Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide
  • This is a sample
  • Transcript

    • 1. Video Over Wireless Shilpa Pamidimukkala
    • 2. Agenda • Introduction to Video over Wireless • Definition of Issues • Solution to the Issues • Conclusion • Reference
    • 3. Components of a Wireless Video System Transport + Network Layer Video Channel Packetizer Modulator Encoder Encoder Wireless Output Channel Video Video Channel Depacketizer Demodulator Decoder Decoder Tradeoff: Throughput, Reliability, Delay
    • 4. WIRELESS VIDEO COMMUNICATION SYSTEM • At the sender side, video packets are first generated by a video encoder, which performs compression. • After passing through the network protocol stack (e.g., RTP/UDP/IP), transport packets are generated and then transmitted over a wireless channel that is lossy in nature. • Therefore, the video sequence must be encoded in an error-resilient way that minimizes the effects of losses on the decoded video quality. • In addition, at the physical layer, modulation modes and transmitter power may be able to be adjusted according to the changing channel conditions.
    • 5. • At the receiver, the demodulated bitstream is processed by the channel decoder, which performs error detection and/or correction. • Corrupt packets are usually discarded by the receiver, and are therefore considered lost. • In addition, packets that arrive at the receiver beyond their display deadlines are also treated as lost. • This strict delay constraint is another important difference between video communications and many other data transmission applications. • The video decoder then decompresses video packets and displays the resulting video frames in real-time.
    • 6. Compression Compression is absolutely necessary to fit digital video within affordable storage capacities and network communications bandwidths.
    • 7. Compression
    • 8. Video Streaming • Video streaming is a server/client technology that allows multimedia data to be transmitted and consumed. • Streaming applications include e-learning, video conferencing, video on demand etc. • • The main goal of streaming is that the stream should arrive and play out continuously without interruption. • Real-time streaming can be delivered by either peer-to peer (unicast) or broadcast (multicast).
    • 9. Characteristics of a Wireless Video System • The capacity of wireless channel is limited by the available bandwidth of the radio spectrum and various types of noise and interference • The wireless channel is the weakest link of multimedia networks – mobility causes fading and error bursts • Resulting transmission errors require error control techniques (such as FEC - forward error control and ARQ – automatic repeat request)
    • 10. Video Processing • While for a very long time video processing dealt exclusively with fixed-rate sequences of rectangular shaped images (first generation video coding), interest is recently moving toward a more flexible concept (second generation video coding). • In this case, the subject of the processing and encoding operations is a set of visual regions/objects organized in both time and space in a flexible and arbitrary complex way. • The ISO MPEG-4 [6] was the first international standard supporting this new advanced concept of visual information for a wide range of rates and applications.
    • 11. MPEG-4 • MPEG-4 defines a framework for joint description, compression, storage, and transmission of arbitrary shape Video Objects (VO‟s). • A frame of a VO is called Video Object Plane (VOP). All VO‟s information (i.e. motion, texture, and shape) are transmitted within one bit-stream. • The bitstreams of several VO‟s can be multiplexed such that the decoder receives all the information to decode the VO‟s and arrange them into one video scene.
    • 12. Issues
    • 13. Issue-1 Wireless networks are characterized by large number of packet losses because of fading communication channels. Thus, loss recovery mechanisms must be added to prevent video degradation. Solution: Video object based unequal error protection mechanism, which allocate an optimal FEC redundancy ratio to each object.
    • 14. •This object-based manipulation result in a quite remarkable improvement in term of functionalities such as the possibility, for the source, of choosing the best coding strategy independently for each of the objects. • For instance, if we consider a video-conference system with “speaker” and “background” as different objects. •The only interest for end-users is to obtain the best possible quality for the most relevant object (i.e. “the speaker”). We can then, allocate more bandwidth to encode the video object representing the “speaker”. Thus, the received perceptual video quality can be significantly en- hanced.
    • 15. Error-free frame Example 1: The extra insertion bit causing the loss of the first GOB Example 2: Corrupted group number causing a GOB misplacement Example 3: Corruption of the group quantizer parameter that resulted in employing the wrong quantizer in decoder
    • 16. Issue-1 Error Recovery • Two different approaches can be used to deal with networks transmission errors. The first one is Auto- matic Repeat Request (ARQ) , and the second one is Forward Error Correction . • This FEC allocation is done according to video objects relevance, and the wireless networks packet loss rate. • To provide this object-based unequal error protection we assign a specific redundancy FEC ratio for each object.
