Smooth Video Handoff over
Wireless Networks

     Yi Pan and Tatsuya Suda
     {ypan,suda}@ics.uci.edu
    School of Infor...
Outline
   Motivation
   Proposed scheme
   Simulation and demo
   Conclusion
Motivation
   Current handoff techniques:
       Single mobile IP binding may cause packet loss
        during handoff
 ...
Motivation
    Multimedia applications need a smooth
     handoff provides
         Reduced packet loss
         Contin...
Our Proposal
   Use multiple paths to reach a single mobile
    node
       Assign different mobile IP addresses (COAs) ...
Basic Ideas
   Preventing a packet loss due to handoff
       Sending a packet on multiple paths during handoff reduces
...
Basic Ideas
   Preventing a loss due to handoff
       Sending a packet on multiple paths during handoff reduces
       ...
Basic Ideas
   Preventing a loss due to handoff
       Sending a packet on multiple paths during handoff reduces
       ...
Basic Ideas
   Exploit different amounts of bandwidth
       Multi layer video transmission on multiple paths during
   ...
Background Techniques
   Networking layer technique
       Multi-homing
       Mobile IP
   Transport layer technique
...
Background Techniques
   Network layer technique
       Multi-homing
           One host gets multiple IP addresses
   ...
Background Techniques
                DHCP protocol in IPv4
                   DHCP servers in the network can provide

...
Background Techniques
                DHCP protocol in IPv4
                   DHCP servers in the network can provide

...
Background Techniques
        IPv6 address auto-configuration and multi-homing
            By suffixing the network pref...
Background Techniques
    Mobile IP
           Basic Mobile IP

            BindingUpd(COA1)


 Home Agent
             ...
Background Techniques
    Mobile IP
           Basic Mobile IP

            Mobile Node   COA Lifetime1
                ...
Background Techniques
    Mobile IP
           Basic Mobile IP

            Mobile Node   COA Lifetime1
                ...
Background Techniques
    Mobile IP
          Options used
                  Simultaneous binding (to support multi-hom...
Background Techniques
       Route optimization

             Mobile Node   COA1   Lifetime 1
                           ...
Background Techniques
       Route optimization

              Mobile Node   COA1   Lifetime 1
                          ...
Background Techniques
      Route optimization

                    Mobile Node   COA1   Lifetime 1
                     ...
Background Techniques
   Transport layer technique
       TCP Friendly Rate Control (TFRC)
            We use TFRC end-...
Background Techniques
                                   TFRC calculates the transmission rate using an
                 ...
Background Techniques
      Features of TFRC during congestion avoidance phase:
           Fairness to TCP
             ...
Background Techniques
   Application layer technique
       Source adaptive multi-layer encoder for
        stream media...
Background Techniques
     Multi-Layered Video
      Raw       Multi-Layer         Base layer
      Video      Encoder   ...
Technical Background
    Source adaptation multi-layer encoder




         Source adaptive multi-layer encoder takes ri...
System Architecture
   Multi-path transport protocol design
Components in the
Architecture
   Path Management Module
       Exist in transport layer at both ends
       Keep a rec...
Components in the
Architecture
   Multi-path Distributor
       Exist at the sender side
       Calculate and report th...
Components in the
Architecture
   Multi-path Collector
       Exist at the receiver side
       Receive video packets f...
Simulation Settings
                Simulation Scenario:                                       Different Average backgrou...
Simulation Settings
   Compared handoff schemes:
       Single path schemes with single mobile IP binding:
            ...
Simulation Results                                                                                                   when ...
Simulation Results
    Improved throughput
                        Multi-path handoff scheme keeps the video
            ...
Simulation Results
    Reduced packet loss
                        Multi-path handoff scheme keeps the
                  ...
Simulation Results
    Improved goodput
        With protection of base layer, the goodput is
         improved in terms...
Video Demo
      Demo scenario      Received Video




Raw video at the sender
Video Demo
                                Multi-path Handoff



                          Single path w/ Forwarding



  ...
Conclusion
   Contributions
       Integrate multi-layer encoding, multi-
        homed mobile nodes through a multi-pat...
Conclusion
   Merits of multi-path handoff
       Less packet loss during handoff
            duplicated packets are tr...
http://netresearch.ics.uci.edu/ypan/MPATH_strm

             Thank you!!!
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  • Smooth Video Handoff over Wireless Networks

