inherently streaming (radio, television) or inherently non-streaming (books, video cassettes, audio CDs).
The word "stream" is also used as a verb, meaning to deliver streaming media.
A podcast is a web feed of audio or video files placed on the Internet for anyone to subscribe to. Podcasters' websites also may offer direct download of their files, but the subscription feed of automatically delivered new content is what distinguishes a podcast from a simple download or real-time streaming.
Voice over Internet Protocol (also called VoIP )
The routing of voice conversations over the Internet or any other IP-based network. Voice over IP traffic might be deployed on any IP network, including ones lacking a connection to the rest of the Internet, for instance on a private building-wide LAN.
The internet is an amazing tool for finding information and sharing ideas.
The technology and software that allows the internet to be so dynamic is growing every day.
As the internet grows, however, so do unscrupulous practices.
You need to protect yourself.
But, don’t let it stop you. There’s too much to gain by “surfing” the web.