    • 17. FEC Model (issue-1) • Forward Error Correction (FEC) technique is the most commonly adopted error-control scheme for interactive video applications as video conferencing system. • In FEC scheme each block of k packet are protected by (n−k) FEC packets. • If at least k out of n packets are correctly received, then the entire data information can be correctly recovered at the receiver. Otherwise, none of the lost packets can be recovered by the receiver.
    • 18. FEC Model (issue-1)
    • 19. FEC Model (issue-1) • redundancy ratio δ the ratio of redundancy and the data block plus redundancy (δ = (n−k) n ). • By using this FEC schemes, the loss rate perceived at the receiver side will be lower than the loss rate observed on the global packet stream within the network.
    • 20. FEC Model (issue-1) •where ǫ denote packet loss probability induced by network and ǫr denote packet loss probability perceived at the receiver when applying a redundancy ratio δ. •The loss-cost performances for various values of δ and ǫ are plotted •e.g.,for δ = {0.01, ..., 0.2} and ǫ = {0.01, ..., 0.1})
    • 21. MULTIOBJECT VIDEO QUALITY MODELLING At the source • Cost function called Weighted Distortion is used. The scope of this cost function is minimization of the weighted average of the different video object distortion. • The distortion is defined as the mean squared value of the difference of the pixels of original and decoded pictures, usually termed mean squared error (MSE). • In the following, we assume that our video source is able to generate a multi-object based video coding. This video is composed of a set of objects O = {Oi}i2{1,N}. In this case, the cost function can be denoted as following
    • 22. At the receiver The cost function represented by the equation denote the user quality satisfaction at the source. But, at the receiver, this quality may change because of network packet losses. So, to determine the cost function at the receiver we must take into consideration the network loss rate. the probability of correctly receving an VOP is equal to the probability to correctly receive at least ki packets from the ni packets transmitted by the source channel. Such probability may be represented by
    • 23. We can then denote the distortion, Di(δi), perceived for Oi at the receiver when we use a redundancy ratio equal to δi as follow: In this case, the global-video distortion is equal to the sum of all the Di(δi) multiplied by the associated priority, αi for i = 1, ...,N, as indicated by the following equations:
    • 25. Issue-2 Energy Efficient • Transmitting video over wireless channels from mobile devices has gained increased popularity in a wide range of applications, a major obstacle here is the limited energy supply in mobile device batteries. For this reason, efficiently utilizing energy is a critical issue in designing wireless video communication systems. Solution: A general framework is presented that takes into account multiple factors, including source coding, channel resource allocation, and error concealment, for the design of energy-efficient wireless video communication systems. This framework can take various forms and be applied to achieve the optimal trade-off between energy consumption and video delivery quality during wireless video transmission.
    • 26. Issue-2 • Generally speaking, energy in mobile devices is mainly used for computation, transmission, display. • Among those, computation and transmission are the two largest energy consumers. • During computation, energy is used to run the operating system software, and encode and decode the audio and video signals. • During transmission, energy is used to transmit and receive the radio frequency (RF) audio and video signals. • advances in very large-scale integration (VLSI) design and integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing technologies have led to ICs with higher and higher integration densities using less and less power. According to Moore‟s Law, the number of transistors on an IC doubles every 1.5 yr. As a consequence, the energy consumed in computation is expected to become a less significant fraction of the total energy consumption.
    • 27. • The goal is to minimize the amount of distortion at the receiver given a limited amount of transmission energy, or vice versa, to minimize the energy consumption while achieving a targeted video delivery quality. • This requires a “cross-layer” perspective where the source and network layers are jointly considered. • Specifically, the lower layers in a protocol stack, which directly control transmitter power, need to obtain knowledge of the importance level of each video packet from the video encoder, which is located at the application layer.
    • 28. • On the other hand, it can also be beneficial if the source encoder is aware of the estimated channel state information (CSI) passed from the lower layers and which channel parameters at the lower layers can be controlled, so it can make smart decisions when selecting the source coding parameters to achieve the best video delivery quality. • For this reason, joint consideration of video encoding and power control is a natural way to achieve the highest efficiency in transmission energy consumption.
    • 29. • Factors affecting transmission energy consumption include the power used for transmitting each bit, the modulation mode, and channel coding rate at the link layer or physical layer. • The controller block, indicates the component of the video transmission system responsible for adapting the source coding parameters, S, and the channel parameters, C, based on knowledge of the concealment strategy, the source content and any available CSI.