    1. 1. Smooth Video Handoff over Wireless Networks Yi Pan and Tatsuya Suda {ypan,suda}@ics.uci.edu School of Information and Computer Science University of California, Irvine
    2. 2. Outline  Motivation  Proposed scheme  Simulation and demo  Conclusion
    3. 3. Motivation  Current handoff techniques:  Single mobile IP binding may cause packet loss during handoff  Switching data transmission path is dangerous for active sessions  Handoff causes transmission rate reduction  Due to disparity of available bandwidth in different cells, the transmission rate in the previous cell may not be proper to avoid congestion in the new cell  Network mobility support can not handle this problem
    4. 4. Motivation  Multimedia applications need a smooth handoff provides  Reduced packet loss  Continuous streaming  Congestion avoidance in new cell  Smooth adaptation of video quality to various bandwidth
    5. 5. Our Proposal  Use multiple paths to reach a single mobile node  Assign different mobile IP addresses (COAs) to different paths reaching a single mobile node  Exploit different amounts of bandwidth on multiple paths to a single mobile node  To reduce or prevent a packet loss due to hand off  To increase throughput for the mobile node
    6. 6. Basic Ideas  Preventing a packet loss due to handoff  Sending a packet on multiple paths during handoff reduces loss  When a packet is lost on one path due to handoff, the packet is still available on the other paths COA1 is registered to Home Agent and Corresponding Mobile Node COA1 Lifetime 1 Node and Path1 is used to send packets to COA1 Home Agent Internet Base Station2 M Wireless Gateway ov in g Di re cti on Path1 to COA1 COA1 Corresponding Node Mobile Node Mobile Node COA1 Lifetime 1 Base Station1
    7. 7. Basic Ideas  Preventing a loss due to handoff  Sending a packet on multiple paths during handoff reduces loss  When a packet is lost on one path due to handoff, the packet is still available on the other path Path2 to COA2 Mobile Node COA1 Lifetime 1 and path1 to COA2 Lifetime 2 COA1 are both used to multicast data packets to Home Agent Internet Path2 to COA2 Base Station2 the mobile node Mo tion ving D irec COA2 Wireless Gateway COA1 Mobile Node Path1 to COA1 Corresponding Node Mobile Node COA1 Lifetime 1 COA2 Lifetime 2 Base Station1
    8. 8. Basic Ideas  Preventing a loss due to handoff  Sending a packet on multiple paths during handoff reduces loss  When a packet is lost on one path due to handoff, the packet is still available on the other paths While the mobile node moves out of the transmission range of base station1, it loses Mobile Node COA2 Lifetime 2 M Di ovin rec g COA1 but the data tio n packets are continuously COA2 Home Agent available through path2 Mobile Node Internet Base Station2 to COA2 Path2 to COA2 Wireless Gateway Corresponding Node Mobile Node COA2 Lifetime 2 Base Station1
    9. 9. Basic Ideas  Exploit different amounts of bandwidth  Multi layer video transmission on multiple paths during handoff Mobile Node COA1 Lifetime 1 COA2 Lifetime 2 Home Agent Path2 to COA2 Internet Base Station2 Mo tion g vin ec Dir COA2 Wireless Gateway COA1 Mobile Node Path1 to COA1 Corresponding Node Mobile Node COA1 Lifetime 1 COA2 Lifetime 2 Data belong to Basic Layer Base Station1 Data belong to Enhanced Layer
    10. 10. Background Techniques  Networking layer technique  Multi-homing  Mobile IP  Transport layer technique  TCP Friendly Rate Control (TFRC)  Application layer technique  Source Adaptive Multi-layer encoder
    11. 11. Background Techniques  Network layer technique  Multi-homing  One host gets multiple IP addresses  Schemes to support multi-homing  DHCP protocol in IPv4  IPv6 address auto-configuration and multi-homing
    12. 12. Background Techniques  DHCP protocol in IPv4  DHCP servers in the network can provide dynamic COA addresses for the mobile node  By sending requests and getting COAs for multiple interfaces, the mobile node can acquire multiple COAs Network Prefix 1 Network Prefix 2 Base Station 1 Base Station 2 DHCP request DHCP request Multi-homed Host
    13. 13. Background Techniques  DHCP protocol in IPv4  DHCP servers in the network can provide dynamic COA addresses for the mobile node  By sending requests and getting COAs for multiple interfaces, the mobile node can acquire multiple COAs Network Prefix 1 Network Prefix 2 Base Station 1 Base Station 2 IPv4 Addr1 IPv4 Addr2 Multi-homed Host
