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  1. 1. Presenting Academic Research Online Edgar Huang, Ph.D. [email_address] School of Informatics Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis Challenge Beauty The and of
  2. 2. Searching for an Ideal Streaming Technology <ul><li>By June 2006, U.S. home broadband adoption had reached 60%. </li></ul><ul><li>High-speed Internet-connected households are expected to grow from 194 million in 2005 to 413 million by 2010. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Searching for an Ideal Streaming Technology <ul><li>A 2005 study by AccuStream iMedia Research shows that the consumption of streaming videos is positively correlated to whether the consumer has a broadband connection. </li></ul><ul><li>Content aggregators, including portals like AOL, Google, Yahoo, and MSN, and providers like Apple, are in the early stages of providing video services. They are slowly defining the future of television online. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Searching for an Ideal Streaming Technology <ul><li>Streaming technologies drive the development of online video. </li></ul><ul><li>Watching streaming videos these days, however, is not as easy as watching TV because there are too many incompatible standards. </li></ul><ul><li>A study on streaming video production and viewing experience is needed to investigate the issues like </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>image quality, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>encoding efficiency, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bandwidth detecting efficiency and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cost of setting up streaming. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why is this project important? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Searching for an Ideal Streaming Technology <ul><li>In mid-2006, my colleague and student Clifford Marsiglio worked with me on this project. </li></ul><ul><li>I am a trained researcher, and Clif, a manager of the IUPUI Testing Center, is an online testing expert. </li></ul><ul><li>We did our literature search and review, tested out our two on-demand videos, one 10-min long and the other 30-sec long, encoded with five technologies, Flash , QuickTime , Real , VX30 , and Windows Media . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Searching for an Ideal Streaming Technology <ul><li>We posted our test survey online and debugged it in our two-week pretest. Then we invited new media experts all around the country via the NMC Listserv, AEJMC VisCom Listserv, Forums, and some other venues to test the videos. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a test placed in the real world and based on a non-systematic random sample. </li></ul><ul><li>I conducted descriptive statistical analysis on the data collected by Clif. Based on the ranking scores each streaming technology received for each individual factor, an averaged performance ranking score is assigned to each technology. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Searching for an Ideal Streaming Technology <ul><li>At the New Media Consortium 2006 Summer Conference in Cleveland, OH, we presented a poster on this study, and the poster won a Judges’ Choice Award. </li></ul><ul><li>For some authors, this is not a bad ending to say the least, and earning an award might be the end of the project. </li></ul><ul><li>For folks at the NMC, they thought differently. In order for more people to see the posters, they posted all the posters in Second Life (SL) and convened a mini-conference there. Today, our poster is still located on the NMC Campus in SL. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Searching for an Ideal Streaming Technology <ul><li>For Clif and me, we decided that this study deserves an even bigger audience who are interested in this topic and may very well benefit from our study. </li></ul><ul><li>For the next two months, we expanded the writing and constructed a Web site for the study. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, this study can be found at . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Searching for an Ideal Streaming Technology <ul><li>So far, the site has attracted the interests of professionals and scholars from all around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Several blogs mentioned and discussed the site. </li></ul><ul><li>I received quite enquiry emails regarding the study. </li></ul><ul><li>Duke University’s IT department linked their site to our study. </li></ul>
  10. 13. The beauty of Self-publishing <ul><li>The readers have quick and easy access. </li></ul><ul><li>The author gets a much bigger audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Research projects on practical issues, which are normally not considered by academic journals but needed by professionals, are a good fit for online publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Any mistakes in a study can be corrected and new information can be updated quickly and easily. Wiki can be a good helper. </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia features can be incorporated into the presentation, which is impossible for print publications. </li></ul>
  11. 14. Models of Academic Online Self-publishing University-sponsored repository <ul><li>Online self-publishing is picking its momentum. </li></ul><ul><li> is an online repository sponsored by Cornell University Library provides open access to 391,851 e-prints in Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science and Quantitative Biology. </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty from all around the world can submit their works to the repository. </li></ul>
  12. 15. Models of Academic Online Self-publishing Public library-sponsored fee-based journal <ul><li>This month, the San Francisco-based non-profit Public Library of Science will launch its first open peer-reviewed journal called PLoS ONE , focusing on science and medicine. </li></ul><ul><li>Like its sister journals, such as PLoS Biology , PLoS Medicine , and PLoS Clinical Trials , PLoS ONE will make research articles available for free online by charging authors to publish. </li></ul><ul><li>How much? $750/piece for now, but soon to be $1,250/piece. </li></ul>
  13. 16. Models of Academic Online Self-publishing Public library-sponsored fee-based journal <ul><li>Unlike articles in other PLoS journals that undergo rigorous peer review, manuscripts in PLoS ONE are to be posted for the world to dissect after an editor gives them just a cursory look. </li></ul><ul><li>“ It’s too early to tell how useful this open airing will be.” </li></ul>
  14. 17. Models of Academic Online Self-publishing Public library-sponsored non-fee-based journal <ul><li>Another open peer-reviewed journal, Philica , launched in early 2006 allows authors to upload their research at no cost and without any peer review. </li></ul>
  15. 18. The Challenges of Self-publishing <ul><li>Are such journals creating junk science? </li></ul><ul><li>How will self-paid publications be respected by tenure and promotion committees in universities? </li></ul><ul><li>Wouldn’t a publisher publish it if it were worth publishing? </li></ul>
  16. 19. Two successful cases <ul><li>In 2002, the reclusive Russian mathematician Grigori Perelman created a buzz when he bypassed the peer-review system and posted a landmark paper to the online repository, arXiv. Perelman later won the Fields Medal this year for his contribution to the Poincare conjecture, one of mathematics' oldest and puzzling problems. </li></ul>
  17. 20. Two successful cases <ul><li>Edward Tufte’s self-published books </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beautiful Evidence (2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Visual Display of Quantitative Information (2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative (1997) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Envisioning Information (1990) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>are all widely used in high education. </li></ul>
  18. 21. Lessons from the two cases <ul><li>The success of self-publishing online or off-line largely depends on who you are and how much new contribution you have offered to the scientific or creative conversations. </li></ul><ul><li>Since no or little peer-review process is involved in online self-publishing, credibility of the author is important. Such credibility can be confirmed by a brief academic credential of the author. </li></ul><ul><li>To show the new contribution of the study, which is usually revealed by the peer-review process, don’t be shy to post any critical feedback by the academic community and/or industrial community as an alternative of peer-reviews. </li></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Edgar Huang </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>