    • 30. Problem Formulation: We consider techniques that efficiently adapt the source parameters, S, and channel parameters, C, in order to minimize the end-to-end distortion while meeting the energy and delay constraints. This problem can be formally stated as The selection of S and C affects the end-to end distortion Dtot, the end- to-end delay Ttot, and the total energy Etot for delivering the video sequence to the receiver.
    • 31. • The energy consumption Etot is caused by a variety of channel parameters. • The end-to-end delay Ttot is the time between when a video frame is captured at the transmitter and when it is displayed at the receiver. • Ttot depends in part on the number of bits used to encode the sequence, the transmission rate, and any scheduling decisions made by the transmitter.
    • 32. Source Coding Adaptation • For video delivery over a lossy channel, the distortion at the receiver is a random variable from the sender‟s point of view. • Thus, the expected end-to-end distortion (averaged over the probability of loss) is usually used to characterize the received video quality, and guide the source coding and transmission strategies at the sender. • The expected distortion for the kth packet can be written as
    • 33. where rk is the probability of loss for the kth packet, E[DR,k] is the expected distortion if the packet is received correctly, and E[DL,k] is the expected distortion if the packet is lost. • E[DR,k] accounts for the distortion due to source coding as well as error propagation caused by interframe coding. • E[DL,k] accounts for the distortion due to concealment. The probability of packet loss depends on the CSI, transmitter power, and channel coding used. novel approach called variance aware per-pixel optimal resource allocation (VAPOR) ,aims to improve the reliability of video transmission systems by making it more likely that what the receiver sees closely resembles the mean end-to-end distortion calculated at the transmitter.
    • 34. Channel Adaptation Transmission Energy The energy needed to send a packet of L bits with transmission power P is given by E = PL/R, where R is the transmission rate in source bits per second. These three quantities can be adapted in a variety of ways in an actual system. For example, power adaptation can be implemented by power control at the physical layer. The change of the transmission rate R can be implemented by selecting different modulation modes or channel rates, or allowing a waiting time for each packet before transmission.
    • 35. In an energy-efficient wireless video transmission system, transmission power needs to be balanced against delay to achieve the best video quality. For example, for a fixed transmission power, increasing the transmission rate will increase the BER but decrease the transmission delay needed for a given amount of data (or allow more data to be sent within a given timeperiod). Furthermore, the amount of transmission energy required to achieve a certain level of distortion typically decreases with increased delay. Therefore, in order to efficiently utilize resources such as energy and bandwidth, those two adaptation components should be jointly designed.
    • 36. ENERGY-EFFICIENT VIDEO CODING AND TRANSMISSION • Joint source coding and power allocation techniques deal with the varying error sensitivity of video packets by adapting the transmission power per packet based on the source content and the CSI. • Here it compare a joint source coding and transmission power allocation (JSCPA) approach with an independent source coding and power allocation (ISCPA) approach in which S and C are independently adapted.
    • 37. • The JSCPA approach needs nearly 60 percent less energy to transmit this frame than the ISCPA approach. Figures 4c and 4d show the probability of loss for each packet in frame for the JSCPA and ISCPA approach, respectively. • Darker MBs correspond to a smaller probability of packet loss, MBs that are not transmitted are marked by white. As seen in Fig. 4c, more protection is given to the region of the frame that corresponds to the foreman‟s head. Therefore, more power is used to transmit this region as opposed to the background. • As shown in Fig. 4d, however, the ISCPA approach has fixed probability of loss, which means that the power used to transmit the region corresponding to the foreman‟s head is the same as the power used to transmit the background.
    • 38. • Therefore, the ISCPA approach wastes energy by transmitting MBs in the background with the same power as MBs in the high activity region. As for the source coding, in the ISCPA approach the video encoder may allocate more bits to packets in high activity regions, as shown in Fig. 4f. • Because the transmission power is fixed in this approach, more energy is used to transmit packets with more bits, as shown in Fig. 4h. Therefore, in the ISCPA approach, more energy may be allocated to high activity regions, but the likelihood of these regions being correctly received is the same as the background. • In the JSCPA approach, the bit and power allocations are done jointly. Thus, the JSCPA approach is able to adapt the power per packet, making the probability of loss dependent on the relative importance of each packet, as shown in Figs. 4e and 4g.
    • 39. Issue-2 Performance • Dynamic nature of wireless networks in terms of fluctuating bandwidth and time-varying delays makes it difficult to provide good quality streaming under such constraints. There is a trade-off between the capacity of the wireless network and the quality of the multimedia streaming application. Here we investigate the effect the background traffic load has on unicast streaming video sessions, above a certain load value, the video streaming session is slowly starved of bandwidth. The performance of the system is measured using a WLAN probe.