    14. 14. Background Techniques  IPv6 address auto-configuration and multi-homing  By suffixing the network prefix from the routers with host’s MAC address, multiple IPv6 COA addresses can be achieved Base Station 1 Base Station 2 IPv6 Network Prefix 1 IPv6 Network Prefix 2 Host MAC Addr Multi-homed Host IPv6 Addr1 = {IPv6 Network Prefix 1||Host MAC Addr} IPv6 Addr2 = {IPv6 Network Prefix 2||Host MAC Addr}
    15. 15. Background Techniques  Mobile IP  Basic Mobile IP BindingUpd(COA1) Home Agent Internet BindingUpd(COA1) Wireless Gateway Base Station1 COA1 Corresponding Node Mobile Node
    16. 16. Background Techniques  Mobile IP  Basic Mobile IP Mobile Node COA Lifetime1 1 Home Agent Internet Wireless Gateway Packet Base Station1 COA1 Corresponding Node Mobile Node
    17. 17. Background Techniques  Mobile IP  Basic Mobile IP Mobile Node COA Lifetime1 1 COA Packet Home Agent 1 Internet Wireless Gateway Base Station1 COA Packet Path1 to COA1 1 COA1 Corresponding Node Mobile Node
    18. 18. Background Techniques  Mobile IP  Options used  Simultaneous binding (to support multi-homing) Mobile Node COA1 Lifetime 1 COA2 Lifetime 2 Home Agent BindingUpd(COA1) Internet Base Station2 COA2 Wireless Gateway COA1 Mobile Node BindingUpd(COA1) Corresponding Node Base Station1
    19. 19. Background Techniques  Route optimization Mobile Node COA1 Lifetime 1 COA2 Lifetime 2 Home Agent Internet Base Station2 COA2 Wireless Gateway Packet COA1 Mobile Node Corresponding Node Base Station1
    20. 20. Background Techniques  Route optimization Mobile Node COA1 Lifetime 1 COA2 Lifetime 2 Home Agent Internet Base Station2 COA2 Wireless Gateway BindingUpd(COA1,COA2) COA1 Mobile Node Corresponding Node Base Station1
    21. 21. Background Techniques  Route optimization Mobile Node COA1 Lifetime 1 COA2 Lifetime 2 COA1 Packet Home Agent Internet Base Station2 COA2 Wireless Gateway COA1 Packet COA1 Mobile Node COA1 Packet Corresponding Node Mobile Node COA1 Lifetime 1 COA2 Lifetime 2 Base Station1
    22. 22. Background Techniques  Transport layer technique  TCP Friendly Rate Control (TFRC)  We use TFRC end-to-end rate control algorithm instead of TCP  To avoid the high fluctuation of transmission rate resulting from the saw tooth shaped TCP window dynamics
    23. 23. Background Techniques  TFRC calculates the transmission rate using an equation below MTU Rnominal RTT 2 * p / 3 Trto * 3 * p / 8 * p * (1 32* p 2 )  Packet loss rate p is calculated through a short history of observed packet loss, through a weighted averaging method k p 1/ wi Li Li 1 i 1 TCP throughput TFRC throughput Nominal bandwidth 0 3 6 9 0.6 1.2 1.8 2.4 3.6 4.2 4.8 5.4 6.6 7.2 7.8 8.4 9.6 12 15 18 21 24 10.2 10.8 11.4 12.6 13.2 13.8 14.4 15.6 16.2 16.8 17.4 18.6 19.2 19.8 20.4 21.6 22.2 22.8 23.4 24.6 .2 .8 .4 .6 .2 .8 .4 .6 .2 .8 .4 .6 .2 .8 .4 .6 .2 .8 .4 .6 6 2 8 4 6 2 8 4 6 2 8 4 6 12 15 18 21 24 0 3 6 9 0. 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 4. 5. 6. 7. 7. 8. 9. 10 10 11 12 13 13 14 15 16 16 17 18 19 19 20 21 22 22 23 24
    24. 24. Background Techniques  Features of TFRC during congestion avoidance phase:  Fairness to TCP  It achieves a long run throughput equal to the nominal bandwidth that a TCP session will occupy under the same congestion status  Stable transmission rate  It maintains a sustainable rate against intermittent packet around the nominal bandwidth.  Thus, the fluctuation of transmission rate due to the saw-tooth shaped TCP window dynamics is largely reduced  Quick reaction to congestion  It reacts to persistent packet losses by forcing a reduction of transmission rate over several round trip time
    25. 25. Background Techniques  Application layer technique  Source adaptive multi-layer encoder for stream media  Multi-layer stream media  Multiple encoding layers are applied in the encoder  Base layer packets contain most critical data for the decoder  Enhanced layer packets provide additional information to increase the quality of stream media
    26. 26. Background Techniques  Multi-Layered Video Raw Multi-Layer Base layer Video Encoder Enhancement layer Base + Base Layer Enhancement Layers
    27. 27. Technical Background  Source adaptation multi-layer encoder  Source adaptive multi-layer encoder takes ri, bi, εi as input parameters to video layer i  ri is the transmission rate for video layer i  bi is the buffered bits of video layer i to be sent to the network  εi is the encoding error rate
    28. 28. System Architecture  Multi-path transport protocol design
    29. 29. Components in the Architecture  Path Management Module  Exist in transport layer at both ends  Keep a record of all available paths  Assign rate control module for each available path  Rate Control Module  A pair of rate control modules exist at both ends for each available path  Perform end-to-end feedback-based rate control on each path
    30. 30. Components in the Architecture  Multi-path Distributor  Exist at the sender side  Calculate and report the number of video layers and target encoding rates for video layers to the application (video encoder)  Assign appropriate paths to each video layer and send the video packets through multiple paths
    31. 31. Components in the Architecture  Multi-path Collector  Exist at the receiver side  Receive video packets from multiple paths and reorder the buffered video streams  Deliver the video streams to application (video decoder)
    32. 32. Simulation Settings  Simulation Scenario: Different Average background traffic volume in different base Home Agent stations are explored in simulation Intermediate Routers Wireless Gateways Corresponding Node (source of video traffic) Base Stations Distance between Mobile Node neighboring base stations = 500 meters (receiver of video traffic) Base station cell coverage Background radius = 300 meters with Traffic Nodes link speed = 11 Mbps
    33. 33. Simulation Settings  Compared handoff schemes:  Single path schemes with single mobile IP binding:  No forwarding: no local packet forwarding for mobile nodes is performed among base stations  Basic Mobile IP technique  Forwarding: packets are relayed from the old base station to the new base station when the mobile node enters the new cell  Represent network layer mobility enhancement techniques that repair the packet loss on a broken path for an active session  Multi-path handoff scheme  Handoff with multiple mobile IP bindings  TFRC rate control is employed in all schemes to achieve smooth rate for stream media application
    34. 34. Simulation Results when mobile node is in a high bandwidth cell, high bandwidth  Results and observations: is used to transmit base layer  Video throughput when the mobile node video moves from high bandwidth cell to low bandwidth cell During handoff, base layer rate reduces to the rate equal Multi-path Video Throughput to the bandwidth in the low 6000000 bandwidth cell, and 5000000 enhancement layer video is Bit Rate (bps) 4000000 transmitted at the rate equal 3000000 to the difference between 2000000 1000000 high and low bandwidth in the 0 two cells 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60 63 66 Time (sec) when mobile node is in a low bandwidth cell, low bandwidth Total Video Throughput Base Layer Throughput is used to transmit base layer video
    35. 35. Simulation Results  Improved throughput Multi-path handoff scheme keeps the video throughput high but adjust the base video layer to the lower rate With different available bandwidth in the new cell
    36. 36. Simulation Results  Reduced packet loss Multi-path handoff scheme keeps the packet loss ratio low. Base layer is protected with near-to-zero loss ratio With different available bandwidth in the new cell
    37. 37. Simulation Results  Improved goodput  With protection of base layer, the goodput is improved in terms of smooth video frame rate
    38. 38. Video Demo  Demo scenario Received Video Raw video at the sender
    39. 39. Video Demo Multi-path Handoff Single path w/ Forwarding Single path w/o Forwarding Received video stream Raw video at the sender
    40. 40. Conclusion  Contributions  Integrate multi-layer encoding, multi- homed mobile nodes through a multi-path transport protocol  Provide smooth end-to-end stream media handoff with wide range of bandwidth changes
    41. 41. Conclusion  Merits of multi-path handoff  Less packet loss during handoff  duplicated packets are transmitted through multiple paths during handoff  Quality improvement  Because more important data (e.g., base layer video) is transmitted over multiple paths during handoff  Minimum deployment in network  Only the end systems are needed
    42. 42. http://netresearch.ics.uci.edu/ypan/MPATH_strm Thank you!!!
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