    • 41. STREAMING SYSTEM • There are two open-source streaming servers available, Helix from Real and Darwin Streaming Server (DSS) from Apple . • Here, we have chosen DSS to be the streaming server for our experiments since it is a typical streaming system that does not employ sophisticated adaptation techniques. • DSS is an open-source, standards-based streaming server that is compliant to MPEG-4 standard profiles, ISMA streaming standards and all IETF protocols. • The DSS streaming server system is a client-server architecture where both client and server consist of the RTP/UDP/IP stack with TCP/UDP/IP to relay feedback messages between the client and server.
    • 42. WLAN PROBE • At the wireless side, a WLAN resource monitoring application was used to measure and record the resource utilisation of the video streams. • This application non intrusively monitors and records the busy and idle intervals on the wireless medium and by analysing the temporal characteristics of these intervals infers the resource usage on a per station basis. • The WLAN resource utilisation is characterised in terms of MAC bandwidth components that are related to the line rate . • Specifically, three MAC bandwidth components are defined: A load bandwidth (BWLOAD) associated with the transport of the traffic stream and is related to the throughput, an access bandwidth requirement (BWACCESS) that represents the “cost” of accessing the wireless medium, and a free bandwidth (BWFREE).
    • 43. • An access efficiency may be defined as the ratio of the BWLOAD to the BWACCESS and gives an indication of how efficiently a station accesses the medium. • The intervals during which the medium is busy correspond to the intervals during which frames are being transmitted on the medium (i.e. data and management frames) and is associated with the transport of the traffic load. • The busy bandwidth (BWBUSY) is the portion of the transmission rate used for the transport of the total traffic load and is the sum of the BWLOAD overall stations. • Similarly, when the medium is not busy, it is said to be idle. The idle bandwidth (BWIDLE) represents the portion of the transmission rate that is idle and may be used by any station to win access opportunities for its load. The sum of BWBUSY and BWIDLE must equal the line rate i.e. 11Mbps in IEEE 802.11b.
    • 44. • Table1. The first column indicates the number of contributing sources to the background traffic load. The second and third columns indicate the characteristics of the background traffic and shows the packet size used to achieve the target background load which in turn affects the number of packets per second. • Figure 3(a) shows how the offered load per station is increased over time whilst Figure 3(b) shows how the access requirements vary over time to send the same background traffic load.
    • 46. Experiment • Figure 4(a) show the variations over time for the BWLOAD measured at the AP whilst streaming the clip „EL‟. The tests indicated by the thin black line <C0 EL MTU 1024B> and <C0 EL MTU 512B> show the variations in the BWLOAD when there is no background traffic present. • The repeating pattern every 300seconds represents each loop of the video stream. In addition, it can be seen that there is a difference between the measured BWLOAD using the different hint track settings. • found that by using a hint track MTU setting of 512B increases the BWLOAD by approximately 20% due to the additional packet header overhead that needs to be sent and the increased number of ACKs that need to be sent to acknowledge each packet.
    • 47. RESULT • Through experimentation, we have found that the packet size and packet rate of the traffic in the network have a large impact on the video streaming session. • In the experiments a video streaming session was established between the video client and server and the traffic load was increased steadily over time. • The background traffic load was varied in terms of the packet size and the number of contributing sources to the load. As the load is increased, the throughput reaches a maximum and the AP becomes saturated. • At this point, the video client is slowly starved of bandwidth until the streaming session can no longer be supported and the streaming session is finally terminated.
    • 48. References • Katsaggelos, A.K.; Fan Zhai; Eisenberg, Y.; Berry, R.;Wireless Communications, IEEE [see also IEEE Personal Communications] Volume 12, Issue 4, Aug. 2005 Page(s):24 - 30 Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MWC.2005.1497855 • Wang, J.; Majumdar, A.; Ramchandran, K.; Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 2005. Proceedings. (ICASSP '05). IEEE International Conference on Volume 5, 18-23 March 2005 Page(s):v/1101 - v/1104 Vol. 5 Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/ICASSP.2005.1416500 • Jon Gretarsson, Feng Li, Mingzhe Li, Ashish Samant, Huahui Wu, Mark Claypool, Robert Kinicki October 2005 Proceedings of the 1st ACM workshop on Wireless multimedia networking and performance modeling WMuNeP '05
    • 49. • Robson Eisinger, Rudinei Goularte December 2005 Proceedings of the 11th Brazilian Symposium on Multimedia and the web WebMedia '05